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2D07 laObfllO 1 RY. 

California Stale Library 

Re^yU MAR 1891 ^ 

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-No. 1. 

=^ ^ SQ^VS 


DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
Office, 220 Market St. 

Santa Cruz and Vicinity. 

Just at thiB season the heart of mankind 
longs for the seaside. Wherever the sunshine 
falls upon the heated interior regionp, the in- 
habitants who have means and leisure betake 
themselves to the cool 
breezes and refreshing wa- 
ters of the ocean beaches, 
Oalifornia has this recourse 
in common with most other 
parts of the world, but 
California has a decided ad- 
vantage over most other 
regions in that both sum- 
mer and winter the vicinity 
of the ocean is delightful, 
at least upon the southern 
half of our shore line, and 
our charming seaside re- 
sorts are good for all the 
year, though, of course, 
most sought for while the 
interior is too hot for nom- 

Santa Cruz has long 
been known as one of our 
best all-the-year resorts, 

tation on the coast of California, about eighty 

miles south of San Franoisco, - The features of 
the locality that appeal to the eye are the 
beautiful sheet of water mentioned, stretching 
inland toward the fertile Pajaro valley, sweep- 
ing around past where the vision loses itself in 

around to the point where the Sin Lbrenzo 
river empties its waters into the breakers — as 
fair a zone of sand as ever tempted the bather 
to tread its gentle declivity, or held the day- 
dreamer in the spell of its inrolling waves; the 
city itself, with the homes and chnrcher, and 

lined, and cresta and peaks standing aloft then- 
sands of feet under the blue heaven. 

Santa Cruz, however, does not lay claim to 
fame solely upon its climatic conditions and 
beautiful scenery. Large areas of the surround- 
ing oonntry are devoted to the growth of hay. 


but at present'seems to be commanding more 
and more attention, not only as a place of de- 
lightful residence, but as the center of a rich, 
productive region of count ry. For this reason, 
we give our first page this week to engravings 
which contain at least suggestions of the 
beauties and developments of the district. 

Santa Oruz is located at the northern ex- 
tremity of the Bay^of Monterey, a great inden- 

the dreamy horizon of the Salinaf, and finding 
its further extremity In the historic Point of 
Pines at Monterey, thirty miles to the south, 
as one looks out from Santa Cruz beach along the 
line where the waters of the bay and the great 
Pacific Ocean mingle; the shining band of 
curving beaoh projecting from nnder the sheer 
precipices that bound the cliff drivp, and reach- 
ing along by the southern slopes of Beaoh Hill, 

business and public buildings, of seven thon- 
sand people, sitting in an amphitheatre formed 
by the slopes of the foothills, and traversed by 
the threading current of the San Lorenzo; and 
the charming scope of mountain scenery rising 
back to the summits of the Sinta Cruz range 
in successive plateaus, from the very beaoh, 
marked with smooth rounded spurs, beaches as 
Itvel as the horizon, canyons deep and timber- 

grain, vegetables and live- 
stock, and the dairying in- 
terests of the county are 
large and itrportant. The 
forests of the adjacent 
Santa Cruz mountains have 
for many years supplied a 
wide market with their 
prcducts. The fame of 
Santa Croz mountain fruit 
and wine is well known. 
The greatest lime-produc- 
ing region in the State is 
within a few miles of Santa 
Cruz, Bitnminons rock is a 
product of this locality and 
a source of large revenue. 
Near the city. In Powder 
Mill canyon, are the ex- 
tensive works of one of the 
oldest and richest powder 
companies in the country. 
Tanning leather has been 
from an early day one of the industries of 
Santa Cruz, There are two banking houses in 
the place; two street railways in operation and 
one projected; ten or twelve hotels; two water 
supplies, one the property of the city; gas 
works; two electric light plants; two daily and 
two weekly newspapers; a fine system of public 
schools, led by a first-class high-school depart- 
ment; and churches of all denominations. 


f AciFie f^uraid press. 

[JoLY 2, 1890 


Cherry Culture. 

[An essay by W. 11. Pf.I'I'ER of Petalunia, read at 
the June meeting of the State Horticultural So- 
ciety. J 

To make cherry-^rowiDg Bnocesaful in my Bec- 
tion, it is neceasary to comply with certain 
conditiona. Some, which I consider the moat 
important, I will notice: 

First Selection of Suitable Treea. 
Cherry treea are now generally propagated 
on Mjzzjrd aeedlinga grown In France. They 
drill the aeeds in rowp, and at the end of the 
firat seaaon'a growth take them up and aasort 
into three or four aizea, vW..: Kstras, No. 1, 
No. 2 and No. 3. They vary all the way in 
from that of a amall atraw to one-half inch 
at collar. They aae the extraa at home and 
export the other grades. If we take the No. 1 
grade ( ibout one-fonrth inch in diameter at the 
collar) and plant in a good loamy aoi), in the 
coast and bay oountiea, and grow without forc- 
ing by irrigation, and bud the first aummer or 
graft the firat winter, at the end of the second 
year we have what v,e call a one-year-old tree; 
and we ahonld have at least two-thirda of a 
pUnting running from three lo five feet in 
bight. We call auoh a production firat-claaa 
trees, and not being atimalated by irrigation, 
they form the terminal bad in the latter part 
of the aummer and early fall and have the bal- 
ance of the growing aeaaon to ripen and harden 
the wood. Thia clasa trees I call suitable to 
start with in planting a cherry orchard. 

On the other hand, if we take the third-clasa 
stook mentioned above, pi »nt it in the interior 
of the State, where toe apriug growth com- 
mences early and the summers are clear and 
warm, irrigate it thoroughly— by September we 
will have stock large enough to bud; in all 
probability larger than the first-clasa a%oA: 
grown without irrigation, and if we follow with 
a plentiful supply of water the second aeaaon, 
we can produce treea two-thirda of them or 
over rangine from four to six feet in hight, 
atraight atalka aud smooth bark, and to the in- 
experienced eye better treen tl an the 
No. I deforibed il o^e. But V trees 
won' ' ■- osuiiablt one tor i tina 

^ol loundb 
! J ir cmmeni,. with 

i .-iL.e, ♦ ' ■ ' 

J well ae iroae we 
deai^ . > Tbey will go b*ok c. 

planter in their iutora ^'owth compared with 
tt« iuitab'" f.e»«. 

Tae al- ' ■ - ■ " '■• ou' 

stone fn. • ^ch. 
Peaoh : tockf 

are ^r<ip<igatou the eued. .u I 

nursery (where they are to HtjjtA until the 
trees are ready for sale), and budding the first 
season thoae which grow large enough. The 
amaller ones are palled out and thrown away 
(it should be); but suppose we take the small 
ones, about th» aiza of a straw, transplant and 
force them up to a budding siz^ the second 
season, force them the third, and we may grow 
a fine-looking tree in thia way, but it would be 
one that I oould not he induced to plant under 
any oonsideratiou. Yet this ia preciaely what 
has been done to a large extent in this State 
with the'apricot on Myrobolan plum atock. 

In diacuBsing the growing of the cherry, as 
well as other fruits, I cannot lay too much atreas 
on the quality of the atocka used. I have no 
objection to irrigated trees from the simple 
fact of irrigation, for no treea will grow with 
out moisture in the aoil; but too much water is 
generally used, und too late in the ceason to 
produce well-ripened wood, suitable for trans- 
planting. If tha nurserymen who irrigate will 
use none but first-class stocks and less water, 
80 aa not to produce overgrown treea, they will 
confer a lasting benefit on their customers. 

And now to the fruit-grower let me aay: 
Buy your trees direct from the grower and de- 
mand a guarantee that they are grown on 
first-class stocks; for there is more difference in 
the growing of a successful and lasting orchard, 
between trees started on firat-claaa atocks and 
those on third, than the average (roit-gcower is 
aware of. 

Second -Soil and Situation. 

The cherry does beat in a aaiidy loam, but it 
should be of good depth and well drained. In 
my district, but a email portion of our lands is 
suitable for cherry-growing. The charagter of 
the soil is all right — a sandy loam, good potato 
soil; but the depth and drainage are not suffi- 
cient. I have been growing the cherry for 30 
yeara with varying reaulte. A portion of my 
firat planting proved a eucceas, while other 
portions were a failure, and in places the trees 
are all gone. 

There ia something about our land that I do 
not fully understand. It seems to be spotted. 
We may plant aay five acres in a body to cherry 
trees, apparently all of the same quality if 
l~tid. In the course of two or three years they 
w" -ommence to die out, and at the end of 12 
or -iO years perhaps two-thirda of them will be 
gone and the balance will be standing in groups 
here and there over the five acrea. To the su- 
perficial obaerver there would appear to be no 
difT ' aoe, no reason why the trees ebould not 
do well on one part of the tract as on an- 

In digging ditohea, I f)nd a difference in the 

depth and appearance of the soil below. Those 
spots where the trees die out the most is gen- 
erally the shallowest, and below of a more 
grayish cast. I do not believe that it is the 
shallow soil alone that kills the trees, because 
I have one spot of near one-half acre at the top 
of a ridge, sloping to the north (the moat favor- 
able position for the cherry) where none of the 
atone fruits will last for any length of time. I 
have planted the plum, apricot, peach and 
cherry. The aoil is about as deep aa any in the 
orchard, I do not know for a certainty, but 
I aospect that alkali has something to do in 
causing our spotted orchards. 

In selecting suitable land in my district for 
planting the cherry, I would select land sloping 
north to northeast and on the highest land to 
be found. I would dig prospect holes in 
various parts of the tract, and if it proved 
to be of a leas average depth than three 
feet I would reject it as unsuitable for the 

The Caaaidy orchard Is located at the top of 
the high land on the northwest of Petaluma, 
sloping to the north and east, and the b:8t pay- 
ing portion of my cherry orchard ia located 
near the top of my highest land, with quite a 
steep descent to the north; the highest part 
150 feet above the lower parts of the place. 

Third— The C»re of Cherry Trees 

After planting ia aa aimole aa that of any other 
deciduona fruit tree. They ehould be headed 
low, trained in the vaae form and pruned regu- 
larly the aame as other fruit treea, but do the 
pruning early; the month of November is the 
beat time to do the work on treea in orchards 
not irrigated. 

I have made a aucoeps in the piat three yeara 
in reheadlng aome old cherry trees. I did the 
grafting in the month of November, commencing 
about the firat of the month, and cutting away 
half of the top the first season and the remain- 
ing half the second season. This fact aatiafies 
me that the pruning ahould be done early in 
the aeaaon. 

The cherry ia well adapted to the cool, moist 
''limate of our coaat countiee, but the need of 
th> rough drainage is the greatest drawback to 
cherry-growing in the coaat countiea. 

The obetry can alao be grown aucceasfully in 
the interior of the State, under favorable con- 
ditiona. I,! %rysvillr< is one among the hottest 
places ID the Stai>- The old <^i. O iirig,(a uiieri> 
<ji hard on t-bb Vuba river above that place 
wan f cf the !Eoat euc'.'e»''ul ch'rry orohAfia 
<*er > anted in the 8t«t« uutil the river riiUd 
tin * '"^h debris from th " riinf » «nn nvci uuweii ii.. 

vial soil, 

grown to seven eighths of an inch and has nice 
large winga he eacapes not at all. The pUn la 
ao aimple and eaay that people feel much aa 
Naaman did when ordered to bathe in the 
Jordan aa a cure for leproay. They want some- 
thing more elaborate and expensive. It is not 
enough that it cleans the orchard at an expense 
of 3 to 5 cents per tree. There is too little 
scientific mystery about it, and no cost in pro- 
portion to the nature of the evil. 

In drying as well as in canning or shipping 
fruit it is necessary to have it of uniform size. 
It is hard to do this accurately by hand, and 
still harder to find the time when you are hur- 
rying off several oarlosds of fruit daily. To 
meet this point, Mr. Thlssell has experimented 
for several yeara until at last he has a cushioned 
hopper that feeds over a series of gradually 
diverging rods sloping just enough to have fruit 
roll freely. A little below is a cushioned plat- 
form. Thia grades accurately and avoids bruis- 
ing. But the main feature is a aeries of rods 
that are so driven by cams as to slowly revolve 
in half-circles between the rods of the main 
platform and keep the fruit from lodging be- 
tween the main rods. Three men work this 
machine, and have graded as high as three ."iO- 
pound hexes of peaches or apricots per minute. 
Thia would run up to five or six carloads per 
day if you could ever get that much fruit at 
any one place to grade. It ia intended to make 
atill further improvementa before putting the 
machine on the market. 

Mr. Tbiaaell repreaeots the J^ips employed in 
the orchards as obliging, neat, pleasant and 
one-third morn tffijient than the same number 
of Chinese. Besides this they leave half their 
wages in the town near where they work, for 
food and clothing. F. S. 0. 

artesian wells are reported. Bstween 100 de- 
grees and the 103i degree there are 300 wells 
reported, and west of the 103 I degree as miny 
more. The other bored wells in the territory 
named that are reported upon by Field Agent 
Roeisler number several thousand. 

Moody was inatructed by the committee to 
report an amendment to the Sundry Civil Ap- 
propriation bill providing for an appropriation 
of S200.000 for an irrigation autvey and $2.50,. 
000 for an arteaian wella inveatigation, includ- 
ing the boring of experimental wells, all to be 
expended under the direction of the S^jcretary 
of Agriculture. 

^She *V*'Ne:yard. 


Dowlen's Report 
Vine Disease. 

on the 

IIIhe Irrigator. 

Government Artesian Well Work. 

Wasiiinoton, June 24 —The Senate Com 
mittee on Irrigation and Rsclamation of Arid 
Ijinds held a aeaaion this morning to hear the 
chief engineer and the agent in charge of the 
artesian w Us investigation. The acting Sec- 
■.ctary of Agriculture, Mr. Willets, was present, 
'i. i-t Pre lid it Mil uth of the South 

l»4kota A ..ricult J- H C.o\] 

Senators Stewart, 
id Sanders of thu 

lef engineer, whose 

-o pre\eot the 
\ , II . vn, and when the tiees ivere 
dormant I ne wat<-r In the river would generally 
be b-iiom the level of the roots. The river 
would rjse from the meiting anows in the mount- 
ains and bring the water to a higher level in 
mideummor, aupplying the treea all the moist- 
ure needed, and then recede in Anguat, which 
would give the ground a chance to dry out 
aomewhat, and allow the trees to ripen and 
harden the new growth. 

Experience of a Veteran Fruit- 

Kt)iTORS Press —The following points were 
gained from G. W. Tbiaaell of far-famed Pieaa- 
ant Valley, who showed the writer an orchard 
of apricot treea on peach root of hia own plant- 
ing 37 years old, now bearing a crop of fruit 
that would average 400 pounds to the tree. 
Not by any means have all of his treea done as 
well. An orchard of several thousand of a va- 
riety of apiioot named after the owner himself 
has failed to bear for several years and baa 
just been grafted to Clyman plum and Tragedy 
prunes. Mr, Thiesell thinks the reason ao 
many treea have failed to bear lately is because 
of a myaterioue mildew or fungua, and that the 
lime, aalt and sulphur wash la a cure. lis haa 
great hopea that euch can be reatored alter all 
by uaing thia waab, but he has atlll more hopea 
that the large and productive early ploma that 
are now ready for Eaatern ehipment will pay. 
He baa alao great faith in the Tragedy aa a 
ahipping prune and a good drier it any are to 

Mr, Tbiaaell claims that a blnettone wash of 
one pound to ten gallona of water is a certain 
remedy for curl-leaf of the peach. 

Mr. Tbissell has made a ereat atudy of the 
habits of the codtin moth. He says they began 
to hatch out April 15th this year, and are 
likely to continue hatching out every day until 
October 15th, They have three principal 
broods, to be sure, but stragglers keep coming 
along every day. Three moths can increase 
to a million in one season under favorable cir- 
cumstance. Before laying eggs the moths 
emerge with their new wings from their hiding- 
places. To pass the larval state they crawl into 
some place where they will be in the dark and 
out of the way of birds. This they find under 
the bark of the tree and in places where the tree 
has been Injured or knota or holea are to be 
found. Mr. Thisaell'a trap providea a' nice 
hiding-place. He naila a band of burlap around 
the tree. Thia he protecta with a cage made 
from a atrip of wire gauze aeourely tacked 
above and below. When the little fellow ia 
only five-eightha of an inch long and has no 
wings he passes through easily. When he has 

Cil. K. 8. Nell, 
field of inveatigation hiis rcqaired 12.000 miles 
^.j hardpun j of traveling t le past 12 weeks, read a brief 
hp« pi88»ge of I report aovei.-.g the work performed. The 
Dakota ailL'^ >i. l>i' «ii is shown to be the larg- 
est in the 'Tiulil, «L far as at present developed. 
The mirthern ''> e;ctenda weatwardly, geo- 
li>gioallv speakinp, as tar as Fort lisntou and 
( ireat FalU, in K istern Montana. The forma- 
tion le cretaceous. The water-bearing sand- 
stone lies between two impermeable rocka, but 
nowhere has the sandatocu been penetrated. 
U -'ologiata unite in declaring that the James 
valley is not neceaaarily a controlling center 
for the basin. Water may, and doubtless will, 
be found over an area east of it at least .500 
miles, and north and south through both the 

The central region, which includes Western 
KinHia and Neuraaka, Eaitern Colorado and 
Nl-w Mexico, shows several important local ar- 
tesian baaina and a vaat area of large springs 
and of seepage waters obtained from the drain- 
age of foothills and frontal Rocklea and of the 
grent river valleya that croaa the central plaina. 

Ti l oaatern part of New Mexico ia remark- 
able I r a great number of living epringp, aome 
of whi li are of great power and size, which ex- 
tend ii o Texap, along the weatern portion of 
the I' ll, iiindle region and across the Pecos and 
Caloraiio river valleys, fonth by east. The 
Dakotaa und Weatern Texas hold the large 
well baflliif. 

Col. Littleton declared that the small appro 
priatlon o! 520.000 was wisely expended and 
had alrialy produced good reaulte. Acting 
Sdcretar> Willeta urged a conaervative policy 
in the nutter of further appropriations, ao as to 
enable tl .2 Dapartment of Agriculture to proper- 
ly handle the important work, 

Speciil Agent R. J, Hinton, 
charge of the inveatigatioc, gave a 
mary of the work and ita reaulta, 
Dakota, he said. US arteaian wella 
recorded, and 16 in North Dakota, 
more o.inor wella are reported as flawing to the 
aurface in a smaller drift baain, Ssveral hun- 
dred suuh walls are recorded in the northeast 
ern part of North Dikota— that is, in the Red 
river basin. 

In Rinsas and Nebraska 84 artesian wella 
are reported and 280 bored wells that flaw to 
the surface or very near it, several hundred 
other wells and a large number of springs and 
a'great area of undersheet water supplies. 
'Colorado reports over 200 bored wella. In 
fide the limita of Denver of thoae formerly 
fliwiog about 20 atill fliw. Oataide of the 
city in the basin there are 231 flowing wella 
At Colorado Springe and Pueblo there are 20 of 
an arteaian character; elsewhere as many more 
while west of the foothills in the St. Louis val 
ley from .3000 to 5000 wells are reported 
About 200 farmera are using their watera 
irrigate at least 10,000 acres. 

The use of artesian water for irrigation is ex 
tending. In Texas between the 97th degree 
and 100th degree of west longitude at least 650 

in general 
brief sum- 
In Siuth 
have been 
As many 

Prof. E;helbert Dowleo, an expert vigneron, 
appointed by J. de Birth Shorb, one of the 
viticultural commissioners, to investigate the 
history and causes of the vine disease in Cali- 
nia, has submitted his report to the commis- 
sioners. The profeaeor among other things 

List September I sent out 500 circulars in 
the name of the commissioners, asking for in- 
formation in reeard to the diaease in the various 
diatricts affected. To theae I received 101 an- 
awera from 3G looalitier, and referring to 46 
varietiea of grapes. 

The disease first became prominent at Ana- 
heim in 1884, and spread from there to Los 
Aneeles, and then north and east during 1885, 
1886 and 1887. In 1889 it took a jump and 
appeared around San Diego. In 18S7 and 1889 
it appeared aa far north as Napa, but did no 

The first varieties to suffer were the Mlaaion 
and Moecat, next the Barger, Mitaro and 
Trousseau. The Gariguan and Grenade suffered 
slightly, the Brno Alba scarcely at all, while 
the Liuoir, Gimay, Tonturiaand FoUe Blanche 
entirely escaped. 

Neither irrigation, time, pruning or climate 
seemed to make any difference to the disease, 
but that ia now diaprcved by the experience 01 
the winter juet paat, which, wet aa it was, 
leaves the vinee in excellent condition. 

The diseaae firat manifeats iteelf in the leaves. 
Yellow spots appear and spread until the en* 
tire leaf becomes yellow and dead. In the 
second year the fruit dries up and the Icatuo 
shrivel as from heavy frost. In the third year 
the growth is much reduced and the vine dies. 
Some vines live as long as five years, but three 
is usually the limit. .Some Mataro vines have 
been known to die in numbers within six 
months from being first attacked. 

What causes the disease has not yet been 
discovered. Bacteria and fungi have been 
found, but it cannot bo told whether they are 
a cause or an effect. No insecta that could 
have caused the diaease have been found. It 
ia a fortunate thing for Freano connty that the 
diaeaee baa not reached there. 

A diseaae much like thia has been known in 
Sicily and Italy for 20 yeara, and is there 
known aa the Mai Nero. But aome of the 
•ymptoma observed here are so different from 
this that the diseases are not the same, or that 
we have more than one kind of diaease here in 
California. Most of the symptoms that do not 
correspond to those of Mai Nero, might come 
under the head of FoUetage, another Italian 
disease. But nothing ia certain as yet in this 

Last apring we planted a large number of 
diseased cuttings in hothonsea owned by the 
commisaion of Los Angeles. Half of them we 
treated with different preparations of Oogerth'a 
powder, and the other half we let alone. In 
the fall the untreated ones were dead, while 
nearly all the othera were healthy. Liter we 
experimented in a vineyard of 1000 acres, mak- 
ing three applicationa of the powder. E »ch 
application checked the diaeaae, but in the fall 
it retnrnied again. 

Preaent proapecta are very good. The growth 
waa late in starting, but haa been excellent and 
the crop will probibly be large. The hot 
weather of the next two montha may alter thia, 
however, by bringing the diaeaae out in full 
force again. 


A Decision on Grape Buying Contracts. 

The Napa Journal gives the following con- 
cerning a court decision affecting contracts for 
sale of fruit which will interest our readers: 

In 1880, G, Gfoczinger agreed to buy from 
T. B Hopper and Hopper agreed to aell to 
Groezinger all the grapea to be grown by Hop- 
per upon hia farm near Yountville for ten 
yeara, It waa agreed that the grapea ahould 
contain 22 per cent augar and the price waa to 
be $25 per ton. For five yeara the partiea kept 
the contract and then Hopper sold his farm to 
H. M. La Rue, at the same time assigning bis 
rights under the contract. 

In 188G, L» Rue raised upon the place about 
(iOO tons of grapes. Groezinger refused to take 
any part of them. Li Rue then boxed and 
shipped the grapes to the city, and sold them 
at a price which, after deduuiing the boxing 
and freight, waa §2473.20 leaa than Groezinger 
was hound to pay for them. 

On the oropa 01 18S7 the damage to L» Rae 

July 2, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

wag $5512.48. L» Rne hronght two snite. 
Bath were tried betore Jadge Crouch and 
jadgroent entered against Groezioger for the 
atnoants named. An appeal was taken to the 
Sapreine Court, where on Friday the first case 
was decided in favor of L» Rue. Commissioner 
fiayne writing the opinion. Tae Doint upon 
which Grot zingerlrelied was that Hopper had 
no right to assign the contract. Judge Crouch 
decided that he had and the Supreme Court 
sustained his decision. In the judgment in the 
first case the jary gave Li Rue the amount of 
trright paid for his whole crop. 

Bat as Groezinger was only obliged to take 
graph's of 22 per cent sugar, and this rpduced 
the j idgraent in the first case S217 87, but 
it was affirmed in all other respects. 

The one case practically decides all the cases 
and Gro' zioBT will he nnt on the fnur cropp, 
1886, 1887, 1SS8 and lbS9, between §15 000 and 
$20 000. 

Dinni» Spencer and A. C Oatlin were L» 
Rie's attorneys, F E. JjJxnson and Judge E 
\V. McKinstry representing Groezinger. 

The Arid-Land Muddle. 

Editob-S Press : — In a recent editorial on 
the (ff:!Ct which the Arid Lind Act is having 
on the settlement of the arid regions, you in- 
vite contributions from those who have a better 

knowledge of the subject than you possess. As 
I was the first person who interested people in 
this portion of the State in taking op land in 
one of the desert sections of this coast, with a 
view to growing early fruit in a locality which 
my early geography portrayed as a country 
aninhabitable by other than Indians, and as I 
have been practically ruled out of the fruit- 
growers' ranks by the passage of said Act, I re- 
spond to your request for further light. 

Mohawk valley, in Yuma county, Arizona, 
contains about 30,000 acres of sediment land, 
and was thrown open to settlement about 1885, 
after its forfeiture as a land grant. A ditch 
company was organizjd without capital, with 
100,000 shares of stock of the par value of 
$1 each. Fifty thousand shares of this 
stock were placed on the market for work- 
ing capital under a proposition that for every 
two and a half shares purchased water rights 
would be given for an acre of land in the 
ratio of one-third of an inch to the acre. 

Thie was a pretty liberal proposition in a 
country where the average rainfall was only 
two inches a year. Four hundred dollars of 
stock brought with it a water-right for 160 
acres of laud where the Muscat grape ripens 
four weeks ahead of California, and frcm a 
knowledge of these facts it wasn't long before 
every acre of this valley was taken up, mostly 
by people who intended planting orchards and 
vineyards, or growing alfalfa. But all who 
made entries did not buy water-rights, fearing 
that the original company would not succeed, 
and owing principally to that fact and some 
errors in management when the three years 
limit of the Desert-land Act came around there 
was no water to prove up with. The original 
entryman bad no alternative but to relinquish 
hie tiling, those who had water-riehts eelliag 
out in some instances as high as $10 an acre, 
the purchaser trusting to a completion of the 
ditch a year or so hence. 

The purchasers filed their entries at the Tuc- 
son Lind Office, and many of them commenced 
improving their land, clearing it of brush and 
constructing ditches, so aa to have everything 
ready to put out trees and vines the moment 
the water was available. This was only a few 
weeks subsequent to the passage of the Arid 
Land bill, and in total ignorancs of -.ny feature 
of it which would vitiate entries on land which 
had been tiled on three years previously under 
the Desert Act. It was known that desert 
lands were withdrawn from entry where reser- 
voir sites were to be selected, but even a sur- 
vey had not been made here, and no one im- 
agined that the object of the Act was to rob 
people of land which had already been im- 
proved to some extent, and over S50,000 ex- 
pended in securing an irrigation supply which 
would render a tract 20 miles long in- 
dependent of a reservoir. The district land of- 
fice continued to receive filings on this land, 
and this encouraged residents of this city and 
other places to go on and improve. Those 
whose holdings were near the head-gate could 
get water, and sent in horses, wagons and all 
necessary farm implements under a heavy 
railway tariff. They sowed barley, wheat and 
alfalfa, and put out quite an area of fruit trees. 
Some of these have proved up on their landp, 
paid the Government price and hold their final 
receipts. Now the Attorney General of the 
United States says a patent cannot be issued, 
owing to a clause in the Arid Ltnd bill, which 
reserves from settlement all desert lands. 

The Mohawk canal is now completed, and 
hundreds of acres of land lie under it with the 
clearing all done and lateral ditches ready to 
distribute the water. Some of it is fenced and 
leveled. The owners have paid $2 50 an acre 
to the canal company and several more to orig 
inal entry men for water-rights, which under 
the by laws must be applied to some specified 
tract within one year frcm canal completion, or 
become forfeit. Through a fake in the wording 
of the reservation claus', the Interior depart- 
ment refuses to allow these water rights to be 
attached, althongb both land and water are 

paid for; ovpr .$25,000 have been paid out by 
residents of Sicrameoto alone for these water- 
rights, which is now being jeopardized by the 
dilatoriness of Go^igress in rectifying what all 
recognize as simply a mistake in the wording 
of a bill. The object of the Arid Land bill was 
to withdraw from settlement desert lands 
which bad not been filed on, pending the selec- 
tion of reseivoir sitet; not land which had pre- 
viously been entered and diligent efforts made 
to reclaim, but which bad not fully succeeded 
as early as desired, owing to fioancial d'ffionl- 
ties alone. Fortunately some of our R pre 
sentatives are above taking snap jadgmcnt on 
energetic settlers of our Hcsett lauds for pur- 
p 828 which are not d:fii:ult to fathom, and 
there is a fair prospect u. the passage cf an 
amendment which will establish an eqaitable 
adjaatment of the matter. 

S. 8 South WORTH. 
Sacramento, June 24 00. 

Relief from the Arid Land Law. 

Editors Press : — In answer to your request 
for communications on the subject of how to 
provide relief from the objectionable parts of 
the Arid L»nd law of October, 1888, I will say 
that the law practically reserves all desert laud 
from entry or settlement except such as are so 
psculiarly situated that they can never be re- 
claimed through the agency of reservoirs. It 
does not actually reserve such land'; it renders 
filing on them of such dcubtfnl validity as to 
be very undesirable, and, to say the least, 

As the law reads now, it would not be safe to 
file on any desert land unless one first explored 
all the surrounding elevations and water sup- 
olies to bs sure there was no possibility of its 
bsiog subject to ben< fi C from a future reservoir. 

The land offices are to this day receiving 
filings on desert land, and many are making 
filings with the idea of reclaiming their lands 
independently of any reservoirs, and it would 
seem that they should be assured that it will 
not be within the power of Major Powell or his 
successor to say hereafter that this land lit-s 
within a district liable to be benefited by pos- 
sib'e (no matter how improbable) reservoirs. 

Uamistih^bly the intention of the Act of 
Ojtober, 18SS was to prevent land reclaimable 
only by the ag-'ucy of reservoirs from being 
gobbled up by bpeculators who would depend 
on the Government showing such land to be so 
reclaimible. An exact constrnctinn of the 
Act does not say that only such lands as are re- 
claimable in no other way than by reservoirs 
ehall be reserved, but might as easily be con- 
strupd as embracing all lands, no rhatter how 
otherwise reclaimed, provided the Chief of the 
Survey reports them capable of beirg irrigated 
thr' agh the agency of reservoirs. TVc irue re 
liff, then, voulfi nei'm to h' to make (lii>. l-.w 
rrad «o that any larid which could he proven to 
the satin/action of ih' Land Department of the 
Government to have h-en reclaimed indfperident- 
ly of arty rexerroir would not b' iivbj-rt to Ih- 
rfSnrve clause of the Arid Land law of October, 


1 have assumed aa the basis of my suggestions 
that the Desert Lied Act is a wise law. Many 
seem to think that the Arid Land bill will pre- 
vent speculators from taking up land inasmuch 
as it reserves the land entirely and provides 
that if it is ever thrown on the market it sh^tl 
he in 80 «cre traf'^s to actual settlers. If the 
Disert Linf*, Homestead, Pre-ernption and 
limber Culture Acts are not wise the 
proper mode of procedure would be to amend 
or repeal these acts. This would eliminate any 
discussion from this standpoint. Thf Desert 
Lind Act allows any cit zm to file on 640 acres 
of unproductive, desert lanH, and after he ha« 
proven to the satisfaction of the Government 
that he has conducted water on it m sufficient 
quantity and of permanent supply so as to 
make it habitable and prnductive it allows him 
to purchase it of the Government at a low 
price. Tne Homeftead, Pre-emption and Tim- 
ber Culture Acts allow a citizen to take up 160 
acres under each Act. The Arid Land law 
does not abolish these various Acts but restricts 
their application so that one may take up but 
80 acres by actual settlement on desert land. 
I it does not restrict him to 80 acres of fertile 
I land in a rainy region. Surely here is an in- 
consistency. We are restricted to 80 acres 
where we have to build our own reservoir^, 
! canals, etc., and are allowed 160 acres if we gu 
where reservoirs are nr>t needed and nature has 
I reclaimed the land. E'gbty acres in Arizona 
I with water to be provided at rhe expense of 
' t)-e settler may be better than UiO acres of our 
1 California soil, with rain provided free, but it 
I would be hard to convirce the sv^r»ge C<>lifor- 
' nian of the fact. Docglas A. Lisdley 


A Bill to RE:»TOkE Ikrigaulk Lands. — It 
was telegraphed from Washington, Jane 221, 
that Senator Paddock to-day reported from the 
Committee on Public Lmds favorably a substi- 
tute for the bill to restore the irrigate lands of 
the Uaited States to settlement. Tne anbati- 
tola repeals so much of the Act of October 12, 
1888, aa reserves from entrj-, settlement, or oc- 
cupancy of public landp, except sites for reser- 
voirs and rights of way for canals and ditches. 

CoMPorsD Locomotives, burnine petroleum, 
are now being introduced upon Russian rail- 

Feeding for Milk in Southern 

A Los Angeles county dairyman, signing 
himself G. E. P., writes to the Country Qentle- 
man as follows: 

Please give ration for 6o cows. Holstein, Jersey, 
Shoriborn, and grade, all ages and stages of fresh- 
ness; in prime condition. A large flow of good 
milk (at lowest cosi) desired. Have on hand 32 Ions 
wild oat ensilage; 50 tons No. i wild oat hay, $5: 
20 tons old alfalfa hay, fair quality, $5; 30 tons new 
alfalfa, mixed with wild oats, $4; light or heavy bran 
(wheal) $17; wheat shorts. $20; cornmeal, $25; lin- 
seed meal, $45; No. i malt sprouts, $5. Have con- 
tract for brewers' grains at $2.50 per load of 2750 
pounds; mu' t take lull load every or every other 
day. Brewery brews three times a week. They 
store the grains in iron tank, which keeps it fairly 
well, but it frequently turns slightly sour soon after 
hauling. Wish to make ensilage last 60 days, will 
then have 10 acres of sugar-cane in condition to 
feed. Can cut oart of hay. Can buy No. i alfalfa 
at $to per ton. No. i barley hay at $8, whole barley 
at $22, second quality wheat at $25. Can grind it 
coaise myself or have it ground fine at $2 per ton. 
I now feed 50 pounds grains, 3 pounds sprouts, 6 
pounds light bran, three-fourths pound O. P. lin- 
seed meal, 10 pounds alfalfa and oat hay uncut; 
mix sprouts and bran together dry, soak and mix 
wiih biewers' grains. Feed oil caKe by measure. 
Cows have three hours in pasture on alfilerii and 
bur clover (dry). Cows are averaging three gallons 
per day, but the percentage of cream is not as large 
as I wish. 

Prof. E. W. Stewart, who is an acknowl- 
edged authority on animal feeding, makes the 
following reply to the above propositions: 

G. E P. enumerates a profusion of foods for 
his 60 cows. His malt sprouts, if No. 1, are 
very low at 85; his brewers' grains are also 
very low in price. It would be well for him, 
if he can, to get his brewers' grains fresh be- 
fore being put into the tank. In using brew- 
ers' grains and malt sprout>>, he does not need 
any linseed meal to balance his ration. The 
best hay raised in Cabfornia is alfalfa, but it 
should be cut early in first blossom, and nicely 
cured. It is then one of the very b^"t founda- 
tions of a milk ration. It is worth 50 per cent 
more than any other hay he mentions. 

2. The ration which he feeds is a very strong 
one. The following would be a good combina- 
tion: 18 pounds wild oat ensilage, 10 pounds 
old alfalfa, or new alfOfa and oat hay; 40 
noonds brewers' grains, 4 pounHs malt eprouts, 
6 pounds heavy bran. In analytical formulp, 
this th iws the following digestible nntrientr, 
in pounds: 

Albumi- Cirbo- 
noidr. h}dratea. Fa*. 

IS Ihg. wild oat en«il'ge 0.21 2.16 0.07 

10 lb', old alfalfa hav 0.60 3.80 n.l", 

40 lb*, brewers' grains 1-62 3.89 0..5B 

4 lb . malt 81. routs .-. :^ 0.75 0.04 

6 Ibg. heavy bran 0.80 -iMit 0.16 

Total 3.7» 14.66 O.Os 

Nutritive ratir, 1 to-4.4. This is a strong 
and cheap ration. It is presumed that the 
wild oat ensilage was cut into the silo. This 
alfalfa hay should also be cut and mixed with 
the ensilage. Tne malt sprouts and the wheat 
bran should be mixed with the brewers' grains 
and then this mixed with the ensilage and out 
hay. This ration should be fed one-half morn- 
ing and evening, and with the pasturage should 
produce rich milk; but the real richness of the 
milk cannot be tested accurately by percentage 
of cream. Let a portion of iverage milk be 
weighed, set, the cream rai ed, and then 
churned to butter and weighed. This will give 
the amount of milk r( quired for a pound of 
butter, which is the only accurate test of the 
richncfS of milk. 

3. When bis sugar-cane is in proper condition 
to feed green, let it be run through the cutter, 
and then a ration may be made up as follows: 
.SO poonds cut sugar cane, 6 pounds of best 
alfalfa hay, 40 pounds brewers' grains, 4 pounds 
malt sprouts, 4 pounds heavy bran, 2 pounds 
cornmeal; all mixed together as before direct- 
ed. This will be a slight Improvement on the 
other ration and cost about the same. 

If P. examines carefully the analyzed 
formula, he will fiod that malt sprouts, accord- 
ing to the nutriment contained, is the cheapest 
food in the lisf, and brewers' grains next, but 
these are both unbalanced foods, and cannot 
properly be used in much larger proportion 
than given in these rations. P is so fortu- 
nately situated that with these two strongly 
nitrogenous and very cheap foods he can easily 
balance any kind of fodder, however poor in 
albuminoids, and make a productive milk 
ration. The rations here considered, at his 
prices, can cost only about 15 cents per day, 
and must leave a fine net profit. 

ORKiiN OF Flavor i.v Bcttkr.— Several 
Djinisb chemists and analysts have been en- 
deavoring to find out the origin of flavor in 
butter, which, according to some, is held to be 
caused by bacteria — whether the flivor be that 
of tnrnipp, oily, fishy, bitterer tallowy. Prof. 
Storch has found large numbers of bicteria of 
a particular variety In oily butters, though he 
was not able to produce oily butters by the in- 
troduction of these bacteria into cream. In 
other cases he found bacteria which did not 
differ materially from the normal acid-produc- 
ing bacteria, which when present in large quan- 
titips in cream, produced batter of a tauowy 
flivor. Similar resnlts were obtained by Prof. 
Jensen; while Prof. Fjard found that butter 

from a farm where turnips were not used for 
the cows had a turnipy flivor, and it is believed 
by the investigators that this flavor is derived 
from the presence of a certain kind of bacteria. 

JSheep ajmd CSXool. 

An East Oregon Sheep Ranch. 

A correspondent of the Oregonian, in a letter 
from Valf , describes a recent visit to a sheep 
ranch in Malheur county. Alter an exhilar- 
ating stage-drive of :i5 miles from Vale to the 
Alder creek flat, the account proceeds : 

From the postcffice at Westfall I found it 
necessary to walk six miles to the sheep ranch 
on Clover creek. Clover creek is 80 called be- 
cause there is no clover within a day's ride of 
it. The walk was due to the fact that the 
countiy 18 a horse heaven and at the cross- 
roads store there wap, of course, no horse that 
could be hired for love or money by the way- 
farer. The road led me throngh an abandoned 
coulee over to Clover creek, descending to 
which and then ascending it, I found myself 
at the sheep ranch. 

Here the shearing of sheep was in full blast. 
The crest of the western hills threw a long 
shadow in the valley that curiously ienougb fell 
nearly parallel with an irrigating ditch on that 
side of the ranch. The heat of the day was 
over and the men in the pens were making the 
shears clip with a home stretch energy. They 
get seven cents a fleeof, and work from da>- 
light until dark. No cry for eight hours among 
them. In fact one of them from Gascony di- 
vulged the secret that in his youth he worked 
for a sculptor, clipping Naiads and Graces out 
of marble, and was so enamored of the work of 
making the pulseless marble come to the breath- 
ing state that he had to quit. The trouble with 
those who do work that they delight in is to 
jar loose from it. 

I looked around among the shearing pens for 
Alesnandro, but of course Ally wasn't there, 
but Rimona was at the table when supper was 
announced by the cook, a strapping big trapper 
(only a cook pro hoc vice). The cook was quite 
as interesting as litmona. To butcher a sheep, 
he held the wetaer between his kneer, drew ;. 
knife abr ut his neck and twisting the head off 
he flung it on the ground, disemboweled the 
sheep and threw it in a bucket of ice-cold water 
to keep the meat from tasting like mutton. (To 
buggesc to him that a better plan would be to 
go ( S and kill a pig if he leally wiehed the flesh 
to taste unlike mutton, would have probed 
a stratum of ignorant prejudice inherited 
from ancestors of ages long ago betid, so I de- 

His pastry the shearers all oraised — ind well 
they did, for it was sweetened sour dough 
bread (the leaven mentioned in the Bible) and in- 
fused. .with a handful of canary-bird ur hemp 
seeds, or some other kind of seeds for sale by 
bird fanciers. 

Kimona, after supper and when the young 
moon had arisen, and we were all sitting on 
the front porch listening to the foothill mock- 
ing-bird, stole into the parlor and began playing 
on a piano, and after a start which seemed to 
split the notes into a complicated jangle of 
musical sounds, she sang. The mocking-bird 
stopped and the babbling of Clover creek. 

Next morning we went afield to see how the 
grass grew. The hills were waving with bunch- 
grass and the flowers that grow between loaded 
the air with perfume. 

Mr. Coyote disturbed our pastoral musings 
by tripping across an alfalfa field with a spring 
chicken in his month. Flying back to the 
house I seized a rifl", Winchester repeating, 
45-70, set trigger and Lyman sights, and hast- 
ened back. He had gone into the sagebrush 
outside the field, and stopped once or twice to 
look back. I thought he was too far away, 
and waited until be ran up on a sloping rook 
and sat down, when L. cried: "Hold that 
sight on the wretch and shoot I " He was at 
least 400 yards away, but when the rifle 
cracked, the ball hit between bis front legs, 
which rather surprised him; and then it split 
off a portion of the soft rock and threw it up 
against his belly with such force that he went 
crazy and came running back into the fixld, 
where the dogs chewed him to pieces. The 
chicken came out alive, and will make a good 
pullet yet. 

On the bills the shepherd watched his grazing 
fljck. The lambf, not eld enough to graze, bad 
sought the shadow of a sagebrush, and the 
dogs were equally incautious of the future. 

A rancho, which costs little or nothing, 
which will produce 100 tons of hay nnd an un- 
limited range presented gratis by Uncle >S.m, 
which will keep sheep fat throughout the year, 
with an exception falling about once in five 
years, ought to enable a flock«master here to 
compete in raising wool with any country un- 
der the sun. 

He has, besides, good water, plenty of wood, 
a lovely and health-giving climate, a houire 
covered with trailing roses, brook trout, monnt- 
ain sheep or venison, and cheap books. * * • 
The greater portion of all the land in Malhenr 
county is pastoral, bat the people accustomed 
to bard lines — where one's father's poaition or 
family influence or the fortuitons cuncourse of 
events keep morlest merit from attaining its 
place on the neck of the unworthy — have not 
yet been able, despite their arduous efforts, to 
assimilate themselves to the ideal conditions of 
their environment. It takes time. 


f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

[JoLY 5, 1890 


In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, win he f)und additional matter from 
tbis and other'tions, of interest and import- 
ance to Pa;ronB. Any subscriber who wishes can 
change free to that edition. 

State Grange Excursion Rates. 

To Patrons of Husbandry :— The South- 
ern Pacific Company has agreed to give re- 
dnced rates to all who attend the State 
Grauge at Watson ville (commencing Tuesday, 
October 7tb), from all parts of California, over 
all their lines, according to the following terms 
and regulations : 

Patrons will pnrchaie first-class [uulimitec?] 
tickets from their local stations on the railroad 
lines, being particular to take a receipt from 
the sta'ion agent, giving date, name of station 
and amount paid for the ticket to Watsonville, 

Upon application to the Sacretary at the 
State Orange, a certificate will be furnished, 
stating that the member of the Order has at- 
tended the State Grange and is entitled to pur- 
chase a return ticket from the Watsonville 
station agent at one-third nnlimited first class 
fare. The surrender to the agent of this cer- 
tificate and the receipt above named will enable 
the holder to secure a home-bound ticket at one- 
third price, making the cost of the round trip 
two-thirds the regular rate. 

A. T. Dkwey, Seo'y S. G. of Oal, 

San Francisco, June S8, '90. 

Our Country's Day. 

Patrons, let the boys and girls have a jubilee 
on the Fourth. Take a good slice for your- 
selves. The Husbandmen and Matrons of 
America are noted for working too hard and 
allowing themselves too little recreation. We 
are glad to see that Patrons in difi'erent places 
are going to make a merry time of the Fourth. 

The Grange should be an instrument for 
raising higher the standard of American 
patriotism. Let the spirit of liberty root 
deeper and branch wider in the next generation 
than in the past. 

Parents, revive the memory and tell the 
children of your happy experiences on the 
Fourth in your younger days and some of the 
old stories that brightened and inspired your 
own minds and hearts in the long ago. 

LetjCvery man, woman and child in this 
broad free land be gloriously happy and rejoice 
in the rich heritage secured for us by our grand 
old Jlevolutionary sires. Let us try to be 
worthy of the hardships and sacrifices under- 
gone for us by those never-to-be-forgotten 

In sincere love of country and with heart- 
felt prayers for her true advancement, and 
pure aspirations for a higher Americanism, let 
us go forward, never backward. 

Floral and Children's Days. 

Stockton Grange, No. 70, is alive, up and 
doing. We had a large and enthnsiastio open 
meeting on our Floral Day, June 7th. The 
hall was very prettily decorated with flowers. 
We had visitors from Lorti, AVood bridge and 
Waterloo Granges, Our Flora presided with 
her usual ability. The entertainment con- 
sisted of music, vocal and instrumental, read- 
ings and recitations, which paesed off very 
pleasantly and were apparently enjoyed by all 

Next Saturday, July -5th, is set for Children's 
Bay. We will have an open meeting, and a 
good program — tc give a surprise to the young 
folks — is beinif prepared by the committee. 

Our sister Granges and their friends are cor- 
dially invited to meet with us on the occasion. 
The meeting will be called to order at 1:30 
r. M. Fraternally. H. T. Root, Seo'y. 

islockton, June SO, '90 

Prepare for Watsonville. 

The next session of the State Grange at Wat- 
sonville, we expect will be one of the largest 
and most delightful of the grand gatherings of 
the P. of H. of California, We expect it will 
also prove the most useful and important cf 
any. The social, literary and musical induce- 
ments for every Patron to be present will cer- 
tainly be great. Some of these, with other?, 
will be named in our fnture isenes. 

Thb N. Y. Commercial Advertiser points out 
one indirect effect of the agitation for ballot re- 
form which Is very suggestive. The political 
organizations in the State of New York, headed 
by Tammany Hall, are holding meetings al- 
most nightly for the purpose of instructing 
their followers in the wot kings of the law, and 
the same thing is happeninc; in other States, 
notably in Massachusetts, P>.hode Island and 
Indiana. Toe illiterate voter has public atten- 
tion called to bis illiteracy by being compelled 
to summon one of the officsers of election to his 
aid, and this is already acting as a powerful 
spur to acquiring at least the art of being able 
to read and sign one's name. 

Touching Elbows with P. of H. 

The*pnrpoBes of the Farmers' and Laborers' 
Union of America — now bo active in Miesouri 

are stated by the St. Louis Journal of Agri- 
culture in what reads like a good Grange docu- 
ment. To the qaestion " What are we organ- 
ized for ? " the Journal makes answer: 

It was in order that we might benefit onr- 
selves socially, morally and financially. 

How do we benefit ourselves socially? Why, 
by coming together weekly, semi-monthly, or 
monthly, as the case may be, exchanging ideas, 
planning what is best for the members and the 
country at large, discussing matters for our 
mutual good, and teaching the farmer and 
laborer to think more for himself and depend 
less upon the doctors, lawyers, colonels, cap- 
tains and more especially the politicians, to 
think for him. If we have not as much talent 
we certainly have as much braios and honesty 
among the farmers and laborers of this country 
as in any other class or profession. 

How are we to benefit ourselves morally? We 
doa't want any selfish, grasping, vicions char- 
acters in our order. If we have such we should 
try to convince them of their wrong, teach 
them that man must not live for himself alone, 
though it is proper to look out for number one. 
We must not expect all men to think as we do 
in every particular and condemn them because 
they do not, for we may be wrong instead of 

And now as to the point of financial benefit, 
I will tell what we have done and what we ex- 
pect to do in that line. We have started a co- 
operative store at this place, not with the in- 
tention of breaking down any other merchant, 
but expecting to benefit ourselves. My motto 
is to do ourselves all the good and everybody 
else as little harm as possible. While we are 
helping ourselves we are also helpiog everybody 
else within trading distance of uf, whether 
they trade with us or somebody eUe. Mer- 
chants in the vicinity are coming down in the 
price of their goods to a price at which they 
said they could not, and would not sell before 
we started. Some say the store is a benefit to 
the rich and not the poor. I claim the reverse 
to be the case, as unfortunately for the poor 
man he mast have the cash or he cannot get the 
goods and if he mast have the cash why the 
cheaper he gets the goods the farther his money 
will go. 

It was predicted by some of the overwise 
that wholesale merchants would not sell to us. 
What upon earth are the goods mannfactnred 
for but to sell, and what better customer on the 
globe than the cash purchaser? That did not 
scare us at all. 

What we expect to do is to formulate a plan 
by which our C)unty Union will be enabled to 
make arrangements whereby we can get farm 
supplies of all kinds, such as machinery, plows, 
drills, wagons, etc , at living prices. A certain 
machine agent said to me that neither manu- 
facturers nor their agents would sell to us. 
Pray tell me whom they will sell to it not to 
the farmers ? I suppose he thought to the town 
people, and what oan they do with a binder, 
mower, or plow ? 

Ballot Rkfokm — Tne rapidity with which 
the Australian ballot system is spreading is 
very significant; it is a oocfligration started 
simultaneously at a thousand points. In 
Louisiana, where reform has crept along with 
crippled wing — crippled by the debauchery of 
the lottery gamble-'-the Knights of L.borare 
clamoring for it; the sania In Illinois, where 
hitherto there has been no organized effort on 
its behalf. In Pennsylvania a convention of 
miners heads a 1 )ng declaration of grievances 
with a demand for its adoption. High-water 
mark is reached in the mass meeting called at 
Cooper Union by the County Democracy of 
New York, the most prominently advertited 
feature of which was an exhibition of the 
methods of voting under the new ballot law. 
All this is very significant as showing that 
there is a spontaneous eagerness to seek in the 
ballot-box the eradication of evils universally 
admitted. For just so far as this eagerness is 
spontaneous, having its rise in the anxiety of 
an awakened people to shake off the yoke of a 
plutocracy that is grinding it to powder is the 
movement full of hope,— Z/. A, Wiekly Na- 

A Rural Fourth,— A delightful " Inde. 
pendence D^y" is anticipated at Oak Grove on 
the Fourth, by TemAsoal Grange, which in. 
vites the Patrons of Husbandry, Farmers, Pio- 
neerp. Horticulturists and Florists of Alameda, 
Conti a Costa and neighboring counties (includ- 
ing Oakland and San Franoigco), and their 
families and friends, to join in a patriotic pic- 
nic at 0»k Grove, on the California & Nevada 
R R , 15 miles from Oakland. The Temescal 
brass band of ten or more pieces has been en- 
gaged. The train leaves the depot, near 
Emery's, on the cable-street car line, San Pablo 
Ave., Oakland, at 9:45 a. m. Round-trip tickets 
75 cente; children 25 centn. 

Bro. J. V. Webster has promised to address 
Carpiuteria Grange on the i7th inst., and we 
have the best reasons for expecting to secure 
most of his remarks for publication. Give him 
a good turnout. 

' A Footprint" Erased. 

Bro. Webster, Master of Creston Grange, 
emphatically remarks as follows conoerning the 
article headed "Tenderfoot Interrogates Cres- 
ton," published in our last issue and signed " A 
Footprint - " 

The manifest purpose of its writing is not to 
gain information on the subjects mentioned, but 
to satisfy a scurrilous, carumg disposition ap- 
parent in every line. Why "A Footprint" 
uses a nom de plume instead of subscribing his 
real name is easily discerned. In light liter- 
ature and in " airy nothings " fictitious names 
friquently appear, but when great absorbing 
quedtions are discussed and individuals or asso- 
ciations are spitefully held up for ridicule, no 
one but a light-minded, cowardly nonentity 
ever signs any other than his own name. 
Sometimes the name of the writer is unneces- 
sary to measure the man, and " Footprint's " 
communication is one of that order. If 
language means anything, he is evidently op- 
posed to many reforms demanded by the peo- 
ple. If he be a member of our Order in good 
standing, manifestly that good standing is 
maintained chiefly for the purpose of obtain- 
ing 'the information desired by the spy and in- 
former, for the intent and purport of the article 
clearly indicates antagonism to several of the 
leading questions of the ti'nes to which the 
Grange is irrevocably committed. 

Had the writer confined his interrogations to 
the resolutions of Creston Grange, they might 
have been answered without reservation; but I 
do not feel called upon, in this connection, to 
consider carping questions in no wise related 
to the subjects treated in said Grange resolu- 
tions. I shall therefore oonfine my remarks to 
the questions which seem to me pertinent to 
the inquiry. 

" Footprint " starts out with the Inquiry : 

How many voters of the United .States do you be- 
lieve know what are the duties of a senator ? 

The inference from this (pestion is clear. 
Manifestly the writer does not believe that the 
citizens of the United States are sufficiently 
informed to trust the election of United States 
Senators to a direct vote of the people, bnt 
rather to the corrupt methods now in vogue 
by legislature manipulators. 

This same contempt for popular intelligence 
crops out again in the following: 

How muny voter? are such judges of character 
that they would be able lo judge from a man's 
record whether he would be likely to perform the 
duties of a senator wisely and efficiently? 

From these extracts it is apparent that, if 
"Footprint" is an American citizjn and a 
Granger, his room in the Republic would be of 
more value than his personal presence. 

Are you willing to have your lands "condemned 
and appropriated," and the Uuvernment production 
instituted? If not, will you explain why you think 
it just to condemn and appropriate the Union and 
C ntral Pacific Railroads and have Government dis- 
tnbiuion instituted ? 

As " Footprint " very well knows, under the 
law of eminent domain the Government has 
the undisputed right to condemn and appro- 
priate any private or corporate property which 
may ba deemed necessary to promote the public 
welfare. If Congress considers my lands necas- 
sary for a public use, it has the nndonbted 
right to condemn and appropriate them for 
such use, on paying a fair consideration for the 
property so taken. Under the same rule of 
law, the Government has the right to condema 
and appropriate any or all railroads and tele- 
graph lines; and especially is this the case with 
the Union and Cencral Pacific roads, bsoanse 
thej have forfeited every right possessed under 
the laws of their creation. 

In support of tbis position, I beg leave to 
copy some sentences used in the report of the 
R%itroad CommissioD, appointed by President 
Cleveland, as provided under an Act of Con- 
gre»s, approved March .S, 1887, entitled "An 
Act authorizing an investigation of the books 
and accounts and methods of railroads which 
have received aid from the United States and 
other purposes." Commissioner Pattison said 
that the actual oost of the construction of said 
lines and their branches was, in round numbers, 
$96,000.CO0, and the same roads were aided by 
the Government in lands, stocks and bonds to 
the enormous extent of §447,729,470 54 — an 
amount nearly five times as great as the whole 
oost of their construction. After reciting these 
faots, the report of Commissioner Pattison con- 

The original purpose of Concress, as set forth 
in the Act of July t, 1862, in granting subsidies for 
for the construction of the Union and Central Pacific 
railroads and their branches was '■ to promote the 
public interest,'' and the companies were made 
trustees lor that purpose, but the pubMc interest 
has been subordinated by these companies to the 
stockholder's interest. Nearly every obligation 
which these companies assumed under the laws 
of the United States, or as common orriers, has 
been violated. Their management has bL-en a na- 
tional disgrace since the date of their inception; 
they have been conducted upon a purely specula- 
tive basis. Their permanent prosperity has been 
lost sight of, while their managers greedily strove 
for temporary advantage. They squandered mill- 
ions of their money to protect their territorial 
claims, while expeneling other millions to foment 
encroachments upon the territory claimed by other 
companies. Thf-y constituted themselves the ar- 
bitrators of trade. They charged all the traflic 
would bear, and appropriated a share of the profits 
of every industry by charging the greater part of 
the difference between the actual cost of production 

and the piece of the article in the market. They 
discriminated between individuals and companies, 
between localities and between articles. They de- 
stroyed possible competitors and they built up par- 
ticular localities to the iniury of other localities, 
until matters reached such a pass that no man 
dared engage in any business in which transporta- 
tion largely entered without first soliciting and ob- 
taining the permission of a railroad manager. 
They exerted a terrorism over merchants and over 
conmiunities. They participated in election con- 
tests. In their relations to the Government, they 
resorted to every device their ingenuity could in- 
vent in their effjrts to evade the plain requirements 
of the law. 

These are some of the reasons given by the 
Commissioner why the roads should be con- 
demned and appropriated by the Government. 
They have certainly forfeited their rights under 
their charters. Bat waiving the rights of the 
people, certainly acquired because of the fail- 
ure of these companies to keep faith with the 
Government, the urgency of the case is such 
that no extension of time as proposed by Congress 
for the payment of the Sl20,000,000,dne the Gov- 
ernment from these companies, should be made. 
In five years' time the bonds will mature, and 
if not paid the roads will inevitably fall to the 
Government, upon its paving the first mortgage 
bonds, amounting to §27,000,000, voted and 
allowed the companies by a corrupt and venal 

The chief and vital reason why said roads 
should be condemned and appropriated by the 
Government is that such action will open the 
way for the only apparent solution of the trans- 
portation question. In addition to these roads, 
the G^veriiment must own Ad operate a con- 
tinuance of the line through to Boston, via Chi- 
cago and New York. With this line, and one 
starting at Richmond, Ya.. and running through 
the Galf States via the ".Sunset Route " to San 
Francisco or San TJiego, the Government will 
regulate and control the carrying trade of the 
United States; for all other roads will have 
either to adopt the Government rates or be- 
come feeders of the Government roads. 

Two or three telegraph lines across the con- 
tinent will likewise have to be controlled and 
operated by the G,>vernment for like reasons. 

Are you in favor of paying extra taxes to buy the 
telfgraph plants and franchises, or would you have 
the Government ruin the owners of the present sys- 
tem by competing lines? 

In answer to this inquiry, I have to say 
that the Government shonld, if possible at a 
fair rate, acquire control of two or three prom- 
inent lines across the continent, already con- 
structed. If not obtainable at fair rates, the 
Government should constmot its own lines, for 
this necessary regulation and control of rail- 
roads and telegraphs will inevitably oome 
sooner or later, " Footprint " to the contrary 

As to " ruining the owners of the present 
system by competing lines," it does not neces- 
sarily follow, for the Government would assur- 
edly establish a fair rate for the service ren- 
dered, both by telegraph and railroad, and fair 
rates rnin no one. The purpose in Government 
ownership is simply to protect ita citizens from 
extortion. There is no disposition to ruin even 
Jay Gould, who runs and controls the telegraph 
system to the rnin of everybody who dares dis- 
pute his right to regulate and control. 

How many tons of unused silver already coined 
do you think there are in the United Slates Treas- 
ury vaults, and in the vaults ol the various banks; 
and how many millions of dollars of unused silver 
certificates are there in the aforesaid vaults and 
stowed away in private unused tea-kettles, old socks 
and such private receptacles ? 

The coined silver in circulation in the United 
States is about $100,000,000. That in public 
and private repositories la estimated at .$300,- 
000,000, nearly all of whioh Is represented by 
silvdr certificates which pass as currently as 
gold everywhere; and if there are any of them 
stowed away in " unused tea-kettles and old 
socks," it Is because the owner thereof is aware 
of the fact that they have a fixed and secure 

If " Footprint " bad an inch of breadth be- 
tween his eyes, he wcnld be able to discover 
the fact that nine-tenths of the people of the 
Uaited States are either in favor of the free 
coinage of silver, or at least the maximum 
coinage of $4,000,000 monthly, as provided for 
under the Bland-Allison Act. The House of 
Representatives has conceded more than this in 
a bill recently passed by that body, and the 
U. S Senate two weeks since passed a Free- 
Coinage Act. 

In the face of all these faots, manifest to 
every intelligent mind, the conviction must be 
irresistible that " Footprint " (of "Tenderfoot 
Grange ") is of an age too teneier, or mentally 
■o unfortunate, as to be unable to grasp the 
plainest and most evident of propositions. 

If two men may buy as low as they can, and sell 
as high as they can, one wagon-load of the produce 
of the chief industries of ihe nation, why may not 
two other men buy and sell, on similar terms, 
a million wagon-loads ? How many million 
wagon. loads can they buy and sell wilhout consti- 
tuting themselves a trust? 

In answer to this question I ivill simply say 
that the amount of any product bonght and 
sold does not necessarily constitute a "trust." 
The more of any product bought and sold in 
] the open market in competition with others in 
j the same line of basinets, the lees the current 
I p-ioe un such product. In tbis manner two 
men could buy and sell as many million loads 
I of produce as they wished, and have no connec- 
tion with a trust. But if two men, or any 
any other nnmber, should bay • million loads 

In digging dltcties, i ijna a ameivnaa lu »u«> | wings ne pMaea ^uiuugu eaou/. >t ucu no umm mm — g > 


July 5, 1890 ] 

f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS. 

Wheat Prices in Liverpool and Ocean Freight Rates from San Francisco; also Bag Prices in S. F. from 1875 to 1890. 

[Compiled by A. Monti'ISLLIKK, Cashier and Maiiaaer Grangers' Bank of California. | 




Lowest . 
Average . 



Lowest . 



Bags. . . . 

1 Highest. 
[ Lowest . 
( Average. 



( Highest, 
J Lowest . 
( Average. 


( Highest. 
^, Lowest, 
I Average, 



j Highest 


Average . 


( Highest, 
• Lowest , 
( .Werage . 



Lt twest , 





Bags. . . . 

( Higliest. 

( Average. 




( Highest. 

( Average. 



I Higliest. 
j Lowest. . 
( Average . 

Freight . 












1SS6 87 

Sp it. 



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10 cts 

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of flour, and that million loads ehould oonea- 
tute all the flour in the United S-atee, and 
after getting control of the supply these men 
should demand $20 a barrel for the flour, that 
kind of an operation would be deemed and 
treated as a trust— such a one, in fact, as would 
justify hanging the trustees and the division of 
their supply pro rata among the starving mill. 
ioDB made desperate by such a souUbsh combine. 

J. V Webster. 

TiiK Granqk Press.— Bro. J. J. Woodman, 
after a long experience in Grange work, hav- 
ing occupied every position from high private 
to National Master says: " I am satisfied that 
more good c»n be accomplished through the in- 
fluence of the Grange press, and at lees expense 
than by any other means." This is the nnan- 
imous verdict, but what troubles the Grange 
press is to know why it is not acted upon. — 
Orange Bulletin. 

Ssrlously, we too !— Pacific Rural 

Past S. G. L., Simpson Scores Two! 

Though our " old warhorse " John Simpson 
has changed from Lecturer to Deputy, his 
labors are by no means finished. Less than one 
week after the close of the lite session of the 
0. S. G., Bro. Simpsoifand Deputy White or- 
ganized a new Grange in Polk county, and now 
comes the cheering news that the Grange at 
Uoburg, Lane county, is reorganized with 25 

Over 400 GrangeB are already added to the 
roll-call for 1899, Pennsylvania being still in 
the Ipad. With two such workers as Simpson 
and Holder in the field, Oregon ought to stand 
only second. Then there is S. M., Hayes 
always at the front strong and ready to help: 

May the good work go on, and may this 
year's Deputies and L»Rtarer double and 
quadruple the work of 1889, 


Surprise Grange. 

Editors Press : — The meeting of June 19 :h 
was one of much Interest. 

The W. Mister being absent, Bro. I. M. 
Wagner was called to the chair. 

Applications for membership were received 
from two of our noble farmers; first and second 
degrees were conferred on two, and third and 
(oucth degrees on a class of six. 

Daring the quarter ending June .SOth Sur- 
prise has increased its membership 24. Many 
of that number are excellent singers, and as we 
have just received a dozen "National Grange 
Choir " song-books, our hall now rings with 

Matters of a business character were dis- 
cussed with great interest by all prf-sent, and 
finally a plan was decided upon. In all, we 
think it one of the best day's work of the year. 

C. T. M., Seo'y. 

If corduc^ed on the same buRiness principles 
and with like zeal as the L C. C , no better 
at p for the advinoe of the G ange of Mirirn 
county cou'd be <aken; but it lakeB work to 
mike the council " go," and busints^ mu»^ be 
the principal factor. I. L. H. 

Jordan Valley Grange has a membership 
of 86. Its meetings are well attended, inter- 
esting and instructive. Let us hear agciin, Bro. 


Sherman Grange. 

Editors Press : — Sherman Grange held a 
called meeting (Saturday, June 21at. 

The Committee on Good of the Order sub- 
mitted a fi'^e program for the next meeting. 

Worthy State Lecturer Holder being called 
upon, made a very good speech on co-operation 
and GrangB principles. 

Bi-o. F. Pike of Wheat Grange spoke on the 
fire ic6U''ance question. 

Bro. Holder is now on his way through 
Wasco county and will not reach home for 
some time yet, as he will make a thorough can- 
vass of that county. He is a zealous Granger 
and a fine talker and Lecturer. Eaxtern Ore- 
gon is fortunate in his election. Pateon. 

Moro, Oregon, June 33, ISOO. 

Good News from Umatilla. — Union 
Grange, No. 244, comes to the front with a 
membership of 42, Now will not Sec'y Turner 
send us a line occasionally from this new and 
promising Grange ? 

SuRi'RiSR Grange is tbinkincr of trying to 
work up a Businesa Council for Marion county. 

Rambles Among tlie Granges. 

Editors Press: — It is a long time since I 
reported from Washington. I hope you will 
excuse my shortcomings, as there are more 
able correspondents writing to your valuable 

The State Grange of Washington had a very 
profitable session — one calculated, I think, to 
build up the Order in this State. I became 
acquainted with your noble California treasurer 
on wings, Bro. Cressey, who was the life of the 
S. G. Brother Simpson and Sister Hilleary 
also did good work for the Rural Press. 

On Friday, I attended a picnic at Fourth 
Plain, and heard that veteran Patron, Br >ther 
Hare of Hillsboroagb, right nobly instruct the 
farmers in the duty they owe to their family, 
their country and themselves; also good words 
from Brother R insell, W. M. S. G. I only 
wished Brother Cressej' was there, and can 
assure him, from the appearance of the dinner- 
tible that his vest would not have been too 
loose for him on his way home and there would 
be no need for him to educate his daugher to 
fill him up on French recipes as we had some- 
thing more substantial than paper. The Pa- 
trons of Clarke Co. ite determined l:o make the 
Grange a success. God bless them I 

On Saturday, I attended a business meeting 
of the mercantile association at Washougal, 
which elected a board of directors and ad- 

journed to meet at the call of the chairman, 
Brother Russell. 

June 14tb, I visited Cape Horn Grange by 
Invitation of the W. L, and found them in 
good working order with a class of two for 
the third and fourth degrees, one for first degree 
and one application. This Grange is alive and 
well up in Grange work, with all the fi°1d work 
practised. They are to celebrate our National 
Independence Diy, the proceeds going to build 
them a hall and when they say they want a 
a hall, that means they are going to have one. 
This is due to the sisters; they hold the handle 
of the broom and right nobly do they use it. 
I s e but one thing wanting in this Grange — 
they do not write for the Press and let na 
know what they are doing I Cape Horn has 
doubled its membership in one year and is not 
going to stop until every boy and girl over 14 
years old is in the Grange, 

Now what is the matter with Bro. Nevin ? 
This is his own G.-ange and no one writing for 
the Rural Press ! Come, brother I Wake 
up and do seme work in your own Grange, and 
have some of your members correspond for th<i 
Rural. Brothets and sisters of Cape Horn 1 
Dj not keep your good work hidden under the 
bushel; let it shine, so that others will profit 
by your example. 

Aa you say, Mr. Elitor, build solid as vou 
go. Yes, this is the counsel of our noble Mas- 
ter. The S'ate Lecturer, alsr, told me he 
thought it was lost time and money to organize 
20 Granges and let ten die. We must hold all 
we organize, and if the brothers and sisters 
visit neighboring Granges more, such fraternal 
meetings will have a good effect, and revive 
drooping members. 

I want to visit some more Granges and wri'^e 
you more anon. Fratern.illy yonrs, in F. H. 
and C. with F. A Wa.nderinu Jbw. 

June 25, ISOO. 

[We thank the Wanderer for this interesting 
letter, and hope he will write again; also, that 
others will ba moved by his good counsel and 
example to " go and do likewise." In order to 
make a good paper for Patrons, we must needs 
have the help of Patrons' pens. Let na hear 
from your Grange, too. — Ed8,^ 


f AClFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[Jdly 2, 1890. 

Not Transferable. 

[Written by the Press by A. T. Davidson.) 

A prelly little maiden was dusting with bruih and 

I-ooking here and there, exploring, in her auntie's 

B'\ng very, very busy, as such little ladies are; 
She chanced on something curious as she removed a 

And she placed it underneath her uncle's picture in- 

comparab'e — 
It was an old, old ticket, and read thus: " Not 


Little maiden, in your glee, you "have given a good 

Which we may well adopt and place in every niche 
and grotto; 

There above ihe fire-place hang it as a chart. 
And then enshrine it deeper in recesses of the heart. 
So if a frif nd should ask us to do something we 
ought not to. 

We'll in a firm but kindly way just point them to 
our motto. 

When the pearly .trites shall open to that blessed 
land above. 

For us to enter in where all is happinpss and love, 
The King of Outer Darkness there his last, list plea 
will make 

For us to come and dwell beside his fiery brimstone 

Will ask for us most spitefully \n angry tone and 

terrible — 

Please Gnd we then b« suffered to make answer; 
" .\'o/ transferable.'^ 

Fitti.g Herself In. 

" Well, there's one thing certain," said Alice 
Birnes, "I'm not likely to get much unless I 
get it for myself; and there's another thing 
very «noertain, and that Is how I'm to do it. 
I've thought and thought about it, and the 
more I think, I don't see my way. All the 
wise folks nowadays are writing and talking 
abont girls doing for themselves. They say. 
Find out what you can do best, and then do it. 
But I c»n't do anything best — that is, any of 
the things that people can make a living at. I 
oan't teach, and I can't write stories, nor do as- 
tonishing fancy-work. I can only do the com- 
mon, every day things; and father wouldn't let 
me go away from home to do those, even if I 
wanted to, which I don't." 

Alice was situated exactly as a great many 
young girls find themselvep. The oldest girl in 
a large family with a slender income, she had 
picked up a moderate amount of schooling and 
had done plenty of work. She cohld play a 
little, paint a little, and sew and cook a great 
deal. The younger children, for whom she 
bad given willing service, were now growing 
old enough to assume their own shares of the 
bonsehold bardene; and Alice begin to find 
time to think of things which she wantet', and 
things which she would like to do if only she 
knew how. 

"I want more books, and I want more 
clothee; and father has enough to do without 
my looking to him. O dear I I wish I had 
been brought up tn something regalar to do; 
but how could I he?" 

With a tender thought of the toilworn mother 
whose right hand she had been all through 
these years of struggle, she took up a monthly 
magazine which had strayed into her way. 

"'Around the Fireside.' This is just the 
kind of a thing I'd like to take. It's full of 
good talk about girls helping themselves, and 
ten to one, before the year was out I might get 
some suggestion that would show me a way; 
>int I couldn't afford it any more than I could 

In turning over the advertising pages, her 
eye fell upon the terms for subecription. 

"'And one to the getter up of the club.' 
There, now, I might try that. I conld do any 
amount of walking about and talking. Five 
snbscriptiona and then I shonld have it. It's 
no harm trying, i)ny way." 

To think and to act meant one with Alice, 
and it was not long before she was entering the 
house of one of her neighbors in the little ram- 
bling country town. 

" May I come in?" she asked, pausing at the 

" Ob, dear, yep, of course you can, Miss 
Alice, if you'll only excuse the mess I'm in. I 
set aside all my other work to-day to see if I 
couldn't fix over the children's last snmmer 
hate — millinery coats so much, you know, when 
there's four of 'em, and myself, too, though 
everybody knows I don't spend much on myself. 
Bat the girls is gettin' a little fusey since 
they've grown so big, and it's hard to suit 'em 
any more; and the same way with their dresses. 
They want more fixings about '^m, ain't satis- 
fied no more with Jane Ann Perry's work — 
that just does plain sewing— but thinks they 
ought to have a reg'tar dressmaker. At a dollar 
a day 1 Now look here at this." 

With all her sympathy for Mrs. Drake's per- 
plexities, Alice could not help smiling at her 
wooden arrangement of ribbons and flowere. 

" L<)t me see if I could twist that into any 
better shape," she said, taking the hat out of 
Mrs. Drake's hands. 

"Oh, you're so good. Miss Alice. There 
now — if you haven't the real milliner touch. 
Some folks can do anything they seta their 
hands to. I ain't a bit of knack myself." 

"Oh, I've had to have a knaott," said Alice, 
laughing. " I have a tribe at home to do for. 
Mother never has time for such work, like you. 
But don't you think some book like this would 
help you on such things, Mrs, Drake? It 
gives a lot of information about doing 
things at home." 

" Bless your heart. Miss Alice, I never have 
a moment for reading, even if I could afford the 
money, and I can't. But I do hope you'll have 
good luck. My ! alo't yon made that hat look 
just I'ke a new one ! " 

" VeF, that looks something like," said a 
half-grown girl just then entering the room 
with a look of great discontent on her pretty 
face. "1 ain't going to wear this dress to 
school any more, mother." 

" Why not?" asked Mrs, Drake. 

"The girls laugh at it. They aay that 
looping up in the back looks like a plowed 

" Daar me ! I worked and fussed half a day 
over that, " said Mrs. Drake, looking ruefully 
at the expanse of snarled-up puffs. " I couldn't 
make head or tail of how that bought pattern 
meant 'em to go." 

" Rip them out, Katie," said Alice, " and I 
can drape it for you in a few moments, if you'll 
let me." 

"Now, did you ever!" exclaimed Mrs. 
Drake, as under Alice's deft fingers a few 
graceful loopings took the place of the puffs. 
Then, with directions for a little pressing, she 
said good-by, amid a shower of admiring 
thanks from mother and daughter. 

Alice took her way to the house of young 
Mrs. Garde, who was one of her gord friends, 

"Yes, Alice, I'll take the book 'Around the 
Fireside,' I'd take a dczsn books if they 
would show me any way to make things a lit- 
tle smoother around my fireside. My hands 
are so tied with these two children that I have 
no time to see to things in the kitchen; and, if 
I had, I don't believe things would be much 
better. We're living the forlornest kind of a 
life. Frank is half-sick most of the time, and 
I'm beginning to think it's the wretched cook- 
ing. How can a man live on poor breed all 
the time and be well ? It's sour one week and 
heavy the next, and that's abont all the variety 
we have." 

"Too bad," said Alice. "I wish with all 
my hnart I could get yon a good girl." 

" You can't. I've searched the entire conn- 
try. Mother has sent two or three out from 
the city, but they always get homesick and go 
back. 1 see nothing but to resign ourselves to 
the prospect of being hopeless dyspeptics. It 
makes me feel so good for-nuthing, too. You 
will never make such a failure when you come 
to the real duties of life." 

"Don't talk so," said Alice, shaking her 
head. " Why, I was just making up my miod 
that I am good for nothing. I can do plenty 
of things, but they're not the kind that I can 
make my living by, unless I go regularly and 
hire out, and I don't want to do that so long as 
I havi a good home." 

" Of course not. It seems a pity," said Mrs. 
Garde with a sigh, " that jast such abilities as 
yours couldn't be fitted in somehow to places 
where they are needed." 

"Oil, don't put a book at me," said the mis- 
tress of the next house at which Alice c?lled. 

" Why. Mrs. Warner, what is the matter? '' 
asked Alice in concern, as that lady, after plac- 
ing a chair for her, sat down and burst into 

"Oh, it's my eyes troubling me again. Your 
book would do me no good nn!e^s you came and 
read it to me. And books are not the worst 
part of it, although it's hard enough not to 
b^t able to read. Bat look at that mending- 
batket, piled up with two weeks' mending. I 
try to do a little bit at a time, but it hurts my 
eyes so I can't go on, and the doctor says they 
will never get well unless I give them perfect 
rest. Why," she said, half laughing, " I had 
to pin the children's clothes on this morning 
whBr« the buttons were off." 

" Never mind the pins, but do take care of 
your eyes," said Alice, "It is real trouble, 
and I am so sorry for you. Lst me read you 
one of the^e stories. Or perhaps you would 
rather I did some of this mending. D.> let me 
help you a little. It wouldn't take me very 
long to do that whole pile." 

" Of course It wouldn't, yon are so quick 
and handy. How fortunate you are, Alice — 
eves and strength, and so bright and smart. 
You can do anything you want to do. Y'es, 
you may do it if — if yon'll let me pay you for 
it. And you don't know what - blessed help it 
will be. No; you shan't touch them unless 
you'll agree to it." 

"It is just the kind of work you oan't get 
anybody to do," continued Mrs. Warner. 
Alice laughingly oonsentec^, and settled herself 
at work. "I sent for Sarah Crandall, the other 
day, to come and do np odds and ends for me — 
that's what I must get somebody to do for a 
while now. And she sent word that she'd come 
in three weeks. She's always engaged ahead. 
What is the reason, I wonder, that you oan't 
find folks to do the little nseful things just 
when you need them most ? " 

Alice walked home with some new ideas in 
her brain. 

" I haven't made up my book club, but I 
wonder if I haven't done better than that, I 
believe it's j ist as they say, there's enough to 
do of what 1 can do if it only could be fitted in. 
I'm going to try if I can't fit myself in 

A week later she said: 

" Mother, I'm going to work," 

"I suppose so. You're always at work." 

"Bat I mean, I'm going to earn my own 

" Not away from home ? " 

" Well, partly." 

"Alice, you can't. Haven't I often said 
you shouldn't go away as long as there is a 
bom« for you ? " 

'• Don't be frightened, mother," said Alioe, 
laughing. " My goings won't be sorious. I'm 
going two days in the week to Mrs. Garde's 
to bake and to wind op her housekeeping so 
that it will run smoothly between whiles. I'm 
going one day every week to Mrs. Warner's 
t'o mend her up, and half a day to Mrs. 
D.'ake'e whenever she wants me to be hat- 
trimmer, dress-draper and toucher-up in gen- 
eral. Do you think that what I can do at 
home the rest of the time will pay for my 
board and lodging? " 

" 1 think it will." 

" What I earn outside will clothe me and a 
good deal more. So I am self-supporting; for, 
when any of these are done with me, there 
will surely be others to whom I cnn tit in my 
work," — S. Layre. in Chr. Reght'r. 

America's National Bird. 

A Piea for the Hen. 

" I could never understand," remarked Uncle 
Abner, when the conversation turned on Na- 
tional emblems, "why the eagle was selected 
A<i the ornithological representative of the 
United States." 

"Why, is it not the king of birds? "asked 
Nephew James. 

"A king it may be," assented Abner, "if by 
a king we mean something that lives on the 
labor of others and doesn't earn its salt, but we 
haven't much use for such monarchs in this 
country. The eagle soars toward the sun, the 
orators tell us, and looks the orb of day in 
the eye. There they leave him. They do not 
watch him as he comes back, wondering if some 
humble subj-ot has prepared breakfast for him. 
He sees a patient and enterprising fish-hawk 
hovering near the surface of the lake, and be 
waits until the hawk has secured a nice, fat 
fiih, when Mr. Eigle swoops down, taps Mr. 
Fifh-hawk on the shoulder, and says: ' B 'g 
pardon, but that's the very fi^h I had selected 
for my breakfast.' The hawk drops it and the 
eagle breaks his fast. That is the kind of a 
bird he if, and he makes mfl tired." 

" What bird would you prefer as the Ameri- 
can emblem ? " asked two or three at once. 

"The hen is my choice — the patien', uncom- 
plaining North American hen of commt-roe. 
The energetic way in which she scratches for a 
living is exactly typical of the people of this 
countrv, and when ehe has, by diligent perse- 
verance, accumulated a store of eggs for the 
purpose of running opposition to the patent 
incubator, and that is broken up by boys or by 
house wiver, she goes to work at another just 
as patiently as an A-nerioan goes into business 
agiin before be is well through with his first 
failure. And then her persistence! Bayr, didyou 
ever try to set a hen when her miod was msde 
up not to se', or endeavor to dissuade her from 
setting when heroonsc'ence told her that spring 
chickens were needed ? If you have ever done 
either, you will understand something of the 
hen's claims to represent this active, restlesr, 
progressive country. She is energy and clear 
grit all through, and she is, on account of these 
characteristics, entitled to supplant the eaple 
in the armorial bearing of this country. Be- 
fides the appropriateness of this on account of 
her industrious habits, the adoption of the ben 
as the national bird would help to keep in the 
minds of the American people two incidents 
related of men intimately connected with the 
discovery of this continent and with the forma- 
tion of this great nation." 

"What are they, uncle ? " 

"Columbus' egg and Washington's little 
hatch-it."— t/«ry 

Is FrUELY SCIKKTIFIC TkAI.M.SC Dk.-;! K.\ lil.K ? 

Men of pu.rely scientific training are of less as- 
sistance in practical atfiirs than their educa- 
tion would suggest. The man of science has 
little faith in new methods or new inventions. 
He is seldom an originator. His knowledge is 
that of tradition. He frequently scouts at new 
ideas as impracticable, because they are not 
recr^gnized in the books. The inventor seldom 
travels in the same road with the scientist. 
The inventor needs to leave the beaten path 
and press on to the unexplored forest of possi- 
bilities. He is often handicapped if he en- 
deavors to conform to rules already laid down 
by pure science. Few college-bred men have 
proved inventors. Original thought, bold ac- 
tion, patient persistence, knowledge of nature's 
laws, are prime factors in the successful career 
of the inventor. 

A correspondent who has been reading Stan- 
ley's letters asks how to pronounce ' Mp- 
wapwa." Take a mouthful of hot ce ffse, and 
try to sav " n-xoa " without swallowing it, — 
i^uincy (III.) Whig. 

A Chat with Girls. 

[Written for the kal I'Ki^ii by Mal 1>K S. Pkaslei.] 

Nothing appeals to me more strongly than 
girlhood; and jast because of the things I 
missed knowing in my own girlhood, I extend 
a hand of friendship to you all. 

Some of you have busy, weary mothers who 
have never learned the blessedness of living 
u-ilh you instead of for yoo; some of you have 
none, and to yon all my heart goes out in 
warmest affection and sympathy. Not for what 
you are now, for that I may not know, but 
for what you may be, for the possibilities you 
hold in your hands. 

I hope you will understand me if I speak to 
you first of your personal appearance. 

I know " the spirit is more than the rai- 
ment," and yet as in a difiicult and intricate 
problem the first self-evident facts are used as 
the foundation, so must we give due deference 
to the "oatward and visible sign," 

I would not have you overnice or faetidioaa. 
bat I would wish you to be dainty. Why ? 
Because it is elevating, refining and ennobling; 
because it will cultivate your ideas to a liking 
of beautiful things — things that we may have 
in this world if we will. 

Because, too, of the benefits others will re- 
ceive, even if unconsciously, from seeing often 
before them a bright, tidy, dainty little 
woman, who is desirous of making the most of 
what she has. 

Scrupulously perform each duty of the toilet 
necessary to make you absolutely cleanly, you 
will soon grow to enjoy the incomparable com- 
fort of knowing yon are clean throughout, from 
dainty ears to feet, and from undergarments to 
poiket handkerchief. 

Do not fancy that one bath a week with 
change of clothing at that time is sufficient to 
keep your body "God's temple," -pure and 
sweet. It matters not how varied your duties 
are, or how busy yon must be with household 
cares, you may, by rising five minutes earlier 
in the morning, make time to enable you to 
take a quick sponge bath in cold water. If yon 
begin it in the snmmer weather and rub quick- 
ly and well after this hasty bath, you may 
»afely continue it in all but the coldest 
weather. This with the hot bath at least once 
a week will be enough to keep your body sweet 
and clean. 

B: neat, too, about your own privjite room. 
Take pride in knowing that closets and bureau 
drawers will at any time hear close inspection. 

In buying new clothing make a strong (ffort 
to get the best, even if you have to darn and 
mend the "Id a little longer to wait for more 
money. You will find it the best economy in 
the end. 

A strong point is to select pretty and becom- 
ing colors. So much depends on a girl's taste 
in dress that it is really worth while to attach 
a li'tle importance to it. 

No one denies that personal beauty appeals 
very strongly to most natures; and it is only 
natural and right that girls should deiire to 
look as well as may be. 

G id made the world beautiful; let us follow 
in His footsteps by showing a proper amount of 
interest, untinged with vanity, in our personal 

If the dress is but calico, it may be durable, 
and of fast and becoming colors. Then, if 
daintily and becom'ngly made, the effect is all 
that need be desired. The same degree is nec- 
e-sary in working with better and richer mate- 
rials. Be sure to have them becoming, well 
made and of durable material. 

Next to your own neat personal appearance, 
I would place the adornment of your home, 
that yoar surroundings may be a fitting setting 
to your own sunny, unselfish di-poeition— the 
disposition you must strive for and carefully 

However plain your furniture, you may at 
least have each article icrupulously clean and 
arranged so as to appear to the best advantage. 

Lit the warm sonsbine stream in through 
shining glass, and if possible linger lovingly on 
pots and hanging baskets of growing fiowers. 
They can be coaxed to grow from tiny slips, 
which even if you have to buy, will be worth 
far more to you than their cost. 

Often you get some to start with from an 
obliging friend, and can afterward add to your 
stock by exchanging with friends who have 
different varieties. All such things lend an air 
of artistic refinement to even the plainest and 
poorest room. 

Arrange your pictures to the best advantage, 
and drape your curtains in the prettiest way 
you have seen. Many tidies, picture Fcarls 
and table covers are oheap and durable. Have 
the best you can afford, and if necessary, limit 
the number to one of a kind; do not make the 
mistake of filling the room with cheap, unserv- 
iceable finery. 

Take paine, too, to have the colors harmo- 
nize. Just as in the matter of dresp, you should 
choose things this winter tha^ will blend or 
contrast well with what you have left to wear 
of last winter's wardrobe, so when yon buy 
anything new for the bouse, have it of a color 
and texture that will compare favorably with 
what is already within the rooms. 

Do not be discouraged or dissatisfied with 
yoor surroundings. M>ke the beat you can of 
them, and overall, let fall the sunabiny grace 
of a happy, contented spirit. 


JoLY 6, 1890.] 


A Hungry Census Man. 

After a ride of about forty miles one day 
last week, Census-taker M. drove up to a 
farmhouse near this city, hitched his horse, 
went in and proceeded to take the census of 
the family. He questioned the lady of the 
house as follows: 

What is your name and where were you born ? 

Are you marrjfd or an old maid forlorn ? 

What do you think you'll get for your corn ? 

Are you the head of your "household" or no ? 

Have you a daughter ? Has she a besu ? 

Do you expect to reap -A hat you sow ? 
■ How many pigs? And four-wheeled rig? ? 

And pounds of figs ? And cattle (meal) ? 

Bushels of wheat ? And meat to eal ? 

Does your farm produce any app!e juicp? 

How many sheep have you got in pens? 

How many pu'lets, roosters and hens? 

How many eggs do the whole of them lay ? 

What do you call a ton of hay? 

What is ihe length of your working day ? 

How many loads has your wagon hauied ? 

How many times has a book-agent called ? 

Is your grandmother living? if she isn't, why not ? 

What do you owe on the ten-acre lot ? 

What is the cost ol your fence and raiK? 

How many times have you been in j il? 
" Ii that all ?" inquired the lady. 
" Oil. no," said M. ; "I overlooked one ques- 
tion. How many pies have you ?" 
" Six," replied the lady. 
" Well, give me one," said M. as he grabbed 
his book and hat and ran out of the door in 
time to miss the (tick of ntovewood which was 
harled at him. — Woodland Mail 


A War Aktist ought to be able to draw a 
pension. — Texas Sif tings. 

When Simson went at the Philistines with 
the jiwbone of an ass, it was the novelty of 
the thing that made it win. Had he made 
bis charge with a sword in his hand, he would 
never have lived to have his hair cut. — Ram's- 

Fastidious — Lidy of the House — Bridget, 
didn't 1 tell you that I couldn't have you re- 
ceive male callers in the kitchen ? and yet las^ 
night you had no less than three men there, 
Bridget — It was no fault of mine, mem. Shure 
I axed them into the parlor, but they said they 
didn't care to mix up wid you and the rest of 
the family, mem. 

He: I- have never yet met the woman I 
thought 1 could marry. She: No, they are 
very hard to please as a rule. — Life. 

The mortgagee generally has a fat thing in 
his lien. — Bingham'on Leader. 

March ok Civilization. — Interpreter: 
Chief Wango wants no more beads and brass 
wire; he says yon can't cross his country un- 
less you agree to pay hia price. African Ex- 
plorer: What does he want? Interpreter: 
Two-thirds of the royalties on your next book. 

A Girl likes to have a handsome young 
man for her chaperone, especially if she con- 
siders the chap her own. 

Jddce: You are convicted of stealing stone. 
I shall give you a year's imprisonment. What 
have you to offer? Prisoner: Begoba, it's 
too much, yer anner. The sthoce I took was 
freestone.— Louie// Citizen, 

It is said that dragon iiies in a room will 
destroy mosquitoes. We are now waiting to 
hear that tarantulas in a room will capture 
the dragon-flies, and that rattlesnakes will 
drive out tarantulas. The occupants of the 
house can then desert their beds and sleep on 
the roof. — Norriatown Herald. 

Hicks — Are you going to Mt. Highflier this 
year? Wicks — No; what's the use? Was 
there last year and nobody'd rcjOgize me. 
Hicks — H'm ! I see. Think you can't hope 
for the game good luck two years running. 

The devil loves a stingy man. God loves 
a cheerful giver. 

Before the Venus of Milo. — Smithers (read- 
ing sign) — Hands off. The poor idiots! Do 
they think any one could look at that s*:atue 
and not know the hands were off ? — Harper's 
Bazar ■ 

A YouNO Woman began a song, "Ten 
Thousand Leaves are Falling," She pitched 
it too high, screeched, and stopped, "Start 
her at five thousand," cried an auctioneer. 
— British American 

False Philanthrophy -Oneof the strange in- 
consistencies of human nature is that men prefer 
to do good through the medium of benevolence 
rather than through that of justice. It is not 
uncommon to find the seller exciting every en- 
ergy to get more than a fair price for his goods, 
and the buyer putting forth equal efferts to ob- 
tain them for less than their true value, and 
yet both subsequently uniting to found some 
charitable institution, to uphold a church to 
promote a reform, to relieve distress. There 
are men who will grind the faces of the poor in 
the morning in their business and in the after- 
noon > ubsoribe a good round sum to provide them 
with food and shelter. There are woman both 
wealthy and of moderate means, who will drive 
a sharp and hard bargain and will give only the 
smallest possible sum to those whom they em- 
ploy to work for them, yet who will willingly 
give far more than they thus save when a tale 
of distress arouses their sympathies and ex- 
cites their pity. Schemes of philanthrony can- 
not atone for aota of in justice. — N. T, Ledger, 


The Dove and the Magpie 

Editors Press: — "Chrip," a German or- 
chardist, who is employed by one of our 
neighbors, told our little ones a legend of the 
mourning dove which I had never beard be- 
fore, and which I am sure would be enjoyed 
by some of the Rural's young folks. Chris is 
full of quaint legends and weird etories which 
he has brought from the old country, and 
which are the common property of the children 
in that land so celebrated for its folk-lore, and 
whose literature is so rich in story and ballad. 
Who has not read the delightful stories of 
Hans Christian Andersen — about the Marsh 
King's Daughter, the Goblin and the Huck- 
ster, and all the others ? The children of that 
country are the possessors of many fine stories 
which have never been printed in English, and 
I shall probably, some time, give some more of 
Chris's versions, if the young folks like the 
story of the Dove and the Magpie. 

The dove could never build a comfortable 
nest, and had long wished for one like the well- 
constructed and softly padded thing which her 
neighbor, the magpie, etjoyed. Though nat- 
urally timid, she at last summoned up courage 
to ask the magpie how she did it. S) the 
magpie bargained with the dove to show her 
how to build a nest, if the dove would give her 
in return a fine, fat cow. Although the dove 
was very much attached to her cow, which was 
her only possession, she at last consented to 
give her up in consideration for a fine, warm 
nest. The magpie, which is known the world 
over for its craftinese, began a nest for the 
dove, and when it had made a foundation of a 
few sticks, demanded possession of the cow as 
an evidence of good faith on the part of the 
dove. Bat as soon as the cow was delivered up 
the magpie drove her away and left the dove 
without a cow and with a very poor apology 
for a nest. The poor dove has ever since been 
mourning for her "fine, fat ooo-oo-coo-oo," 

The magpie also has the reputation of being 
a great tattler, and of meddling with other 
people's affairs. She may et 'py the fat cow if 
she can, but she must endure the knowledge 
that she is universally despised, while the gen- 
tle Hove is loved by everybody. 

Creslon. Lady Inez. 

The Advantages of a Country Boy. 

I have always found it an advantage to me 
that part of my boyhood was spent on a farm, 
or rather on several farms. There are so many 
little domestic arts that a farmer boy learns 
and to which the town-bred lad is a stranger. 
One day, when there happened to be nobody 
else left on the place who could milk the cow, 
and the prospect was that my grandchildren 
would not have a cup of milk for supper, I was 
glad to show the skill in that line I bad ac- 
quired on an Indiana farm. My neighbor, Mrs. 
Murphy, passing by, exclaimed: " Och, now, 
Mr. Eggleston, and it isn't ivery jintleman 
from the city that could lind a hand and milk 
a cow that way ! " 

I remember to have read of two great poets, 
Wordsworth and Southey, who once went on 
an excursion with their ptblisher, Mr. Caw, 
All three of them tried in vain to pull the col- 
lar off of their horse, but it seemed to them im- 
possible to get it off without taking the horse's 
bead along with it. They finally concluded 
that the horse's head had swelled after the col- 
lar was put on. But a milkmaid came up and 
turned the collar round, and so pulled it off to 
the surprise of the great men, who had not 
thought of that plan. 

There is no reason why farm life should not 
be favorable to education. That which makes 
an educated man is the habit of thinking about 
what he sees, hears or reads, Reading alone 
will not do it. There were many men working 
in the stone-quarry with Hugh Miller; but 
Hugh was the only one of them that thought 
about anything beyond his wages and his din- 
ner. He studied to find out about the fossil 
animals which he saw in the rocks under his 
hand. By the time he had worked in the 
quarry 16 years, he had become a great geolo- 
gist, and the world delighted to read the books 
which he wrote. 

There was once living in Pennsylvania, be- 
fore the revolution, a Quaker farmer by the 
name of Jihn Bertram, Oae day in plowing 
he plucked a violet and pulled it apart. 
" Here," he said, " are the various parts of 
this flower, the names of which I do not know, 
nor their uses. It seems a shame that I have 
walked over violets and other flowers all my 
life without knowing anything about them," 
He then made up his mind that he would 
study botany. Bat as all the books on botany 
at that time were in L%tin he had to begin by 
studying Latin grammar. Nevertheless, he be- 
came a very famous botanist before he died, 
and he remained to his death a very good 
farmer, and did much to imprcve the methods 
of farming in his time. — E. Eggleston, in Ameri- 
can Agriculturist. 

Mil. Old.'!: Will you be my wife ? Miss 

Youngs: No, but I Mr. Olds: Don't 

say you will be a sister to me. Miss Youngs: 
I wasn't going to. I was just going to say that 
I wouldn't mind being a widow to you. — Puck. 

The Liver. 

The liver is the largest gland of the body, It 
carries on several separate and distinct lines of 
work. We are best acquainted with its work 
of making bile, which is largely, if not entirely, 
made up of waste elements taken from the 
blood. Bile is a golden-yellowish fluid, but 
when vomited from the stomach it is green, 
and many people suppose that this is its natu- 
ral color. The change is due to the action of 
the gastric juice. 

It is an excretory and digestive fluid, con- 
verting fats which are not acted upon in the 
stomach, but in the small intestine, into an 
emulsion. Bile also acts upon the mucous sur- 
faces, stimulating the absorption of food after 
it is digested. 

The digestive fluid of the stomach is acid, 
the bile is alkaline, and the two being poured 
into the small intestine simultaneously with 
the food, prevent an irritating action of the 
gastric juice. Pure gastric juice is so strong 
an acid that it will irritate the hand if it is 
placed upon it. Were not the stomach pro- 
tected in a peculiar manner, it would itself be 
digested with the food, as often happens in 
cases of sudden death after a person has just 
eaten a hearty meal. 

Bile stimulates peristaltic action, by which 
means the food ia moved along through the en- 
tire length of the intestines. It is an antisep- 
tic, and preserves the food from fermentation 
and decay in its slow progress through the 25 
feet of alimentary canal. This is one of its 
most important uses. With the food is always 
taken a quantity of germs, and they would 
surely induce fermentation but for this prevent- 
ive agent. About 14 hours are required for 
the complete process of digestion from the time 
food enters the stomach until it is entirely ab- 
sorbed. If a single one of these several offices 
be absent or interfered with, it seriously affects 
the health of the Individual. 

The liver itself is a digestive agent. All the 
digested food, with the exception of a small 
portion of the fat, is absorbed and carried by 
the portal vein to the liver. The heart pumps 
blood direct into the general circulation, but 
all of it which goes to the stomach, spleen and 
other abdominal visoera is carried to the liver 
before it is allowed to go into the general circu- 
lation. Thus the liver acts as a filter for the 
blood received through the portal circulation 
and completes the work of digestion. The 
stomach is only the ante-chamber where the 
process of digestion is commenced. 

There are 25 feet of intestines, and the work 
of these upon the food is vastly more impor- 
tant than that of the stomach. When the 
stomach and intestines have done all that they 
can do to the food. Its nourishment is expended 
and it is carried off as waste matter by the kid- 
neys. The liver acts upon all its elements, 
which no other organ does. Starch constitutes 
one-half to two-thirds of all our food. When 
we take it into the mouth, the saliva begins to 
change it into sugar. It furnishes heat for the 
body and muscular and brain force, hence we 
need a large amount of it. 

In the process of digestion, a large amount 
of sugar is manufactured. If all this were 
poured at once into the circulation, it would 
thicken the blood and render it so sluggish that 
the blood corpuscles would all be destroyed, 
and it would have to be hurried out of the sys- 
tem to save the person's life; so the liver goes 
immediately to work to change the sugar back 
into liver starch, and stores it up in its tissues. 
Then it begins slowly to change the starch 
back into sugar again, and doles it out for use 
as needed for force, beat, etc. 

The liver is also a sort of rendering estab- 
lishment. It takes what would otherwise be 
offensive and dangerous elements and utilizes 
them, just as the rendering establishments of 
large cities take the dead animals and offensive 
garbage and make them of value. The liver 
takes all the broken down tissues, the millions 
of dead blood corpuscles, works them over and 
changes them into material of which corpuscles 
can be made. The coloring matter found in 
these corpuscles is worked over into material 
which furnishes coloring matter for the eyes 
and hair, as well as furnishing color to the 
bile. Nature shows wonderful economy in 
thus taking old, worn-out material and con- 
verting it into such a variety of new uses. 

The bile containing waste alkaline substances, 
also makes a little eoap out of the fat that aids 
in preparing the rest of the fatty material for 
absorption. — HaWs Journal of Health. 

Theism, the New Nervous Disease —At- 
tention has recently been drawn to a new nery 
nus disorder said to be especially prevalent in 
P^agland and America. It is called " theism," 
or tea-drinker's disease, and is said to exist in 
three stages— the acute, subacute and chronic. 
At first the symptoms are congestion of the 
cephalic vessels, cerebral excitement, and ani- 
mation of the face. These physiological ef- 
fects being constantly provoked, give rise, after 
awhile, to reaction marked by mental and bodi- 
ly depression. The tea-drinker becomes im- 
pressionable and nervous, pale, subject to car- 
diac troubles, and seeks relief from these 
symptoms in a further indulgence in the favor- 
ite beverage, which for a time restores to a 
sense of well-being. These symptoms charao- 

terize the first two stages. In chronic casee, 
theism ia characterized by a grave alteration of 
the functions of the heart, and of the vaso- 
motors, and by a disturbance of nutrition. 
The patient becomes subj ct to hallucinations, 
" nightmares" and nervous trembling. With 
those who take plenty of exercise, an habitual 
consumption often may be indulged in with 
impunity, but with women and young people 
who follow sedentary occupations this is not 
the case. The best treatment for theism is 
said to be indulgence in free exercise, such as 
walking and open-air life. — Journal of the 
American Medical Astocialion. 



Upon your pantry shelves a good supply 

Ol tapioca keep unfailingly; 

For many dainties, wholesome, rich or rare, 

You from this starchy product may prepare. 

First, then, Ambrosia, food meet for the (iods — 

They ne'er partook of it, but " what's the odds.?" 

One cup of tapioca soak o'er night; 

Then when you're stirring with the morning light. 

Place it where it will slowly cook till clear — 

A double kettle is of value here. 

And now one cup of sugar; and meantime 

Have one nice pineapple chopped very fine, 

On this the boiling tapioca pour, 

And stir together; 'twill need nothing more. 

Pour into molds, which shall the shape preserve; 

When cold and firm, with cream and sugar serve. 

This delicate and always welcome dish 

You may prepare with peaches if you wi'h; 

Or other fruit, soft, ripe, or even cannt d, 

■Such as at any season may command. 

If apples you would use, best, pare and core 
Enough to fill your baking dish — no more. 
The space of cores with sugar fill, and spice; 
A dash of lemon juice is very nice I 
Bake till the apples lender grow; then pour 
The cup of warm, soaked tapioca o'er, 
And bake till clear. Most surely you will deem 
This "about right," served warm with sweetened 

.'\ little salt the tapioca'll need, 

As almost every pudding does indeed. 

For tapioca cream, in water swell 

Four lablesponnfuls; only cover well; 

Then wilh a quart of milk you'll set it on, 

And gently cook till sure it is well done. 

Four eggs; the yolks with sug^r you will beat — 

A cuplui will not make the cream too sweet — 

Stir in with care and add a little salt; 

Vanilla fi ivor will not prove a fault; 

Lastly, the whites well beaten. Serve when cold. 

And how acceptably need not be to d. 

Or, these two recipes you may combine 
In apple pudding, if you so incline. 
Apples to fill your dish you'll peel and core. 
Filling with sugar, then bake as before. 
The tapioca you will soak and swell; 
Three tablespoons, or (our, will do quite well. 
Mix with a custard made of milk, one quail, 
Three eggs; vanilla flavor (or <:ome fort); 
A cup of sugar. O'er the apple pour; 
Bake till the custard is well set, no more, 

A custard pudding baked is very nice 
With tapioci, or with this and rice. 
The first — proportions as for " cream " will do; 
Cocoanut added may be something new; 
Three tablespoonfuls with your yolks you'll beat, 
And sugar; 'twill look " good enough to eat !" 
The'tapioca soaked, and as before 
In the milk scalded, you to this will pour; 
Lastly the whites, that all may he well done. 
For frosting beat, and in the oven brown. 

For invalids a jelly may be made, 
(,)uite palatable, too, so it is said, 
I he tapioca you will cook till clear, 
.^s for Ambrosia, no fruit needed here 
Except a lemon; juice and grated rind 
A simple nourishment you'll surely find. 

— ( ^lood Ilousckeepiiii;. 

Quick Biscuit, — Two cups flour, one table- 
spoonful mixed lard and butter, one cup milk, 
one heaping teaspoonful baking powder, pinch 
salt. Handle little, roll out and cut quickly, 
and bake in a steady even. 

Chocolate Icino. — Allow one pound of icing 
sugar to every two ounces of chocolate; grate 
the latter into a sauce-pan, and mix with it 
eight tablespoonfuls of water; stir well and let it 
cook gently for ten minutes, then add the 
sugar, and use while warm. 

Potato Soup. — Three pints of rich milk, one 
pint of mashed potato, two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, salt and pepper to taste. Bnil the milk, 
add the potato and boil again, stirring frequent- 
ly, that the potato may become thoroughly dis- 
solved, and season just before serving. Serve 
very hot. 

Puree of Celery. — Boil two heads of cel- 
ery in plenty of salted water with an onion, 
a blade of mace and some whole pepper. 
When done, drain them and pass them through 
a hair sieve. Melt a piece of butter in a sauce- 
pan, mix a little flour with it, then the celery 
pulp, and work it well on the fire, adding a 
little cream or milk and some of the gravy of 
the ducks. 

Baked Rice with Cheese. — One pint of 
boiled rice, half a cupful of grated cheese, 
placed in alternate layers in a buttered earthen 
dish. Spread powdered cracker over the top 
with bits of butter, and over the whole pour 
one egg, well beatec, one cnp'ful of milk, one 
saltspoonful of drv mustard, half a teaspoonful 
of salt and a shake of cavenne pepper, thor- 
oughly beaten together. B^ke 20 minutes in 
quick oven, and serve verv hit. 

f AClFie I^URAId f ress, 

[Jdly 5, 1890. 


Published by DEWEY & CO. 

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A. T. DIW8T. W. B. BWKR. «. H. 8TR0«0. 


Saturday, July 5, 1890. 


BniTOBIALS.— Santa Cruz and Vicinity, 1. The 
Week; Crop Notes; Wheat Product and Prices; Winter 
DairvinK; A New Herd Premium at the S:ate Fair, 8. 

lULiOSTRATIONS.— lieneral View of Santa Cru/ 
and the B.acb at Surfside. 

Excurjion Rates; Kallnt Reform; The Oran^'e Press; 
A Rural Fourth; "A Footprint" Erased; Touching 
Elbows With tiie P. of H : Floral end Children's Days; 
Our Country's Day; Surprise Orange; Shermin Grange; 
Past S. G. L., Simjson Scores Two; Rambles Am >ng 
the Oranges; Wheat and Bag Prices; Miscellaneous, 

HORTICDL.TURE.— Cherry Culture; Kxperience of 

a \'eteran Fruit *Ir iwer, 2. 
THE IRRIGATOR. — Government Artesian Well 

Work, 2. 

THE VINEYARD. -Professor Dowlen's Report on 
the Vine Di-ease; .\ Decision on Grape Buying Con- 
tracts, 2 Tlie Mysterious Vine Disease, 11. 

THE PmLIO LANn .—The Arid-Land Muddle; 
Relief from the .\rid Laud law, 3. 

T<JB Da.IRY.— Feeding for Milk in Southern Cali- 
fornia. 3. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— An Eastern Oregon Shceii 

THE HOME CIROLE.— Not Transferable; Fitting 

Herself In; America's National Bird; A Chit with 

GirU, 6 A Hiin^'rv Census; Chaff 7- 
YOUNG folks' column.— The Dove and the 

M.igpic; The Ailvantages of a Country Boy, 7. 
GOOD HEALTH. — The Liver; Theism, the New 

Nervous Disease, 7. 
D'^MESTIU HIOONOMV.— Tapioca; Recipes, 7. 

Pacific Coast, 9. 
AGRICULTUKAL NOTES. — Prom the various 

Counties of California, 10. 
THE FIELD.— The Advantages of Baled Ilay; C^rn 

for Grinding and Fnsilajre; Harvo=tirj; Peanuts, 12. 
TRACK AND FAHM. - Our Horses in Front; 

Some Rich Programs; Notes at Random, 14. 
FORESTRY.— Spontanc .us Forest Reproduction, 14. 

Business Announcements. 

[NBW Tills issne.] 
Windmills— R. F. Wilson ,^ Co., Stockton. 
Bar.ey Crusher— M I . Mery, Chico. 
Stockt JO Fair for 1890 ' 

Hand Stenimer— Fresno Agricultural Works, Fresno 
Dividend N3tice— German .'Savings and Loan Society. 
Windmi Js— Horton t Kennedy. Livermore. 
Imported Stallions— Iloib'-rt ^ Conger, Los Angeles. 
French Cooking Ranges, Etc.— John G. lis & Co. 
Oakland Classical and Military Academy, Oakland. 
Jersey Bull for S;ile -Dellwood Poultry V"rds, Napa. 
Books- Henty Carey Baird & Co., PhiUjelphia. 

KM" See Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

We are right in the middle of Fourth of Jaly 
week, and as anticipated in our last iBsne, 
events are being largely shaped with reference 
to the break in the current of business and in- 
dustry which the National holiday causes. The 
patriotic spirit easily assumes a statistical ex- 
preaeioD this year of the census and finds satis- 
faction in the statement that the population of 
the United States now exceeds 04,000,000 in" 
stead of a little over 50,000,000 of ten years 
ago. In California there has been a notable 
increasf, but the enumeration is hardly com- 
plete. Same cities are grievously disappointed, 
and claim serious omissions by the enumerators, 
Sach have undoubtedly been made and it is to 
be hoped that corrections will be feasible. 

Another patriotic theme is the birth of more 
States into the national family. Idaho and 
Wyoming are the latest arrivals — twins of 1890 
following the quartet of 1SS9, It is expected 
that President Harrison will sign the bills for 
the admission of these two Spates on the Na- 
tional holiday. 

Wheat Product and Prices. 

The wheat-grower will find in this Issue of 
the Rural much of significance. We give on 
page 5 of this issue a valuable table pre- 
pared by Mr. Montpellier, cashier and manager 
of the Grangers' Bank, showing the course of 
wheat pricer, ocean freight rates and bag prices 
for a long term of years. This table is useful 
for reference and should be preserved. The 
most notable feature of the last year's record 
is the exceedingly small fluctuation in values 
throughout the 12 months. There was only a 
variation of seven to eight cents in the market 
price of shipping wheat during the whole 
period. Low monotony was characteristic of 
the year, not only in wheat but in bags and 
freight rates. Such has never occurred be- 
fore in the wheat history of California. We 
believe it was but the quiet which precedes the 
storm and that this is so is already apparent in 
the character of the market at present — during 
the first week of July at the very beginning of 
the new crop year. Oar market review this 
week presents much data which foreshadows 
an advance in wheat values and to all appear- 
ances a notable one. Conditions in other sup- 
ply countries have been very unfavorable to 
the product, and this with indications of only 
moderate output on this coast naturally hardens 
values. It is true, of course, that the present 
spurt may be the result of gambling rather than 
the iofluence of actual demand, but it seems to 
us that all indications point to a considerable 
improvement in values. It is natural, then, 
that there should be no general disposition to 
sell at present. While the figure is distress- 
ingly low, the chances always are for an im- 
provement and this chance is strengthened by 
the conditions affecting the year's product, to 
which we have alluded. 

We have claimed for a number of weeks that 
the California surplus would show a consider- 
able reduction this year. It is true that indi- 
vidual and local experience is In some cases in 
the other direction. For examplp, there will 
be a yield of a few sacks per acre from arid re- 
gions, which only occasionally yield anything; 
but this is more than offset by the vast tracts 
which almost always yield generously, but this 
year will not turn out half a crop. It is easy 
to be misled by narrow views, and wheat buy- 
ers are naturally not slow to enforce such views 
when it is to their interest to do so. 

The disappointing results which many are 
experiencing from the thrashing calls attention 
again to the importance of the spring rains on 
the wheat crop which we set forth last year 
from data furnished by Mr. Montpellier. This 
close student of influences affecting our staple 
crops has just issued bis rainfall table showing 
the precipitation at various points in the State. 
This shows that the rainfall began the first 
treek of October and ended late in March, mak- 
ing five full months of almost continuous rain. 
It was especially heavy in December, January 
and February, but very light in April. This 
will show that it is not the enormous rainfall of 
December, January and February, but the 
tpring rain that produces yield of crops in Cal- 
ifornia. Thus, with all our heavy winter, which 
this year put the farmer at his wits' end to 
get his land plowed and sown, we do not real- 
ize large returns even from lands sown, because 
the winter rains were not supplemented by 
spring rains, which maintain late growth and 
enable the plant to fill out its head. For this 
reason so many are disappointed in results, 
even from fields which bore a fair look at cut- 
ting. It is these observations, coupled with 
telegraphic tidings from abroad, which make 
our wheat-growers indisposed to sell. Dealers 
also seem to have much confidence in the situa- 
tion, and, between themselves at least, admit 
the likelihood of a considerable advanoe in 
wheat values. 

The Dairt at the World's Fair,— The 
Illinois State Dairymen's Association has called 
a National Dairymen's meeting, to be held in 
Chicago, at the Sherman house, on the third 
Wednesday in July, 1890, at 10 a, .m.; the 
meeting to be composed of three or more del- 
egates, appointed by each of the several .State 
Dairy Associations and Breeders' Atsociaticns 
representing dairy cattle. The object of the 
meeting is to consider and take action on the 
best means of representing the allied interests 
of the dairy industry of the country in connec- 
tion with the World's Columbian E xposition of 

1893, and to take definite action with reference 
thereto. We trust there may be representa- 
tion from the Pacific Coast, and any dairy pro- 
prietor who may be in Chicago at the time 
should apply for admission to the meeting. 

Winter Dairying. 

An Oregon reader sends us an expression of 
opinion in the form of a resolution as follows : 

Beaolved, That more butter should be made 
during the winter season, and less In the sum- 
mer season. 

If farmers would only heed this resolution, 
their wives would fare better and the pocket 
book be the plumper. 

The Rural ad vocated such a proposition at 
least 15 years ago, and no doubt within certain 
limits it is sound doctrine. The fact is that 
there has been a gradual change in this direc- 
tion in California, for more butter is now pro- 
duced during the winter season than when we 
began to advocate the practice. The same 
thing is true in the dairy regions of the K latern 
States and the winter product is profitable, pro- 
viiing extra precautions are observed and extra 
arrangements provided. 

Winter dairying requires greater foresight in 
the providing of winter food and forage. This 
involves the securing of abundant well made 
hay, and where the climate favors, it should 
include succulent field crops, which on moist 
land may be planted late and held for feeding 
while the natural grasses are slow in starting, 
as Is often the case during the dry, cool 
weather of the early winter months. In this 
provision of food ensilage present! itself as a 
boon to the dairyman. It is also possible to 
secure artificial pastures by sowing grasses 
which start earlier and grow well at a lower 
temperature than our natural forage plants, or 
than alfalfa, the winter growth of which is 
usually very unsatisfactory. 

Although our winter climate on this coast is 
so much milder than east of the Rocky moun- 
tains, it is still necessary that one who intends 
to practice winter dairying, shall provide bet- 
ter buildings both for cattle shelter and for 
dairy manufacturing, than are required for 
summer dairying. California dairymen have 
learned this lesson pretty well during the last 
few years. Milking in corralr, where the mud 
is so deep that pans have to be used instead of 
pails, so as to slide the receptacle under the 
cow's teats, and cheese and butter making in 
open sheds, floorless and filthy, these are old 
practices, which have now been superseded by 
spacious dairy barns and by neat dairy houses, 
where oleanliness and warmth can be secured. 
There has also been great progress secured in 
improved dairy appliances. In fact, dairying 
on the Pacific Coast is assuming features of ex- 
cellence in practice, appliances, buildings and 
cow-power, which were almost unknown even 
a decade ago. 

We are prompted to these few general re- 
marks upon our correspondent's resolution 
merely to show that the change to winter dairy- 
ing is not in a resolution alone, but that 
wisdom and wise investment are necessary to 
carry it out. It may be said that the same im- 
provements are desirable even in summer dairy- 
ing, and this is strictly true; but at the same 
time a slip-shod system of dairying In summer 
may be moderately successful, which in winter 
work would not yield any success at all. The 
whole subject is one of much interest and im- 
portance and we would like to have it disoussed, 
not alone on general principles but in detail, 
and in this way our dairy readers may mutually 
aid and advance each other. 

German Dairymen Coming.— Seoretary 
Boyd, of the Oregon Board of Information, is 
In receipt of a letter from a dairy society in 
Germany who are desirous of branching out on 
the Pacific coast. Toe dairy business in Ger- 
many is not paying as well as it has in years 
past, and as they have more people In their 
association than they can handle to advantage, 
or support satisfactorily, they are thirking of 
sending about half their number to the Pacific 
coast to try the experiment here. They have 
heard of Oregon as the most favorable State for 
locating such a colony, and if they oan get '20,- 
000 acres of land In one piece they will doubt- 
less give the web. foot State preference. A 
committee of five will be sent out some time 
this summer and upon their report the society 
will act. 

Crop Notes. 

Heading and thrashing are now in full blast, 
but as yet any attempt at a close estimate of 
the wheat crop of this coast is little more than 
guesswork. Although, as stated elsewhere, 
there will bp, on the whole, considerable redno- 
tion in the wheat output there are some 
places where farmers have been agreeably sur- 
prised by the large yield of their grain when 
thrashed, but this is an exceptional experience, 
or enjoyed only In limited areas. 

That the fruit prospects of California are 
unusually good this year is now certain. The 
yield, on the whole, will not be as large as last 
year, but the shortage in the Eastern crop will 
so raise prices that the money value will be 
much greater. Eastern capitalists are making 
efforts to secure the crop and Eastern canneries 
and drying establishments are moving their 
plants out to this coast for the season. For 
instance, Lester & Co., of Chicago, have moved 
their plant to Monrovia, in Los Angeles county, 
and have contracted for all the fruit in that 
locality they could secure. Local canneries 
throughout the State are buying and are being 
worked to their full capacity. 

Vine-growers are jubilant, for not only do 
the grapes look well, but the pests which gen- 
erally do so much damage in the vineyards at 
this time of the year have failed to put in an 

With the exception of a few local disturb- 
ances such as grass-hoppers at Anderson, 
Shasta county, and Cayucos, San Lais Obispo 
county, and a hailstorm which visited the vi- 
cinity of Colusa on the 24th ult., doing much 
damage, everything has been favorable both for 
harvesters and fruit-growers. More detailed 
information about crops in this and adjoining 
-States will be fonnd in onr Agricultural Notes. 

The Fairs of 1890. 

We give here below our usual list of the fairs 
of the year which we have compiled from all 
avallabl<i sources and regard as reasonably com- 
plete. It is likely, however, that some exhibi- 
tions have been omitted, and we will welcome 
corrections or additions to the list from those 
interested. These changes will be embodied In 
a later publication: 

lone (26th Di't.), Aug. 5-9. 

l^os Angeles (6ih Dist ). Aug. 4-9. 

Sin Jose (5ih D si.), Aug. n-16. 

Willows, Aug. 12 16. 

Napa (25ih Dist.), Aug. 18-23. 

Red BlutT, Aug. 19-23. 

Nevada City (i7lh Dist.), Aug. 19-23. 

Petaluma (4lh Dist.), Aug. 25-30. 

Chico (3d Dist.) Aug. 26-30. 

I'lacerville (Bih Dist.), Aug. 26-30. 

Oakland (ist Dist,), Sept. 1-6 

MarysviUe (13th Dist.), Sept. 2-6 

S. I.. Obispo (i6lh Disl.), Sept. 2-6. 

Auburn (20th Dist.) S-pt. 2-6. 

('alifornia S ate Kair. Sacramento, Sept. 8-30. 

Oregon State Fair, Salem, Sept, 15-20. 

.S F. Mechanics Institute. S pi. 18 Oct. 25. 

.Nevada State Fair, Reno, Sept 22-27. 

Stockton (2d Dist.), Sept. 23 Oct. 4, 

Rohnerville (9th Dist.), .Sept. 22-26. 

(Jtiincy (iith Dist.), Sept. 22 . 

Lakeport (t2th Dist.), Sept. 23-27. 

Independence (18th D'SI.). .S-pt. 23 26. 

.\o. Pac. Industrial, Poriland, Sept. 2s-Ocl. 25. 

Bishop (Eastern Slope), S-pt. 23 26. 

Fresno (21st Dist.). Sept. 28-Oct 4. 

WatsonviPe (24th Di^l.), Oct. 14. 

Walla Walla, Oct. 6-ri. 

V'lsalia (15111 Di't ), Oct. 7-11. 

Escondido (22d Dist.), Oct. 14-17. 

.Santa Bubara (iqlh D,st ). Oct. 2i 25. 

.Silinis (7th l) st. ) Oct. 30-.N'ov. 4. 

A New Herd Preminm at the 
State Fair. 

We ar<3 pleased to announce that the State 
Board of Agriculture, at a meeting on Monday 
of this week, decided to add a young herd 
premium of $.S0 for cattle under two years old, 
the herd to consist of one male and four 
females in each class. 

For the purpose of making a more intelligent 
announcement for the additional herd premium 
g'ven, it might be well to give the conditions 
under which the premium for both herds are 
offered for each class at follows: 

B-st herd over two years old, to consist of one 
male and four females owned by one person, silver 
pilcher or $60. 

Best young herd under two years, to consist of 
one m.ile and four females owned by one person, sil- 
ver pilcher or cash $30. ' 

Heretofore the Darhatna were the only class 
in which was offered two herd premiums — one 
for old herd and one for young herd. This 
change gives all olasaea theae premium! the 
same as Darhama, 

July 5, 1890.] 

f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS. 


Water on the Pacific Coast. 

(Concluded from laat issue ) 

San Francisco Water Improvlnir. 

Nothing is done at the storage reservoirs to 
improve the qaality of the water before enter- 
ing the condaits. The vrater first passes the 
fish-screens and thence through open flumes 
and aqueduct tunnels, and finally throogb 
wronghc-iron pipes to the city. At the outlets 
where they empty into the several service-res- 
ervoirs, is located the eo-called screen-house, 
where the water is made to pass through a sys- 
tem of cloth screens before it is allowed to empty 
into the service-reservoirs. These cloth scrflens 
are constructed as shown in Fig. 1, page 435. 
The sash-frames are six feet long and two feet 
wide. Brass- wire netting is tacked on, and 

no^es thereon. Those need in 1889 differ only 
in design. The foul water is made to pass 
through six thicknesses of cheese-cloth wrapped 
around wire cylindere, and the screening proc- 
ess is necessarily morn efficient. This system 
is shown in detail in Fig. 3, page 435. 

The screened water paf<8es into a clean-water 
basin, capacity about 2,000,000 gallons, which 
is not covered. The hot summer sun has de- 
veloped a large amount of vegetable growth in 
this basin and a second one has thus been built, 
thus enabling one to be emptied and cleaned 
when occasion requires it. 

Thn screened water from the basins passes into 
the STJ inch sapply maic, and travels slowly to 
the city of Oakland and direct to the con- 
sumers, there being no service-reservoir. 
Results Accompllahed. 

In the case of San Francisco, the quality of 
the water delivered to the consumers through- 
out the year maybe characterized as reasonably 
good, and as a rule complaints are seldom made 
and can always be traced to some local tem- 
porary caose. In the case of Ojikland, how- 

Company made a mistake in placing their 
ecreening apparatus at the storage reservoir. I 
sampled the surface water in the latter and 
found it to be reasonably good; then I sampled the 
screened water near by and found it to be much 
better. This screened water entered the snp- 
ply main, and thence travels a distance of 9 5 
miles to Oakland consumers. Experience shows 
that the quality of the water delivered is always 
worse than the water in the storage reservoir. 
This secondary deterioration is unquestionably 
due to the putrefactive fermentation in the pipe 
system. The water company now proposes to 
build a 150,000,000 gallon settling-reservoir 
within the city limits, and then transfer the 
screening apparatus to the same site. I have 
no doubt but that these new works will im- 
prove the quality of the water considerably. 

These systems of cloth screens, when prop- 
erly managed, have certainly proved to be 
quite effective, as far as they go, but 
they do not, in my opinion, strike at the 
fundamental seat of all the worst troubles. 
This conclusion is based on the results 

larly by emptying the reservoirs, and c 
them on the firtt of the monsoouF, and thtii .jy 
closing the under-slnices they catch all the sub- 
sequent drainage. Of course this is not always 
practicable. I hereby submit a suggestion, 
which has developed itself daring these exam- 

Samples of mud from the bottom were easily 
obtained in any desired quantity by means of 
an ordinary hand-pump and 100 feet of stoat 
rubber hose. The same apparatus was useful 
in getting the temperature and samples of 
water at different depths. Now the facility 
with which this oczy mud could be pumped up, 
without disturbing the parity of the water in 
the slightest degree, at once suggested the idea 
of extending this system, and adopting it as a 
ready means of getting rid of this objectionable 
deposit at a comparatively small expense, and 
without emptying the storage reservoir. Also, 
I think it proper to state that a Gwynn cen- 
trifugal pump with a rnnner, 5 feet diameter, 
having a suction pipe 17 inches diameter and 
discharge pipe 15 inches diameter, was used 


over that is stretched a good qaality of cotton 
cheese-cloth. In midsummer, when the water 
is foal with animal and vegetable matter, the 
screens clog rapidly and have to b« removed 
and olean ones put in their place. The fouled 
screens are taken to the wash-room, where 
they are thoroughly cleaned, and the foul wash 
waters are allowed to escipe by a suitable 
drain-pipe to the bay. Each one of these 
soreen-houses requires the constant employment 
of doable shifts, four men 12 hoars each, rais- 
ing, cleaning and replacing the screens, some 
300 being required for each house. Ganerally 
the water passes through two screens. When 
it becomes necessary to make a change, the 
outer screen, being little foaled, is removed 
first and a clean one quickly put in iti place; 
the inner, or fouler one, is next removed 
and a clean one quickly pat in its place. 
This screening apparatus is unquestionably very 
efficient in its way, bat, as will be seen farther 
on, it does not touch the fundamental seat of 
the chief trouble, which lies in the storage 
reservoirs. It should be mentioned that these 
aeivice-reservoirs have a division wall through 
the center, thus enabling one-half to be emptied 
and cleaned while the other is in use. In sum- 
mer this requires careful attention. 

Tbe Method at Oakland. 

The water supply at this city adopts a differ- 
ent method, in some respects, and it is interest- 
ing to know that the results obtained are much 
leal satisfactory. Here the screen-bouse is 
placed at the storage reservoir, instead of in 
the city limits, and distant some 9 5 miles. 
Two varieties of screens have been in use, both 
identical in principle. Those introduced in 
1879 are best shown in detail by the accom- 
panying drawing (Fig. 2) with deicriptive 


PRIOR TO 1889. 

ever, the entire water sapply delivered to con- 
sumers during winter, summer and fall, is 
always bad, but is reasonably good in the 
spring. In the summer and fall of 1889, when 
the water in the storage reservoir got very low, 
a large number of citizens ceased to use the 
water either for potable or culinary purposes. 
They organized a company and brought spring- 
water from the hills at considerable expense 
and inconvenience. 

This extraordinary difference in the quality 
of the water naturally calls for an explanation. 
After studying over the existing facts, I have 
come to the following oonclusinns: 

First — Experience at San Francisco shows 
that the quality of the water is greatly im- 
proved by flawing through open flumes and 
squeduct tunnels before it reaches the city. On 
ai riving at the service-reservoirs, the water is 
farther improved by passing through cloth 
screens, and thence passes into the distributing 
reservoir, and soon reachu the consumers before 
S'con^'ary deterioration in the pipet has had 
lime to develop. 

iSecond — Ic is clear that the Oakland Water 

of a long series of observations, which 
have been under way for four years, and are 
still going on. They show conclusively that 
the main trouble from contamination in mid- 
summer is primarily due to* the fermentation 
and subsequent putrefaction of the immense 
deposit of oozy mud in the bottom of the res- 
ervoirs. Hence the experience on the Pacific 
Coast goes to show, that generally speaking, 
the older the storage reservoir the worse the 
troubles become. 

Tne immense deposits of mud in the bottom 
have been subjected to certain examinations. 
Its composition is found to be a mixtare of 
vegetable and animal matter in all stages of de- 
composition interstratified with clayey sedi- 
ment and vegetable mold brought in by trib- 
utary streams in the rainy season. The depth 
of this deposit averages ten feet and in places 
as much as 20 feet in the older reservoirs. 

It Is impossible to conceive how these stor- 
age-waters can be maintained in a healthy con- 
dition as long as this aource of contamination is 
allowed to exist. It must be removed, and the 
question is, how ? In India this is done rega- 

nnder my inspection, to remove a large quan- 
tity of black oozy dock mud. The lower end 
of the suction pipe was simpiv allowed to sink 
down into the orzy mass. The engines were 
started up, and it was soon ascertained that 
this kind nf material could be removed at the 
rate of 1370 cubic yards per hour, and this rate 
was maintained for 9 5 hours, or a daily capac- 
ity of 13,000 cabic yards, and without chang- 
ing the position of the machine. I merely men- 
tion this fact in order to show what has been 
done in this line. 

The next question naturally arises, how will 
the material be disposed of ? In some cases it 
coald be discharged into the creek bed below 
the dam, and be carried off by storm-waters, 
or preferably. If there be any shallow flowage 
or lowland near by, heavy embankments of 
sand faced with gravel could be built, and 
material pumped behind them, thus making 
new high land, whioh would be greatly en- 
hanced in value thereby. 

Recapitulation and Ooncluslone. 
After carefully studying all the facts and cir- 
camstancea obtainable so far, I am led to draw 
thn following oonclusions: 

First — That the great deposit of putrid mud 
in the bottom of storage reservoirs is the pri- 
mary cause which gives rise to the deterioration 
in quality of the water. That it should not be 
allowed to accumulate from year to year, as is 
generally the case, but should be removed from 
time to time, and the bottom kept reasonably 
free from annual deposits capable of undergo- 
ing putrefaction. That it is practicable to re- 
move this mud at an expense not much in ex- 
cess of that incurred in pumping water under 
like circumstances. That if this is properly 
attended to, the conditions which give rise to 
excessive vegetable growth will be practically 
removed, and as a result vegetable life will 
become so small in amount as to be a matter 
of little consideration. That as a final result 
the construction and maintenance of a system 
of filter-beds would become entirely practicable. 

Second — That the trouble with the quality 
of the water delivered to consumers is 
largely independent of the contamination In 
the storage reservoirr, and can be traced to two 
separate sources, namely, turbidity during the 
stormy months, giving rise to deposits in the 
pipe system, which subsequently, when the 
water gets warm, takes on putrefactive fer- 
mentation and gives rise to cff.msive odors 
during the summer and autumn. That neither 
of these can be properly removed except by 
means of subsidence followed by sand filtration. 

Finally, if the above fundamental sources of 
contamination be eradicated as far as possible, 
I am of the opinion that the greatest of all rea- 
sonable objections to storage-waters will ba 
practically removed, 

Florida Listtek, — An old editorial friend 
writes in another column some truths about 
farmers raising their own supplies, which 
should be taken as a good lesson by many on 
this coast. • We have no doubt some New 
England husbandmen are doing as they consid- 
er well, annually, on a profit from their farms 
of no more than could be saved in the expenses 
nf living and running many a farm here on the 
Pacific Slope. 


f AClFie f^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jdly 5 lb 90 



To Prevent Co.ntaoios.— Oakland, Jane 30: 
A petition was presented to the Bjard of 
Bapervisors to-day by the Pacific Coast Stock- 
men's Mutual Protective Association rf qaeeting 
the paessge of an ordinance requiring veterinary 
■urgeons and others- to report all oases of 
glanders, farcy and other contagious diseases 
among horses and other stock. 


Orovillf. Oramies.— iSuHeiin, June 21: As 
to the reported dropping of young oranges 
aronnd OrcvlUe, Smator A. F. Jones says that 
these fallen orang<^s are always noticed under 
trees which blossom so heavily as do those on 
the Sierra foothills. It means only that the 
blossom* provided for more 'ruit than the trees 
can nourish and mature. The orange crop will 
be large. 

Plantin-(! and Watering.— ThonsandB of 
fruit trees have hsen planted this spring on the 
•lope between Rio Bonita and Oroville, and 
evidently it is only a matter of time when this 
section will be one vast orchard. There are 
several irrigatine schtmes projected, all t^ take 
water from the Faathpr. Oat. In which Pobt. 
William-on, Fleming Bros, and Jick Wright of 
Sacramento are interested, will take water from 
below Thermalito and carry it in a natural 
creek-bed southwesterly toward B'ggs and 
Gridley, in quantity sufficient to irrigate that 
whole oounli-y. 

New Barlev. — Chico Chronicle- Record, 
Jane :iO: U. M. Jones brought in on Saturday 
the first load of new barley, grown on T. M. 
DiL-jney's ranch and cut by the Hioks and 
DjLaney harvestor. It was taken to Croissants 
to be crushed. The grain was very plamp and 
heavy, weighing 118 pounds to the sack, in old 


Destructive Hailstoum. — Colnsa, Jane 25: 
At 2 o'clock Tuesday afternoon the hardest and 
most prolonged hailstorm ever known in Colusa 
county struck Colusa, coming from the north- 
west. Along the sides of the buildings in 
town the hailstones piled up li feet deep. 
Some of them were 1^ inches in diameter. The 
severest part of the svorm lasted a few minutes 
only. Skylights and window-glass were broken 
all over town. Sash, the youngest son of Wal- 
ter Calms, a prominent farmer, was struck on 
the head by hailstones and knocked senseless. 
Several people were injured by hailstones strik- 
ing them. The storm originated somewhere 
west of Sites, in the fnothlllp, and was about 
three miles in width. Its course seems to have 
been almost east. It did not reach Norman, 
nine miles north of Maxwell, nor Colusa Junc- 
tion, four miles to the south. The fruit crop 
in its course is practically mined. Trees were 
stripped of both fruit anr! leaves, and in many 
instances large limbs were broken. Grapevines 
were almost entirely denuded of foliage and 
grapes. About one-third of the young prunes 
were knocked oflf the trees. Peaches and apri- 
cots fared little better, Atmonds seem to have 
stuck to the trees better, but how much they 
have been bruised the future will determine. 
The track of the storm covered the best fruit 
district around Cola'a. Watermelons, beans, 
tomatoes, onions and such vegetabli s were 
ruined. Wheat was threshed out and damaged 
to an enormous extent. At Sites, chickens and 
turkeys were slaughtered by hundreds. The 
damage to fruit and vegetables will be in the 
neighborhood of S'2.5,000; to the grain crop not 
less than S75,000. J. B D.=Jarnatt is the h»avi. 
est loser of fruit. He places his loss at §5000. 
Contra Costa. 

SonTHDOw.N Wool. — Democrat, Jane 28: If 
any one is skeptical as to Contra Costa being 
adaoted to wool-growing he should step into J. 
J. Jones' office and examine the specimen from 
H. P. Hoesley's pUce, about one mile from 
Martinez, on the Pacheco road. It is of the 
finest quality, free from burrs and dirt, and 
will compare favorably with the higher grades 
of wool. It was taken from Southdown sheep, 
and is practical evidence of the value of thid 
breed as wool-producera. 

El Dorado. 

Pears and Soor Sah.— Kditor.s Pres.s: — 
Your correspondent, " F. S. C." says : " Pears 
will stand the water. They seem to be safe, 
no matter what the subsoil or how long the 
water stands around them." Now I have lost 
20 out of 100 Bartlett pears with sour sap, be- 
sides abcut the same number looking very 
sickly, and a neighbsr of mine has lost close on 
100 from the same cause. My orchard was a 
perfect quagmire all winter, and in the spring 
it was wet in patches till the end of May, with 
water running from wet weather springs; so it 
is not surprising that some trees died under the 
circumstances. No fruit tree could be expected 
to stand it. The trees are on pear roots and 
were planted over five years ago. — I, P. D., 
Diamond Sjiringi, June 2Sth. 


Bermuda Grass on Alkali. — Fresno Be- 
publican : K. Polklnghorn piid S6000 for the 
40 acre lot on which he has been living four 
years. He now values it at $15,000 but will 
not sell It. " My experience," said he, " war- 
rants me in saying that this 40-acre tract is 
good for an annual income of S3500. Some 
acres of my raisins netted me S-50 an aore. I 
have three acres of apricots, peaches and nec- 

tarines and they yielded me 30 tons of fruit, 
for which I got S27 50 per ton. I have 17 
acres in bearing vines, and they are good for 30 

tons of raisins this year That green patch of 

seven acres that you see fanced in there Is im- 
pregnated with alkali. I sowed five acres of it 
in Bdrmada grass and two acres in alfalfa, and 
my experience has demonstrated that there is 
not one inch of Fresno county land that ought 
to lie waste because of alkali. My stock has 
fattened on Barmuda grass. It needs no water, 
and there is no trouble about cultivation or irri- 
gation if it Is planted in May. I have 15 head 
of cows and horses grazing on it now, and it 
will support 30 head of stock easily." 


Wheat and Potatoe.s. — Independent, June 
27: Potatoes were planted at Loje Pino Sta- 
tion in April last, and 54 days Irom the day of 
planting, new potatoes were gathered. At the 
same place, wheat was sown and is ot such 
great growth that a few sheaves will be pre- 
seived for exhibition at the Fair of the ISth 
District. The potatoes are excellent. This 
shows what the laud nnder the Kast side canal 
will do, as the tract at Lone- Pine Station is be- 
low average quality. 


Sainfoin or Esparcet. — Susanville Advo- 
cate, June 26: B. K. Shumway has made an 
intereiting experiment at his ranch with the 
new German grass called esparcet. It is claimed 
for this grass that it will grow in arid places, 
where no trace of moisture can be found, and 
will soon cover the ground with a thick green 
sward. Mr. Shumway procured five pounds of 
the seud last fall, and sowed it high up on a per- 
fectly dry knoll, never expecting to hear from 
it again; but, much to his surprise, this spring 
he found it sprouting all over the knoll, and 
now has quite a patch of rich green grass, with 
a leaf something like common clover. He is 
going tn save it all for seed, expecting to have 
about 75 pounds, and will put in a much larger 
piece this fall. The land where the seed was 
sown was absolutely barren, no water, except 
rain, ever having touched it, and the seed was 
jist harrowed into dry dust. It looks as if it 
inight be a bonanza to our stockmen, making 
good pastures on btrren hillsides which are 
now utterly useless. 

Los Aneeles. 
Fruit-Drvino Wholesale. — Pomona Prog- 
rem, June 26: The busiest place in this valley 
is the Pomona fruit cannery. Cook & Ling- 
ley have already expended a large sum of 
money in preparing for handling all the decidu- 
ous fruits of the valley. A force of 50 men has 
been hard at work there for two weeks. The 
whole area between the cannery building and 
the Pomona Pipe Works shops has been filled 
with racks for the holding of the drying trays. 
Last year the racks there had a capacity of 
only 700 trays. Now they have 12 t mes that 
capacity. A railroad track has been built from 
the building, where the fruit will be cut and 
pitted, to all parts of the area occupied by the 
racks. Eight large and complete sulphur 
bleachers have been bailt to take the place of 
the one-horse affiir that answered that pur- 
pose last year, and thousands of new drying 
trays and boxes have been made. The first and 
second floors of the building have been made 
ready for about 200 men, women and children 
to be employed there in cutting and pitting the 
apricots, peaches and nect<krines. Every avail- 
able space of ground or floor in or about the 
cannery will be utilized by the firm, and when 
it is known that Cook & Langley have con- 
tracted to buy over 8.50 tons of our deciduous 
fruits during the next 12 weeks. It will ba real- 
ized that some lively work will be necessary to 
make good every pound of that quantity. 

County Fair.— Santa Ana, June 28: The 
constitution and by-laws of the Orange County 
Fair Association were adopted to-day. The 
first annual meeting will be held on Saturday, 
July 12, when arrangements for the first fair 
will be made. 

San Bernardino. 

A Large Apiary. — Beaumont Sentinel; At 
Wheeler & Hunt's apiary, on the hills south of 
Brookside, there were about 300 hives last 
spring; now there are 560. As there were 
sometimes from 15 to 20 swarms in a day, some 
escaped, and some, being weak, were doubled 
up. The hives are arranged in regular rows 12 
feet apart, and aisles the other way, giving it 
the appearance of a diminutive city. As we 
passed among these at night with genial Mr. 
Wheeler as guide, the humming, buzzing noise 
of 2,225,000 busy workers sounded like a mov- 
ing train or roaring waters. Several tons of 
honey have already been taken this season from 
thesn industrious employes, and before it closes 
the owners expect to get at least 60 tons, about 
S7000 worth, or a net profit of not less than 

Orchard Notes.— Ontario, June 27: A 
canvass just completed shows 600 acres of this 
season's orange planting in Ontario. The 
evaporator is now running 50 hands, with over 
500 tons of apricots, peaches and prunes en- 

San Diego. 
Ban Jacinto Grain.— L. A. Cor. Chronicle, 
June 20: Reports of the cereal yield of the 
San Jacinto valley have been received by S. 15. 
Haynes, general freight and passenger agent of 
the Santa Fe R. R. Co., showing that it is the 
largest ever made. 000,000 sacks of barley and 
200,000 sacks of wheat being the result. The 
barley is of the very finest quality, running 48 

pounds to the bushel, while the average is only 
46 pounds. Mr. Haynes has sent some sam- 
ples to large Chicago brewing firms to be tested. 

On Palomar Motntain. — Escondido Times, 
June 26: S J. Meudenhall and his father camu 
down from Pilomar last Monday. They brought 
a four- horse team and a load of produce, in- 
cluding 100 pounds of prime butter. It is their 
intention to fence all their lands on the mount- 
ain, as they find some of the campers who come 
up there impose on them by camping in the 
best portion of their grazing land to the detri- 
ment of their stock. The past week there has 
been frost every night on the mountain, severe 
enongh to nip the potato plant. The pasturage 
is still good and fruit trees are doing well. 
They say they are ready at any time to do their 
part in building a road, but at present there 
are hardly settlers enough to build an expensive 

Heading Commenced. — Fred Roberts, with 
a large force ot m^n and teams, started head- 
ing last week. He states that the crop will 
not be nearly so large as last year, but the 
price he can sell for out of the field, without 
storage expense, will be double that of last 
year. Then 50 cents per hundred for barley 
was the most tbat could be realized; this year 
Mr. Roberts can sell for .?1 per hundred. He 
estimates that he will have about 600 sacks of 
wheat and 2000 sacks of barley, the quality 
being good, 

San Luis Obispo. 
Moke Fine Holsteins — S. L. 0. Tribune, 
June 27: A bmall herd of five highbred Hoi- 
stein cattle arrived in town Saturday en route 
for the ranch of W. H. Taylor from Mr. Pjlhe- 
mus of San Jose. The herd comprised the 
noted young ball Arthur Field, which is con- 
sidered about as near perfection in his line as 
anything which the State can boast, and four 
young heifers. Our stock men who examined 
them, spoke in terms of strong admiration. 
It is a notable addition to the highbred stock of 
the county. 

Slmmler— Cor. Tribune: Everything 
is ilourishiog on the Carissa. We have two 
headers running now, and they are putting 100 
acres of fine grain into the stack every two days. 
There has been a great amount of good hay put 
up here this year. The weather has been very 
pleasant all this month, the hottest day being 
91°, and to-day the thermometer marked only 
75° at noon. This coo', damp weather is mak- 
ing us bushels of dollars in our fine, plump 
wheat. There are a nunriber of fine patches of 
corn growing here, which was a great surprise 
to a newly-arrived town man who was here last 
week. It was a hard matter to convince him 
that we had had no rain for two months, and 
that we had not in some manner watered the 

Santa Barbara- 

Crops— Gas Well — Editors Pre.«s:— Crops 
in Cirpinteria are looking as well as I have 
ever seen them at this time of year; everything 
is good to extra except hay and grain, which 
were almost a total failure; weather very fine — 
could not be better; farmers generally happy, 
with prospects of good prices for all kinds of 
farm produce. Lima beans are onr principal 
field crop and we expect three cents per pouud, 
which is about a fair price for labor and in- 
terest on capital invested A roaring natural 

gas well was struck one cay last week by H. 
L Williams of Summerland at a depth of only 
30 feet. It shoots up a flime from 10 to 20 
feet high and at night lights up the whole town. 
There is probably 20 times more gas eacspine 
from the two-inch pipe, which is sunk bat 25 
feet, than is manufactured in Santa Barbara, a 
city of 10,000 inhabitants. I inspected the 
well thoroughly yesterday and see no reason 
why it should not hold out,— P. C. HiooiNS, 
Carpinleria, June H. 1800, 

Mortality AMON(i Calves — Petaluma, June 
.30 : Sjiiie unknown diseioe has attacked calves 
and young cattle about Bloomtield and Tomales 
They appear as well as usu'>l at night, but next 
morning are found dead. Sjveral farmers re- 
port lotses. H. P. McCleaver of Tomales has 
lost five out of eight animals. Several have 
been cut open and their intestines examined, 
but, with the exception of lungs and liver 
abnormally enlarged and of a darker color than 
usual, nothing was discovered to be wrong. 
Most of those that have died were calves a few 
months old, 

Santa Cruz. 
SufiAR Beets. — Watsonville Pajaronian, 
June 26: It was supposed sugar beets could be 
planted late this year and produce a heavy 
yield; bat "it was a hard matter to get the 
ground into good condition, and then, when the 
beets began to show above ground, worms made 
their appearance and rapidly ate away the 
young plants. Fields were re-seeded, and in 
several places the worms came again and ate 
the beets. These difficulties have reduced the 
acreage that was planted in beets in this valley 
fully one-fourth; and though the acreage 
planted was greater than that of last season, it 
is probable that, through the loss referred to, 
the yield will not be much greater than it was 
in 1889. The long wet winter and the beet 
worms are responsible for this shortage. There 
are several fine stands of beets in Pajaro valley, 
and disinterested parties who have examined 
many of the fields tell us that the crop is look- 
ing better than it did a week ago, and may yet 
come out in fine shape. On the San Andreas 
there are some fine stands, and Horace Cawles 
has a field of beets that would be A 1 in a big 
year. At Moro Cijjo considerable re seeding is 

being done; a considerable acreage of the ranch 
shows a strong stand, and the yield therefrom 
promises to be good. About 100 boys are at 
work there thinuing out the beeti. It is safe 
to say that the beet yield this year will not be 
as great as was looked for six months ago, but 
the factory people believe it will be greater 
than was estimated early this month. 

Bellflowers Dropping. — From the north- 
ern part of the county and from the Corralitos 
district reports reach us that the BelUflenr 
apples are falling from the trees to such an ex- 
tent that a very light crop is expected. Charge 
aaotber loss to the wet winter. 


Feathered Frttit-Pests. — Marysville Dem- 
ocrat, June 27: At the meeting of the Sutter 
Uoun.;y Horticultural Society in Yuba City 
Wednesday the discussion on " Destructive 
Birds" was very interesting. R. Divis gave 
it as his opinion that English sparrows, linnets 
and California orioles are doing as mncb dam- 
age to trees as the San Jose scale, and he 
thought prompt action should be taken by the 
society toward the suppression of these ene- 
mies to the fruit-grower by offering a bounty of 
one-half a cent a head for them. A number of 
cherry trees that had contained from .300 to 400 
pounds of cherries were almost entirely stripped 
of their fruit by birds. He stated that one- 
third of his cherry crop has disappeared in this 
manner. J. W Mills gave a few practical il- 
lustrations of his experience. He knew of an 
orchard of seven acres that had lost all its frAit 
through the depredations of linnets. No action 
was taken on a motion that a committee of 
three he appointed to wait on the Board of .Su- 
pervisors and ask them to offer a bounty for 
destructive birds. The discussion will be con- 
tinued at the next meeting. 


The Grain Crop.- Tulare Register, June 27: 
Grain-buyers who have been out through the 
county say the wheat crop is turning out fully 
as well, if not better, than was expected. In 
the Alila and Tipton countries, it is said, there 
is a good deal of grain of not first-class quality, 
about $1.02 being the highest price yet offered; 
hut there is enough of it to put the settlers on 
their feet. Wm. .Swall, out in the Oakdale 
district, is now harvesting his 900-acre field of 
wheat. Much of it is turning out ten sacks 
ta the acre, and the entire field will average 
eight sacks or over. All the grain in that 
vicinity is yielding abundantly this season, 
and the farmers are in better spirits than for 
several years past. S. Witkowskl bought 1200 
sacks of wheat from J. L. Presoly to-oay 
which was raised on J. Sadler's place, four 
miles north of town, and was one of the bett 
fields out in that direction, the yield being 
something over ten sacks to the acre. We 
have seen larger wheat, bat none cleaner or 
better colored. E. W. Kay thrashed his Seneca 
Ohief wheat yesterday, and the yield is slightly 
above ten sacks to the acre. 

Beeves and Porkers — A great many fat 
cattle have been shipped from this point within 
the past two weeks. L. L. Gill drove in 100 
head of the finest steers we have seen in a long 
tim«. He shipped seven carloads of his own 
and is now buying from other parties in the 

foothills Wm. Crabtree sold 40 head of hogs 

to L. D. Wbitt at 4^ cents per psnnd. They 
were taken to Visalia by wagons for fattening 
on grain stubbie. There is oonsiderable in- 
quiry for stock hogs at present. 

First Dried Apricots. — Hanford, June 26 : 
Charles King & Co. of this place shipped a car- 
load of dried apricots to St. Paul, Minn., to- 
day, the first shipped cut of the State this sea- 
son. The fruit was of prime quality. 


Yolo Spuds. — Woodland Mail June 28: 
Yolo county is becoming renowned for its large 
potatoes, as well as big pumpkins, juicy grapes 
and handsome girls. An agent of W. H. 
Wood Co., the well-known commission mer- 
chants of Sicramento, was in this city yester- 
diy, and purchased four carloads of potatoes, 
two of which he shipped to Butte City, Mon- 
tana, and two to Portland, Oregon. The pota- 
toes are fine large ones. 

A Notai-.le Almond Orchard. — Among the 
almond orchard which have been planted In the 
last few years, the one owned and cultivated 
by Anderson Bros., three miles south of Davis- 
ville, attracts the attention of the passer by 
more than any other. The trees, which are set 
out in rows about 20 feet apart, appear to be in 
healthy condition, and the limbs are one mass 
of nuts. The land where this orchard now 
grows was used for farming until three years 
ago, when the present proprietors purchased 
the tract, which contains 75 acres, and set it 
out in almond trees. They agreed to pay S5 
an acre rental each year, and at the end of five 
years could have the land for $100 per aore. 
They have sold the entire crop this year to W. 
Treat of the Oak Shade Fruit Co. for 11 cents 
per pound. Mr. Treat, an experienced orchard- 
isf, estimates that, at the rate of 11 centa per 
pound, the entire croo will bring S4000. 

Conveniknt for Fruit-Pickeks. — We were 
yesterday shown a fruit picking machine in- 
vented by Mr. Biddall of the We>t End. The 
plan is simitar to tbat of a derrick. A person 
sits upon a platform, and, by means of a rope, 
draws himself up among the branches of the 
tree. A pulley is provided by which the bucket 
of fruit is lowered to the ground. The inven- 
tion is a valuable one, and will prove a good 
substitute for a step-laader daring the picking 

JoLY 5, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

The Mysterious Vine Disease. 

A Report from the U. S. Department of 

Editors Press:— The annual report of this de- 
partment for 1889 has just been issued. ThinkinK 
that what is said about the vine disease in the re- 
port might interest your readers, I send you a copy 
herewith. — B. T. Gali.Oway, Chief of Section of 
Vegetable Pathology, Dept. of Agr., Waihington. 

The Report. 

For a Dumber of years the grapevines of 
Southern California have been dying in a nays- 
terioas manner. Hundreds of acres of flourish- 
ing vineyards have been Bveept »way, ontailing 
losses impossible to calculate. In 1887, Prof. 
F. L. Soribner, my predecessor, in company 
with Prof. P. Viala of MontnelHer, France, 
visited the infected region, the Professor acting 
under instructions from the Commipsioner of 
Agriculture rf this department. Professors 
Scribner and Viala remained in the field but a 
short time and did not arrive at any definite 
conclusions as regards the cause of the malady. 

Aside from a general correspondencfi with 
various parties in the State, no further tfifort in 
the way of investigating the subject was made 
by the department until early in March of 
the present year. Soon after assuming charge 
of the department, the matter was laid before 
yon, and you immediately instructed me to 
make the necessary arrangements for sending 
a special agent to the infected region. Mr. 
Newton B. Pierce of Michigan was selected 
for the work, and early in May was appoint- 
ed by you and immediately left for the field 
of labor. At my request, Mr. Pierce has fur- 
nished a brief synopsin of the work to date, a 
copy of which we give balow: 

SANTA Ana, Cai... Dec. 6, 1889. 
Sir: — The following brief review of work on the 
California vine disease is submitted in accordance 
with wishes expressed for such an outline, and 
is chiefly intended as indicating some of the lines 
of investigation pursued. To properly establish 
the special or general conclusions to which my 
work has thus far lead me would necessitate the 
analysis and presentation of a mass of observations 
and notes incompatible with the extent and pur- 
pose of this account. 

Most of the time since my arrival in California 
has been devoted to active field work, and the facts 
accumulated and the observations made are in- 
valuable as a foundation for the laboratory work 
and experiments which will naturally follow. 
Through personally field work, covering the greater 
portion of the worst infected district, we are also 
enabled to fairly judge of the m'-.iw.^ of the various 
local opinions or of individual observations and 
views, and to be in a position to draw conclusions 
not to he arrived at with a more limited view of the 
field. I believe, however, that this position should 
be strengthened by a thorough canvass of grape- 
growing districts of the northern portion of the 
State. Very respectfully, Nbvvton B. Pierce, 

B. T. Galloway. Special Agent. 

Chief of the. Section of Vegetable Pathology, De- 
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. . 

The disease now destroying the vineyards of 
Southern California and working to some extent 
in the northern portions of the State began to 
attract the attention of the general public in 
1885. The older vineyards located in the Santa 
Ana valley, and particularly those of Anaheim, 
in what was then Los Angeles county, were the 
first to show marked signs of the disease in 
this region. At Anaheim the first request was 
made for a special investigation into the nature 
and origin of the trouble, and were forwarded 
to associations or individuals of the State. 
Liter, as the trouble began to seriously afifect 
the great raisin industry of the valley, corre- 
spondence was opened with those in authority 
at the Department of Agriculture at Wash- 

Pursuant to directions from the Secretary of 
the D.'partment of Agriculture, issued May 16, 
1889, I proceeded to Santa Ana, Cal., to pros- 
ecute investigations into the nature of this dig- 
ease under instructions from you. Ou May 231 
I arrived at Santa Ana and at once began the 

After making the acquaintance of some of the 
leading grape-growers of the valley, it became 
my primary object to acquire familiarity with 
the e£Fecte of the disease on the vineyards as a 
whole, and more particularly the special effects 
on the vinfs attacked. To this end a large 
number of vineyards of the S»nta Ana valley 
received personal attention. In reviewing this 
matter, I see that at least 100 vineyards of the 
valley were inspected, in most cases with care, 
and these vineyards ranged in extent from 
garden patches to those comprising several 
hundred acres of vines. At the same time the 
owners of these vineyards, as well as those 
gentlemen formerly interested in grape culture 
but DOW having their vineyards removed, were 
visited, and their experience as a whole, or any 
special observations or experiments which they 
had made, were carefully recorded. 

On working over the field here mentioned, a 
general study was made of the foliage, body 
and roots of the diseased vines. The study has 
been continued throughout the field-work of 
the season, and has resulted in a thorough 
diagnosis of the efifects of the disease, numerous 
descriptions in general and special cases being 
prepared and preserved. The material now in 
hand illustrative of the characters and effects 
of the disease is of considerable extent and 
value. It comprises, besides descriptive matter, 
a series of photographic plates of the effects of 
the disease upon the frnit, the vine, and the 
vineyard as a whole. Bssldes this, I have pro- 
cured several excellent water-color plates rep- 
resenting the effects of the disease upon the 

leaves and canes of the vine, the use of colors 
being the only means of properly bringing out 
these characteristic features. 

In gathering data relative to the intro- 
duction of the disease at various places, 
it became evident that the trouble had spread 
in Southern California from a common center. 
As we pasbed out from that center, vines simi- 
larly located, of like age and of the same vari- 
ety showed signs of the disease in later and 
later years. Facts of this character, bearing 
directly on the contagious nature of the disease, 
at once showed the importance of procuring as 
complete records as possible of the dates of the 
first appearance of the disease in each locality. 
With this object in view, the vicinity of Ana- 
heim, where the Misnion vines first died, was 
thoroughly canvassed, and various facts and 
dates brought together sufficient for the con- 
struction of a map of that region. These have 
now been supplemented by like data from other 
portions of the State, and the material in hand 
at this time is sufficient for the draughting of a 
map of approximate accuracy for all the coun- 
ties included in Southern California, showing 
the spread of the disease and other facts of im- 

Much attention has been eiven to the proba- 
ble origin ( f this trouble, but from facts already 
gathered, I incline to the view that this matter 
must also be investigated in the northern portion 
of the State before any definite or satisfactory 
results may be looked for. I have, however, 
accumulated much material which may tend to 
throw some light on this branch of the subject. 

Different from European Dlseaaes. 

It has been advanced by some who have 
studied this disease here that it is identical 
with that of Ita'yand adjoining regions known 
as Mail nero. Viewed from an anatomical and 
physiological standpoint, there are many feat- 
ures of this disease reminding one of the Italian 
disease, and this is also true with the external 
appearance of the canes. On the other hand, 
I have examined the foliage of five varieties of 
Italian vines from the diseased district, and find 
no similarity between the two diseases so far as 
this material is concerned. Even were the 
identity of our disease with the Italian Mai 
nero thoroughly established, the benefits to be 
derived from such a recognition would be next 
to nothing, for up to this time the European 
authorities have been wholly unable to agree 
among themselves as to the nature of their dis- 
ease, and no satisfactory remedy or preventive 
has yet been found. Owing to the similarity 
of these diseases, I have thought it beat to 
work up the literature of the Mai nero, which 
is quite extensive. Translations of the reviews 
of the various Italian papers published for 
many years back have been made, numbering 
some 20 to 25 papers, and many of the original 
articles and specimens of the Italian dise:\ses 
have been procured, and more are to fallow. 

Certain other effects noticed in European 
vineyards, and spoken of as FoUetage or Ap 
poplexie, have been identified with onr disease 
by certain persons in the State. This view 
might have justly been held when the disease 
first made its appearance, but sines that time 
facts have developed which leuve no good 
ground for supposing the trouble to be due to 
the direct action of the sun, as in the case of 
sunstroke. Owing to a remarkable connection 
existing between the temperature of the air 
and the ''irulence of the disease, however (as is 
also true in the case of Oidium on vines, or of 
yellow fever or cholera with man), and the dif- 
ficulty of determining the true nature of this 
relation, I have given more than ordinary at- 
tention to this feature of the subj°ct. This has 
brought forth many facts cf observation by 
others and by myself, and resulted in supplying 
me with what seems to be abundant evidence 
of the inefficient nature of heat when consid- 
ered as a lone factor in the causation of this 
disease. In this connection, the effects of cer- 
tain Warm spells of winter, to the action of 
which the trouble has been ascribed, have re- 
ceived attention. For instance, vineyards set 
since these warm spells occurred and from cut- 
tings brought from other portions of the State 
have taken the disease; but the various reasons 
for my conclusions respecting the non-causal 
action of heat can not well be presented short 
of the space obtainable in a special report. 

Most of the non- parasitic agencies for the 
production of the disease, as their action has 
been presented by numerous adherents to such 
views both here and elsewhere, have been care- 
fully considered. 

The subject of pruning has received all the 
attention required. That of irrigation has had 
special and exhaustive attention. All condi- 
tions are noted ou irrigated and non irrigated 
landf, and the evidence is abundantly sufficient 
to prove that there is no causal relation exist- 
ing between irrigation and the disease. The 
subject of soil poverty has been folly consid- 
ered, as well as the matters nf artificial fertili- 
zation and alkaline soils. The various drain- 
age problems which have a direct bearing on 
the effects of some of the well known root fungi 
have been carefully reviewed during the field 
work, and if a root fungus be at the botto'n of 
the trouble, it is certainly not working accord- 
ing to the habits ascribed by Europeans to 
Dematophora and Agaricui. This fact, how- 
ever, is not evidence against the presence of 
root fungi. The bearing of elevation has also 
been considered, but up to the present time I 
have had no favorable opportunity to make 
observations along this line at elevations great- 
er than 2000 feet. The matter of atmospherio 
humidity has likewise been partially covered. 

Much statistical information relative to the 
conditions of climate during the past and pres- 
ent decades, the effects of prevailing winds or 
those of unusual severity, has been accumu- 
lated, and when combined with the results of 
personal observation will, I believe, show the 
Hiight bearing these matters have on the sub- 
ject in hand. The beneficial or detrimental 
action of other forms of Phanerogams about 
vineyards has been sufficiently studied. Under 
this head the effect of shade on diseased vines 
has been marked, and, as its bearing on the 
nature of the disease is important, it has had 
continuous investigation, at the same time be- 
ing compared with obseivations made as to the 
temperature of the soil at certain depths be- 
neath the surface. 

Under the head of degenerated stock, due to 
long-continued propagation of vines from cut- 
tings, I have been able to make several obser- 
vations, but for the sake of bringing together a 
greater amount of material, my af^ention to 
this subject will be continued. Vet I may say 
that up to date there is no good evidence that 
seedlings will exist longer in the face of this 
disease than vines long propagated from cut- 

Lines ot Investigation. 
When considering the disease as due to par- 
asitic or pathogenic organisms, three lirrs of 
investigation have been pursued, viz.: Eito- 
mological, mycological and bacteriological — the 
last as distinct from mycological work mainly 
in the method of treatment. 

The work in these branches of the investiga- 
tion is in no sense matured. It should be fol- 
lowed by much careful laboratory work, for 
which my time has thus far been insufficient, 
and by numerous careful experiments, which 
are essential and important features in arriving 
at true results. 

Work pursued in the fieH soon established 
the fact that phylloxera did not cause the 
trouble, and although there are numerous in- 
sects and worms found upon the vine both above 
and below the surface of the ground, and 
which have been more or less studied, yet it 
seems evident that none of these bear any caus- 
al relation to the destruction of the vineyards. 
I might add that every order of insects is rep- 
resented upon the vine, and some of these forms 
are doing sufficient damage to well deseive the 
expenditures of the time required in making a 
careful study of them. I have given some time 
to the Termitidm, which are doing much dam- 
age to the older vineyards, and will devote 
more time to certain Acarina and Nemaloda 
found infesting the roots. 

On the roots of the vine I have found Vibri»- 
sea hypogwa, but thus far only on varieties 
from the East. The gonidial stage of another 
fungus has been observed; also, an extremely 
fine mycelium, clear, variably septate, branch- 
ing as it passes outward through the cortical 
parenchyma to the epidermis. Much of this 
mycelium meaures about 2 inches diameter. The 
study of these forms is now in hand, as well as 
that of the various effects of the disease ob- 
servable throughout the tissues of the root. 

On the foliage and canes of the vine there 
are several saprophytic and some parasitic fungi 
observed; some of which are determined and 
others have to receive continued study. 

Djwny mildew, Perono tpora viticola, has 
not been found by me in Southern California. 
The same may be said for this region respect- 
ing black-rot, Lcesladia Bidwellii; neither the 
Phoma of the berry nor the Phylloiticta of the 
leaf having been seen. No fruit affected by 
antbracnose, Sphaceloma ampelinum, has been 

Powdery mildew, Uncinula ampelopsidit or 
Oidium Tucktri, which is a very common para- 
site throughout California, and which has oc- 
casioned much loss since its introduction a few 
years back, has been considered with much 
care and will continue to be the subject of at- 
tentive investigation. The indirect effects of 
this parasite, as well as those of phylloxera, 
may easily be confounded wi'h those seen at an 
early stage of the disease in question. In fact, 
any parasite whose action is to materially re- 
duce the nutrition of the plant as a whole may 
produce effects analagous to those which may 
be termed the general or constitutional effects 
of the present disease upon the foliage of the 
vine. Besides these general effects there are 
those of a special nature, however, which will 
not be so easily mistaken for those produced 
by other causes. In the present disease, es- 
pecially well marked in the Muscat vines, we 
may usually see in the first stages several 
small yellow spots within the parenchyma of 
the leaf farthest from the main veins of the 
same. These spots are often very well defined 
in outline, more particularly when the leaf is 
held between the observer and the light. Often 
no indications of the effects of higher fungi or 
of insects can be detected externally or inter- 
nally in these spots. The peculiar appearance 
and location of these spots led to a careful 
study of the same, which resulted in finding 
bacteria-like bodies (Micrococci ?) in large num- 
bers within the ohlorophyllose cells of the 
spongy parenchyma immediately surrounding 
the spiral vessels supplying that region. 
Recosnltlon of Bacteria. 

After a long series of observations, made on 
material from various portions of the diseased 
district, which in no ease failed to disclose the 
diseased vines as swarming with these bodies in 
all portions where sap had a ready flow, I be- 
lieve it proper to undertake a series of experi- 
ments to determine if these bodies always pres- 
ent, bore any relation to the disease as a whole. 

I had little doubt that they were micro-c 
isms and gave to the local spotting of the leavbs 
their characteristically sharp outline. Cult, 
ures from various parts of the vine were made 
in agar-agar and other media. Three sorts of 
bacteria were found with enough constancy to 
warrant further study, but I have not so far 
been able to determine whether any of these 
are the cause of the disease. Healthy vines 
were procured, set, and inoculated; but in due 
time I found both inoculated and control plants 
showing signs of disease. Owing to our ina- 
bility, thus demonstrated, to make a fair test 
of the action of the germs in the infected dis- 
trict, these and analagous experiments — such 
as grafting, the testing of hardy stocks, etc. — 
have been inaugurated in Washington, outside 
infection being carefully guarded against 
These experiments may demonstrate the non- 
pathogenic nature of these germs, in view of 
the observations mentioned, however, and the 
fact that several Italian students have for years 
claimed that an Italian disease of similar char- 
acteristics is caused by bacteria, it is proper 
the matter should be decided if possible. 

Remedies Employed. 
For three or four years vine-growers have 
been trying to save their vineyards by treating 
them with Bordeaux mixture applied both as a 
preventive and as a cure. Most thorough and 
persistent tests of this fungicide and stimulant 
have been made. Various proportions of the 
ingredients have been used, and applications 
have been made at nearly all seasons and under 
all conditions. The result has simply been to 
produce the action of a stimulant on the vines. 
After an application the vines send forth a new 
growth. Through this encouragement othef 
and repeated applications have been made. In 
some vineyards the foliage has been especially 
treated, while in others, acting upon the theory 
that the seat of the disease is in the cane or 
body of the vine, the applications have been 
made to these parts. Often vines have been 
carried over by stimulation for a brief period of 
time. The ultimate result has been, however, 
that not one vine is saved by this treatment, 
and yet thousands of dollars have beon expend- 
ed by vine-growers in an effort to 
save tneir property. A powder recommend- 
ed by individuals of the State who have 
been conducting experiments, and which 
it was claimed would master the trouble 
has been extensively made and sold up- 
on the market here in the infected district, and 
has been thoroughly tested both as a preventive 
and cure. It was a part of my labor to collect 
records respecting the results obtained by those 
who have carefully applied this powder, and up 
to date I have not found a person who has 
saved a vine by its use. 

Many experiments have been conducted by 
vine-growers who have studied the workings of 
this disease, and in all cases their efforts have 
been seconded by me to the best of my ability, 
many tests having been made with more or less 
favorable results, Several series of experi- 
ments have been conducted with bi-chloride of 
mercury, one of the best of germicides; but al- 
though for a time a stimulated and approxi- 
mately healthy growth was obtained, this soon 
showed signs of disease and the vines ultimate- 
ly went back as with the use of the Bordeaux 
mixture. I have records of a number of tests 
made with other substances, but the whole may 
be eump'.ed up in the plain statement that a 
preventive or remedy for this disease is not yet 

Observations of value have been made relat- 
ing to resistaot stocks, and this feature of the 
work will be continued. Yet from what is 
known it is probable that Vmifera tops cannot 
be maintained on native roots in this region in 
the face of the present virulence of the trouble. 
The variation in the hardiness of varieties is 
eivident and many notes are in hand on the sub- 
ject. The effects of grafting on stocks of per- 
haps 20 different varieties have been recoided. 
I have noted the effects upon the raisin when 
considered frr m a market standpoint, the loss 
in productiveness of vines, etc. 

The financial losses caused by this disease in 
Southern California are very grave. From--the 
rliaease being first cocfined to a small section of 
Los Angeles county, I have nov" seen it well 
developed in Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los 
Angeles, Svn Bernardino, Orange and Sin 
Diego countries. I have aho received typical 
specimecs from several sections in Northern Oal- 
ifornia, but will know its distribution more 
thoroughly after having worked over that por> 
tion of the State. 

Although the grape industry where the dis- 
ease is doing its work has been and is receiving 
a heavy blow, and the interests involved are 
extensive, still I cannot but feel that the 
check in production will be of comparatively 
short duration, as has been the case in Europe 
with Oidium, Anthracnose and Peronospora. 
Further than this the investigations are being 
pushed as rapidly as time and careful work 
will permit, and I see no good reason for sup- 
posing that they will not result in a thorough 
understanding of the causes of the disease in 
question. This, like all other work of its class, 
requires time, but with the cocquering of the 
vantage ground of a complete understanding of 
the trouble we may hopefully look forward to 
the mastering of the matters of prevention and 

Camphor, which lately doubled in price, 
owing to the demand for it to make smokeless 
powder, has now receded to near its normal 
value in consequence of the fact that the Eu> 
ropean governments have abandoned its use. 


pAciFie i^uraid press. 

[Jdly 5, 1890 

©HE BlEbD. 

The Advantages of Baled Hay. 

Though young in agriculture, Giliforoia is 
teaching practical lessons to the older regions in 
many points of agricultural practice. The ben- 
efit of hay-baling is one of thesf, and any one 
who has labored under the disadvantage of 
handling loose hay, or in drawing the same to 
the eastern village or city markets in imminent 
danger of catting his throat on the telegraph 
wires which crocs the streets, will appreciate 
the followiog essay which J. W. Clark of 
Placer county writes for the Country OtnlU- 


Grass and hay, contrary to anticipation, are 
more abundant than for many springs. Live 
stock have done well on wild oats, which grow 
ai a volunteer crop all over this country, and 
are abundant this season, on even naturally 
dry and thin soils. The hay harvest now in 
progress will be plentiful, including alfalfa, 
wheat and oats, with less areas of barley, 
Oiir hay grasses are nearly all baled in 
the field here, as soon as lightly cured, and 
then set np in blocks of bales, three or four 
tiers high, ready for drawing at any time be- 
fore 03t. 1st — rain enough to damage the bay 
rartly falling before that date. As a safe pre- 
caution, sail or tent-cloth covering, or even 
gteen grass, is put over the piles of bales, and 
various kinds of other cheap covering may be 
used according to convenience. 

I would again express surprise that biling 
hay in the field is not general in all North 
American countries. In the Mississippi valley 
and in most of the States east of the Rocky 
mountains, very little hay li baled in the field 
though some is baled from the stack, when in- 
tended to ship to distant places in considerable 
quantities— nine-tenths of the hay crop being 
moved to barnr, or stacked in the meadow, or 
on the prairie where grown. In stacking, more 
labor is required than in baling from heaps 
drawn together by horse-raking. 'When this 
stacked hay is drawn to the farm for stock 
feed, there is a second stacking or moving of 
the same bay, and when etacked hay is hauled 
to market — .3 to 10 or 1°2 miUs distant, as in 
Northwestern Iowa, where I have many times 
seen hay drawn in large racks, with vertical 
sides four feet high to prevent the high winds 
blowing the hay off the wagon, many of the 
racks weighing 800 pounds, or more, and being 
very dilhjult to put on and off the wagon gear. 
•The large size of such racks prevents the load 
being driven into any barn or under cover in 
case of rain. Uence the loads of loose hay in 
such racks are pitched through some end door, 
or stacked again, convenient to the winter feed- 
ing yard. Bat when baled where it is made, 
as much weight can be loaded in an ordinary 
wagon hax as in a loose state fills a rack that is 
16 teet long, S feet wide and 4 to G feet deep ! 
In California the weight of bales ranges from 
200 to 300 pounds— 200 pound bales being very 
convenient to handle, and 10 bales, or a ton, is 
a small load in a common sized wagon-box. 

It baling were practiced in the hay-field in- 
stead of stacking the hay loose, neither hay- 
Icaliog nor bay-stacking machinery would be 
necessary, as two men with bale-hooka could 
set up 20 tons in a block of bales five or six 
tiers higb — the bkles now in my stable loft are 
3^ feet long, 2 feet wide and 10 to 18 inches' 
tbick — taking the bales from the ground in less 
time than five tons could be stacked from a 
wagon or by the use of any horse- worked ma- 
chinery. In fact the loss of time and waste of 
labor in handling hay loose, in comparison with 
saving of labor, time and expense, by baling, 
is so great as to make the practice of handling 
bay in a loose, bulky condition appear as ab- 
surd. Why, even in the field, a portable stack- 
cover, which can be put on in five minutes and 
will last ten years, will safely secure five times 
as much baled hay against rain as the same 
cover would secure of unbaled hay. Again, 
less than a quarter as much barn room is re- 
quired for 40 to 100 tone, or any other quan- 
tity, of baled bay, than the same quantity will 
fill when not baled. It is also true that hay 
can be safely baled with less curing than is re- 
quired for hay in large stacks, and even if 
aamp, hay will keep better in bales than in 
stacks. It is also an advantage that if any of 
the bales are not as good hay as others, ae 
may happen from inferior graes or catching 
weather, all such bales can be used without 
opening others. As to hauling baled hay, foar 
bales fit easily on a one-horne spring wagon be- 
hind the seat. On fair roads, a horse will trot 
five or six miles an hour with two bales, and I 
frequently see two tons loaded in a common 
wagon-box pass near my residence. In fact, 
hay racks are so few in Cilifornia that we see 
none in passing a dozen hay-fields. Then how 
easy it is to talie a four or five-inch layer of hay 
from the end of a pressed bale by hand without 
loosening the remainder of the bale. If a liv- 
ery barn or hotel rnns thoct of hay, a horse 
with a light spring wagon can speedily bring in 
two, four or half a dozen bales, without injuri- 
ous delay, and the fact that one man or stout 
boy alone can load and unload b:iled hay read- 
ily is worth considering, hooks of course being 
used in handling the bales. Having worked at 
haying in detail in several States and on both 
sides of the Atlantic, I believe I have not over- 
estimated the advantages of baling. 

Corn for Grinding and Ensilage, 

As there is a growing interest in this State 
ingrowing corn for grinding "cob and all," 
and for putting down in silos, the following 
conclusions, drawn from experiments at the 
PennsyWania Agricultural Experiment Station, 
may be of interest : 

Of the ensilage varieties, when cut for put- 
ting in the silo, the Burrell &. Whitman Ensil- 
age corn gave the largest yield of green ma- 
terial per acre, bat tbe White S'inthern the 
most dry matter. Breck'a Boston Market Ka- 
silage yielded nearly as mnch dry matter as 
tbe Burrell & Whitman, but not as much 
green material, yet was the earliest or most ad- 
vanced of the five varieties grown. When 
field-cured, Breck'a Boston Market Ensilage 
and the White Soathern varieties exceeded the 
Burrell & Whitman in yield of dry matter per 
acre in order named. Salzer's Ensilage and 
Blount's Prolific made the lowest yields except 
in the field-cured material, when the former 
had the largest yield of ears and stood second 
in yield of green material, but the yield of dry 
matter was low. 

Farmers can safely be guided in the purchase 
of seed corn by results of germination tests. 
The lower results that will be obtained in the 
field are explained by the fact that many 
seeds will sprout but have not strength to veg- 

The four varieties of Flint corn ripened at 
nearly the same time and a few days before the 
Dants, but had lower yields. The Sslf- 
Husking was the earliest but had the lowest 

The Qaeen of the North, Wisconsin E>'liest 
White Dent, Minnesota King, L^aming, Qaeen 
of the Prarie pnd Cleaver corns matured, the 
Qieen of the Prairie giving the largest yield 
and the i}ieea of the North and Minnesota 
King being in best oondition. Golden Beauty, 
Golden Dant, Hickory King, Champion White 
Pearl and Piasa Queen did not mature, but 
proved earlier than the Chester County Mam- 
moth, Mammoth White Sarprise and White 
Giant Normandy. 

Those varieties grown and sold for ensilage 
and fodder crops are preferable when a large 
yifld of forage Is desired. 

Fully one-half of the dry matter (food ma- 
terial) was found in the ears and one-fifth of 
this in the cob. Oae fourth to one-third of the 
total amount in the plant is found in the leaves 
and husks. Of the remaining one-fourth there 
are four or fire times as much in the butts as 
in the tops. It will readily be seen that on ac- 
count of the great amount of dry matter in the 
butts there will be considerable lost when the 
stalks are fed whole. Much of this might be 
saved were they cut before feeding or preserved 
in siloi. 

The resnlts show that fully 20 per cent 
of dry matter is gained by allowing the crop to 

Harvesting Peanuts. 

Whatever yoo do, it is best to do it well, 
especially as in sr~me cases the doing of it well 
makes all the ditfarence as to whether or not it 
is worth while to do it at all. This will be 
particularly the case with the growing of pea- 
nuts this year in Southern California. The 
quantity will so far exceed the previous yields 
tnat the pric3 will go nearly down to half what 
it has been within a few months, and the most 
economical methods of harvesting will have to 
be resorted to to ki ep the co^t of prodnc'iion 
within the market value of the nuts. Not only 
is this economical question involved, bat also 
one of quaUly, on wnich also depends so large a 
percentage ot the value of the nuts as to come 
very near determining whether or not it is worth 
while to grow them. When we state that the 
difference in value may amount to a cent a 
pound and their wholesale price may not be 
over six cents, it will be seen how largely their 
profit depends on the care taken of them. The 
tollowine instruction is from Mr. A. F. R^y- 
noldp, 204 West First St., L^s Angeles, whose 
intelligent direction of this young industry we 
have previously had occasion to refer to.- 

There are to many peanuts growing this year 
and the price will be so low that it will require 
some method in harvesting the crop, or it will 
be a dead loss to the farmer. I said in a former 
article which was extensively copied by the pub- 
lic press throughout the State, that they should 
be left on the ground after being pulled, with 
the nutt underneath the topi, to protect them 
from dampntsi and the hue sun, thereby pre- 
serving their bright color, and at the same 
time leaviug them to hang down as muoh as 
possible, so they may be easily knocked off. 
One other important point, let them get ihor- 
oughbj dry, or they will get moldy and spoil in 
the sack. Put under cover as soon as dry. 

Now many have planted this year who have 
had no experience in the business, and they 
will turn them over so the sun can dry them 
quickly — that's what the sun is for, of course. 
Well, they will dry quick that way, and he. black, 
and hang down among the vines so they will 
have to be picked out one at a time, which 
will cost more than they are worth in the 

Some farmers fasten an old knife-bUde to 
the end of a st'ck and cut the main root (which 
is hard to pull) near the surface of the ground, 
and on which there are no nuts; then they are 
easily pulled, and the long tap-root will not be 
in the way of machine picking or knocking 
them off by band. 

A very effective picking machine, if properly 

made, is tashioned after the windlass we used 
to make in the mines for hoisting dirt. Make 
the drum somewhat larger and drive into it 
big nails in rows, near enough together and 
projecting enough to catch hold of the nuts; 
fasten a bar or rest to the frame, parallel with 
the drum, just near enough to let the heads of 
the spikes pass; bevel the rest or bar to a thin 
edge; hold the bunch of vines on the rest with 
the nuts against the drum, turn the crank, and 
it will snatch them off In a hurry. 

Now let all the papers that copied the other 
article copy this one also and save to their pa- 
trons many times the price of their paper. — 
Pacific Monthly for June. 

From Florida. 

A Welcome Paper— Drouths and Wet Sea- 
sons Dlveralfled Products— Encourage- 
ment for the Future. 

Editors Press: — Though tbe width of the 
continent separates us, the Rhral spans the 
distance every week as regular as clock-work, 
with a miss very rarely indeed; and a very 
welcome and entertaining visitor it is. I should 
feel lost without it. lu fact, an important part 
of my weekly mental pabulum wonid be lack- 
ing and the loss would be sorely felt. I have 
thought for years that the Rural was 
as good as it could be, but somehow you keep 
improving it year by year. .Surely, you keep 
in the forefront of the progress of the times 
and cannot but be the means of great good 
throuehout the wide area in which it circulates. 

In Florida we are in the midst of our regular 
summer rainy season, which commenced this 
year the first part of May, instead of the mid- 
dle of .Tune, as usually expected. The past 
two years the weather has been very peculiar. 
The unusually wet winter of 1SS8-9 was fol- 
lowed by a vary severe spring drouth; this was 
broken by the late beginning of the rainy sea- 
son, which hsted through July, August and 
September, 18S9. Then the dronth took hold 
again and held on till the last of April, seven 
months. Even the usual heavy dews were con- 
spicuous by their absence. To cap the climax, 
we had two severe freezes in March. These 
experiences were altogether unique in the his- 
tory of the State. 

The individual losses have been great in some 
sections; certain localities, for some anknown 
reason, feeling the effects much more severely 
than others. The outcome of the whole matter 
will be decidedly beneficial to the State at 
large, as it will cause a mdch more general 
adoption of irrigation, which will result in the 
adoption of a more intensive system of culti- 
vation with greater certainty and amount of 

Another gratifying feature is found in the 
fact that there is a more general attempt to 
produce the necessary supplies of prcvieions at 
home, in place of excessive imports from other 
States, People are rapidly learning the folly 
of buying abroad that which can be produced 
at home. They are learning that to be pros- 
perous they must diversify their industriep, 
their productions; must give more attention to 
growing the staple crops, feed for their cattle, 
vegetables and fruits of many kinds for home 
ase. The golden text being deeply impressed 
upon their minds is: "Buy nothing whose 
equivalent you cannot produce at home." 

Altogether the prospect was never so en- 
couraging for Florida as now. The immense 
discoveries of phosphate and other minerals 
are giving a greater stimulus to development. 
New railroads are being built and projected, 
Phosphate and fertilizer works are locating in 
various parts of the State, A feeling of great 
confidence is everywhere manifested, and Flor- 
ida is triumphantly marching on 

Sherman Adams. 

Oabriella, Orange Go., Fla., June 4, 1800. 

Our Agents. 

Oim FRiiNDe can do much In aid of our paper and tbe 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by aoelsting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their In- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
out worthy men. 

J. C. HoAQ— San Francisco. 

R. O. Bailbt— San Francisco. 

Samukl Clifk— San Luis Obispo Co. 

C. J. \V»DK--San Bernardino Co. 

W. W. TiiKOBALDB— Santa Barbara and Ventura Cos. 

K. B. Takt -Central Calif >rnia. 

John B. Hill— San DicKo Co. 

E. H. SciiARrri/S— Calaveras Co. 

Frank S. Chapik— Solano and Lake Cos. 

W. B. Frost -Alameda and Contia Costa Cos. 

J G. U. Lami abiuiI— San Mateo and Santa Clara Cos. 

010. WiLSOM — Sacramento Co. 

11. Kki.i.rv— Vodoc and Lassen Cos. 
Wm. M. HaLBART— Oregon. 

H. G. Parso.vs— Oregon. 
John Si.mi'Son— Oregon. 

Housewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. K. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 



market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 Cali 
Wnia St.. San FranHcm. *' 



real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S. F. 

Road Carts in great variety, also our $36 Phaeton Body 
Cbru Write for Circulars, Frank Brothers, San Francisco. 

Sbarples Improved Separator. 

The only Separator with bill bearing?; will not clog. 

The only Separator with automatic sight ol'er. 

Guaranteed to aive two per cent more butter than any 
other Separator. 

Twenty per cent cheaper than any other Separator on 
the ni.irket. 


raciflc Coast Agent, 
203 Fremont Street, San Franclaco, Cat 

J. M. WELSH, President. H. D. BAKF.R, Secretary. 


Fire Insurance Company 




Head Office, STOCKTON. OAL. 

Bounding Billows ON THE SEA, 

iir the pure Mountain Breezes will soon in\ite your 
presence. Slake your leisure twice the pleasure, by 
taking along our entertaining Music 

(If you have no Gu'tar, Mandolin, Banjo, 
Flute or Violin, call or send for lists of tine 
instruments at our branch store, J. C. Uatnbh & 
Co., 33 Cjuit Street, Boston.) 

of the music of 1!) Operas. Pric'$1.00. Arr. for Piano. 

TION. 51 very easy and very gool pieces. Price tl. 

.SAKBATH-DAT MUSIC. For Piano. SSbeautiful 
Melodies, finely arranged. Price il. 

Vol. 2 of Miss Eleanor W. Everest's ALBUM OF 
SONG>(. 12 flrst-class Songs by the best authors. 
Piice *1 

COLLEGE SONGS. New, enlarged edition. 82jollv 

Songs. 200,000 sold Price 60 cents. 
OLD FAMILIAR DANCES. For the Piano. 100 

of them. Etsy, and as merry as they can be. 50 cents. 


TBE ATLAS. By Carl Zerrahn. 2!) splendidChoniscs. 
Sacred and Secular. Most of tbem quite new. $1. 

Any book mxiled for retail price. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., 867 Broadway. New York. 

Send 3c stamp for Catalogue of 


Includinc- Met of SKCONIMIAND 0UN3 and other 
articles that have accumulated. 

!S25 Kaarny Stnet; San Frandaeo. (kl. 

J. F. HouiiHTOv, President, J. L. N, SheAmkd, Vioe-Pr««. 
Cins. R. Htorv, Sec'y, R. H. Mauill. Gen. A«'t 

Bome Motnal losnraDce Company, 

216 Saosome Street, San Francisco. 

Incokpokatid a. D. 1S64. 

Losses Paid Rlnc« Organization 13,033,430 31 

Assets, Jai'uan 1, 1890 821, .IIT 09 

Capital, Paid Up In Gold 300,000 00 

NET SUBPLUS OTer eTeiTtblnc 244,384 14 

JoLY 6, 189p.] 



1890-TH E STATE FAIR-1890 


s ^ c ^ Dvc: El Dsr T o, 



Showing Progress Made in Agricultural, Mechanical and Industrial Arts. 


Will give a Grand Musical Concert at the Pavillion each evening from September 15th to 20th. 

THE COUNTY EXHIBITS made at these exhibitions have attracted more atten- 
tion to localities represented than any other form of advertising advanced. 

EVERY COUNTY IN THIS STATE should have an exhibit. Begin with harvest 
and secure samples of your products. The money premiums will almost pay the entire 
cost of your exhibit. 

NEW-COMEES ARE AWAITING to view the products of the State before locat- 
ing. Hence it behooves every county to be up and stirring. 

IT IS AT THESE EXHIBITIONS the Manufacturer meets the Merchants of the 

IT IS AT THESE EXHIBITIONS the Merchant views progression made in all 
mechanical and industrial callings. Hence it behooves the Manufacturer to be up and 

AT THESE ANNUAL EXHIBITIONS the visitor may combine business with 
pleasure, as the Board of Dirrctors provides for all kinds of recreative amusement in the 
varied program of events. 

THE CONTESTS OF SPEED showing advancement made in the breeding of 
high-class horses, will be a feature. 

THE GRAND PARADES OF LIVE STOCK will embrace the various classes of 
horses, and all the improved breeds of cattle. 

THE EVENING will aflFord ample entertainment for all who visit the State Fair. 

Every attention will be rendered exhibitors by the Board of Directors. 

Premium lists are now ready, and will be furnished upon application to the Secre- 
tary, who will also furnish other necessary information that may be desired. Apply at 
once for space. 

Remember, the Southern Pacific Company TRANSPORTS ALL EXHIBITS 
FREE OF CHARGE to and from the Fair, and gives EXCURSION RATES TO ALL 


EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 


The Chief of Threshers and 

Minnesota Thresher 
Manufacturing Co., 

Manufacturers of 

Straw, Wood and Coal- Burning 



Improved Horse-Powers 

Factorr and Salesroom 

Cor. Second and Washington Streets, 



General Agent. 

Ileal ^$tate tlirectory. 


OEO. BEEBE Se CO., 230 Kearoy St. Large tracts 
Timber lands (or sale. Government locations made. 


E. P. VANDERCOOK Si CO., City and Country 
Real Estate, 468 Ninth St., Oakland, Cal. 

ANTHONY & QILLIS, City and Country property. 
Loans negotiated at low rates, 460 Ninth St, Oakland 

O. C. LOO&N, City and Country Real Estate and Loan 
Agent. Office, 481 Ninth Street, Oakland, Cal. 

M. J. LAYMANOE A CO., Auctioneers and Dealers 
Id City andCountry Real Estate, 466 Eighth St. ,Oakland. 

r. M. OBTRAiroiB. H. J. OSTRASDaR. 7. 8. OBTRANDIB, 



Garibaldi Bulldlns. 
p. O. Box No. 7. 






It kills Pain, Irritation and Inflammation, 
and bleacher Ihe skin white. 

Price, SS Cents. 

All Druggists keep 


Manufacturers of 

Sheet Iron and Steel 


130 Eeale Street, San Francisco, Cal 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe oc 
ground All kinds of Tools supplied for making Pipe. 
Estimates given. Are prepared for coating all sizes o( 
Pipe with a composition of Coal Tar and Asphaltum, 


pACIFie f^URAlo f RESS 

[July 5, 1890 

Our Horses in Front. 

There haa never been a more eensational 
period in the history of the American turf than 
that which has passed over in the past two 
weeks, and the California horses ranuing in the 
East are responsible for it. 8alvator, the 
Haggin oolt, surprised them all by winning the 
Suburban, and the noise of that victory had 
not ceased to be heard when he came to the 
post in one of the greatest match races ever run 
on American soil, and made the unprecedented 
run of a mile and a quarter in 2:05, carrying 
122 pounds. 

The comments upon that extraordinary victory 
had not ceased when Firenzi, the mare of the 
Haggin stable, came to the post in the Coney 
Island Cup, and with 117 pounds on her ran the 
distance and won in one second better than 
record time. Toe oeople were still talking 
abeut Salvator and Firenzi, when Racine, one 
of the Palo Alto colts, started in a race at 
Chicago and broke the record for a mile — a 
record that has stood for 13 years. 

Three such performances to come in one 
week, and all of them to be done by Califor- 
nians, ii a record that will stand for years, and 
gives the home people the chance to truly say 
that the best of them all belong to us. Cali- 
fornia has the greatest trotting filly that the 
world ever saw, the best four-year-old colt that 
ever ran, the best mare that the country has 
produced, and the greatest three-^ ear-old of 
his year. No other State in the Union— not 
even Kentucky, the boasted home of the horse 
— -can make such a showing, and the State may 
well be proud of her equine victors. Neither 
Salvator nor Firenzi were bred here, but they 
have been brought to their excellence in the 
California stables and they will pass their last 
days on the California ranches. Ricine and 
Sunol were both born and trained here. 

Some Rich Programs. 

Oakland, Napa, I'etaluma and Sin Jose an- 
nounce their programs for the fall fairs, and 
one glance over them is sullicient to show that 
the people are awakening to the importance of 
the trotting horse in California, and they offer 
to the horsemen the most liberal purses ever 
known in the State, The four associations 
cffar an aggregate of §50,000 in purses and 
stakes for the trotters, pacers and ruuoprp, and 
the trotters get more than half of it. Oakland 
puts up $10,000 for the trotters alone. 

The programs are the best in many respects 
that we have ever had in the State, and are 
worth more than a pasting notice. Oakland 
gives $600 to the three-year-old 2:40 class; 
$1000 to the Stamboul 2:27 class; S1200 to the 
Kleotioneer 2:20 class; 3^1200 to the Mountain 
Bjy three-minute class; .^!1COO to the Grand 
Moor three-year-oH new-list purt>e; SIOOO to 
the Hiwthorne 2M5 class purse; $500 to the 
Ouy Wilkea two-year-old purse; $1200 to the 
Director 2:24 claas purse; $1000 to the Sidney 
free-for-all pacing purse; $1200 for the Dexter 
Prince 2:40 class pure': $800 for the Mambrinn 
Wilkes 2:80 class; $800 for the pacing 2:30 
class, and a sulky set of harness and a gold 
medal to the three-year old that will beat 
Sihle Wilkes' record of 2:18. 

The events in the program of the Los Angeles 
Association closed their entries on the Ist of 
July, and a private note from the secretary 
says that everything filled and that the I^os An- 
geles Fair will be one of the largest of the year. 
Thn trotting events filled with a good number 
of northern horsei among the names. The 
fair begins on the 4th of August. 

A meeting of the State Agricultural Society 
was held last Tuesday, and some unimpor- 
tant changes were made in the program, which 
was published some time ago in the Kukal. 

Notes at Random. 

The California borces at Chicago, with the 
single exception of Racine, have done any- 
thing but good running. 

The stablea of Marvin and Hlckok are now 
at l> ttroit, Mich., where they will await the 
opening of the grand circuit. 

Joe Oourtney has been deposed from the 
management of the Winters stable and Tom 
Conley haa been installed in hia place. 

Jim L, 2:20, by Dan Voorhees, haa been taken 
from the stnd and put into training for the 
circuit. He is being worked at San Jose. 

After the close of the State F«ir, nearly all 
of the running stables will go to lleno and Car- 
son for the meetings there, where liberal purses 
are offered the runners. 

Frank Baldwin, the manager of the Fresno 
track, haa also been made the manager of the 
new track at Coronado Beach, and the first 
races of the new course are to begin this week. 

Ringwood, the Sydney atallion, haa been 
sent to the Bay District track and placed in 
Jamea Daatin's handa for training. It ia in- 
tended to give him a low record thia year if 

The Napa 2:30 class trot, in which there are 
eight nominations, will be the first hot race of 
the aeaaon, and the horaemen beliere that at 

least three of the contestanta will get records 
near 2:20 in the race. Five horses that are in 
the 2 :30 class give promise of beating 2:20 be- 
fore the season ia over. 

The thoroughbred ata'lion Koterprise, owned 
by Price Bros., of San Luis Obispo, waa exer. 
cising on the track a few days ago, and in a 
collision with another horse on the track, while 
at full speed, was killed. 

The entriea to the oolt atakea of the Loa 
Angelea Association closed on the first of June, 
and all of them filled well. Among the sires 
represented in the stakes are Stamboul, Alca- 
zar, Guy Wilkes, Gossiper, Will Crocker and 
Woolsey. The 2:30 class trot and the District 
Rices cloaed on the aame day, and they, too, 
received a large number of entriea. None of 
these eventa will go unfulfilled. 

One of the Eaatern papers says of a California 
horse : " Ejperanza by Grinstead out of Her- 
mesa is the crack two-year-old filly in the 
Santa Anita stable, and is said to be one of the 
grandest youngxters evr-r owned by Baldwin. 
In her work at Morris Park the other day, in 
company with Cleopatra, she ran the three- 
quarters very handily in 1:15, carrying good 
weight. She is engaged in the Lakesidp, 
Friendly and Hyde P irk stakes to be run at 
Waehington Park, Chicago, and her trainer 
has his heart set on winning the valuable Hyde 
Park with her. The entire Santa Anita stable 
has arrived from New York at the Washington 
Park track." 


On Spontaneous Forest Reproduction. 

Editors Prfss: — The last issue of the 
RuKAL Press, June 28th, contained an excel- 
lent photo-facsimile of new forest growth on 
abandoned mine site in Placer county. 

The interest which pictorial illustrations al- 
ways aronae would have been enhanced did the 
context tell us with what species this washed- 
out country was being re-forested and what the 
character of the old timber, if any, in the im- 
mediate neighborhood. The out, good though 
it be, of course, fails to illustrate this point, 
though it doRs show from the sparsity of the 
young growth the improbability of the final 
product ever yielding the best quality of tim- 
ber for mill naes. 

It is unfortunately true of moat, and in par- 
ticular of California pine forests, that the de- 
struction of the primeval woods is subnt i^uently 
followed up with a new growth of inferior 

Along the western slopes of the Sierras, in 
the very heart of the timber country, large 
areas, formerly covered with yellow and sugar 
pine, are chiefly wooded with the relatively 
worthless "tubercled," "digger," or other 
"scrub" pines; the probabilities are, that these 
preponderate in the illustration referred to. 

The valuable timber sorts reproduce them- 
selves freely when the first growths are felled; 
but after being burned over a few times, and 
trampled and pastured out by sheep, their 
vitality anccumba more readily than these ap- 
parently tenacious but less worthy kinds. It 
is almost certain that private enterprise will 
never be directed toward any elaborate or ex- 
tended artificial forestation of these denuded 
tracts; and almost as problematical are the 
chances of their reclamation at the handa of the 
General Government, if one may be guided in 
forming auoh an opinion, by its apathetic in- 
difference upon a subject that haa called forth 
the exercise of a broad-minded and patriotic 
public policy from every progreasive govern- 
ment under the sun save ours. If the energies 
of the Government are ever aroused to activity 
in this direction, it will require years of patient 
toil and careful and intelligent observation to 
demonstrate if any practical inducements can 
be held out to justify a resort to any other 
than the purely na'nral system of re-foreatation 
now going on in Placer county. Meantime, 
could the well-wiahera of the country and those 
alive to a knowledge of the transcendent im- 
portance to the prosperity of this coast in- 
volved in the problem of forest preservation, 
have the faintest assurance of the early in- 
auguration of any policy other than misman- 
agement, or non-management, of the remaining 
timber lands of the federal government, they 
would gladly drop all agitation and trust to 
nature, supplemented by good sense to accom- 
plish the rest. 

No conceivable contingency, or possible ex- 
pansion of our population, can occur within 
generations, to require the occupancy of these 
lands for other purposes than forest. Daring 
thia time, while they are exerting to the full 
the primary functions and benefits of forestry, 
they are as anrely accumulating a reaerve 
of State and national wealth, as to which the 

uncertain and fluctuating yield of our bread- 
atuffs ia but an insignificant trifle. 

To disabuse those who may think thia pres- 
entation of the subject is but the overdrawn 
picture of an enthusiast; it may autHcetoaay 
that the dispassionate and qualified estimates 
of so conservative and competent an authority 
as Prof. C. S. Sargent places the annual value 
of our forest products in excess of seven hun- 
dred million dollara ! — a aum more than sufiS- 
cient in two years to completely extinguish the 
national debt. Without disparaging or under- 
rating In the least the value of what nature Is 
doing for ua, we fully believe that the intelli- 
gent intervention of man in matters pertaining 
to forests, can be as pregnant in good results 
as his interposition has been in the fields of 
horticultnre and general agriculture; but lack- 
ing that, we can only rejoice most heartily that 
the unassisted forces ot nature are at work 
upon the devastated, abandoned and soil- 
denuded wastes of the upper foothills to rehabil- 
itate them in any fashion, and in a measure 
repair the ravages of man's cupidity and wan- 
ton criminality. 

True, thia rehabilitation may not be contem- 
plated to yield the greatest final reaults to our- 
selves and posterity, etill it ia a point gained ; 
and if the aentiment of the communities in the 
districts where these young forests are strug- 
gling to re-aasert themaelvea can be awakened 
atrongly enough to result in concert of action 
that will declare a vendetta againt their con- 
stitutional enemies — fire and sheep, for all time, 
they will be happy not only in the conscious- 
ness of well-doing but in directly advancing 
their own immediate and material prosperity 
aa well. Wm. S. Lyon. 

Lot Angeles. 

[Thia important communication from the 
head foreater of the State Board will be read 
with much interest, and we trust its sugges- 
tions will be heeded. — Eds Press. 

To Subscribers and Readers. 

A Hanhv Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
cals, rausicand other printed 
sheets, is the handiest, and 
very cheapest of all econom- 
ical and practical file bind- 
ers. Newspapers aie quick- 
ly placed in it (as received) 
and held neatly, as in a 
cloth-bound book. It is 
durable, and so simple a 
child can use it Price (size 
of this paper, Harper's 
Weekly, and Scientific 
American), 75 cents; post- 
age 10 cents. Postpaid to 
purchasers of this paper, 50 
cents. For sale at this of- 
fice. Send for illustrated 
circular. Agen ts wanted. 

Drying Fruit.— Snoretary Young of the 
San Diego Producers' Union, says reports from 
various parts of the county show that a goodly 
number of the growers are preparing to dry 
their crops. Some will dry in the sun, some 
have bought evaporators and otbera are build- 
ing kilns. 

Consnmpticn Sorely Cored, 

TothB Editor:— 

Please inform yoar readers that I have a oofiitivft 
remedy fur tht» above named diseufle. liy itstimely 
O^M tnousands of hopeless cjisea iiuvo he^^n permun- 
eiitly'cured. I shall be glad to send two buttles of 
uiy remedy FBEB to any of your reader- who have 
consumt>tioD if they will send me their J:lzpre8a and 
r. O. address. Kespactfully. 

A. SXXKJUH. M. 0, 181 Pearl St. Mew York. 

Odd Numbers. 

33 and 35 Main Street, San Fraucioco. Write to or 
call there OQ Frank Bko-iikkh, for Farm Implements of 
every description and Bu^^^ies, Carts or Sprini; Wogous. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

626 Oallforola Street. 

For tlic half-year endin;.; June 30, 1S90, a dividend has 
been declared at tne rate of five and forty-hundredths 
(5 40-100) per cent per annum on Term Deposits, and 
tour and one half (4i) per cent per annum ou Ordinary 
Deposits. Favable on and after Tuesdav, July I, lb90. 

GEO. TOUKS y, Secretary. 

m"^iX3EisrD isroTiCE. 

Califo-nia Strett, corner Webb; BRANCH, 1700 Mar- 
ket Street, corner Polk.— For the half-year ending with 
30th June, 1800, a dividend hvt been declared at the rate 
of five and four-tenths (5 4-10) per cent per annum on 
term deposits and four and one-ha'f (4j) per cent per 
annum nn oidinari dep isits, free of taxes, payable on 
and after TUESDAY, 1st July, 1890. 







IluMs a Br'-^m , ■ . i ; in never 
out of order. Au-t m i LiI'L-iiig hanif 
your broom with l)rut*h dovs n. and it 
\vill dry out iuimodi»teIy and nut 
1 mold or rot. and alvvaje keep its 
* bliaim. Sample mailed and perfect 
Batiafactinn guaranteed on receipt of liir. Boysand 
eirls can more than double their money Belting them. 
Send 2g. Rt-amp for t«rma. 1 doz. poetpaid on receipt 
VanufMtarers of Patented S^MKlaltiM, HaZletORc Pa« 

Tr.Y <;oMr. vri.T's 


A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure 
lor Ciirh. Ppllnt, Pweenv. Cuppc-d 
Jh'i k, btruini-il Tcndnm. Foun- 
der. Win.l l'n\u. nil Skin DIs.-.-iHea 
or rarasites,! hrush. Dlphiherla, 
Plrskeye, all Lauicncas from 
Sp:n in, Rliichiine or oihi-r Itony 
Tuiimrs. Hemnvi'S all Ilunelies 
or lilemlslicB from Uontca and 

-.^ Supersedes all Cautery or firing. 
Impossihie to I'rodiireany 
!Sc-:ir or ISluinisli. 

Every bottle snM is warrnnti d to tth e sail-fai ilon. 
Price »1. 50 per iHMtle. s^ild iiy dniprlsts. ur k. ni hy 
exprcfts, charpea piild, with full dlrectionefor lia one. 
fiend for descrlpll\ e i lr( ulara, Address 
LAWKKNCi!;. W1LHA.HS& CO.. Cleveland. O. 



Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the lead In practical progress. Send for price list 
W. EVANS. 39 Poet St., 8. F. 



~ T The •"liiii.liir.l \la.hlne. 

Different sizes and prices. lUiiBtrntea Cat!»lo(tne free. 
Till-: BLYM YEK IKON \VUKK8 CO., C'liicliinatl,0. 

DAottnifltAlin requeflted to bo sure and notify us 
■ lISI lllnM III N wheu this paper is not taken from 
I VUIUIUUIUIU their ullice. If not stopped promptly 
through overalKht or other mishapl, do ua the aror tu 

^^tvcE or th,^ 

'"Miriing and 

Scientific Press 

Pad He . 

F^urai Press* 




[X NO -Ji> - 


1WOH0P5E ^ ; Wood & steel ■ ■ 





^5?oH°BrcE^;".iH-"«TAM0US MF'G.CO.chicaqo ill 




July 5, 1890.] 

f AciFie [^uraid press. 




A Select School for "Voung' Ladies. 

Fourteenth year. Fifteen Professors and Teachers. 
The next Setsion will hezln on Monday, July 28, 1890. 
For Catalogue or information address the Principal, 
1036 Valencia Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

If you want a first class thdroiii li m IiooI. and a 
pleasant, refined, safe home lor your lioys, send 
them to 


Oakland, OaliforDla. 
Send for Catalogrue to 

W. W. ANDBKSON, Principal. 


Seminary Park, Alameda County, California. 


For full information, address MRS. C. T. MILLS, Mills 
College P. O. 


Classical and Military Academy, 

1020 Oak St., Oakland, Cal. 
Term begins July 16,h. 
COI,. W. H. O'BRIEN, Snperintendenf . 


Universtly Avenue, - - - Berkeley, Cal. 


References to parents of pupils who have entered the 
University from this school. Send lor circular. 

T. S. BOWENS, B. A., 

Head Master. 



Superior advantages in Seminary studies, including 
English, Ancient and Modern Languages, Music, Draw- 
ing and Painting. Locilion beautiful, building modern, 
climate healthful and home influences desirable. 

Next term commences Aug. 4, 1890. Address 
JOHN M. CHASE, Vallejo. Cal. 



24 POST ST.. 8. P. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book, 
seeping. Telegraphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
gilsn branches, and everything pertaining to buelneas, 
for six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our achool bac 
Its graduates In every part of tba State. 

jrSlND FOR ClROtniAR. 

E. P. HBALD, Prealdeol. 

0, 8. HALKT, Secretory. 


Vacations. Day and Etbninq Sbssioks. 

Ladies admitted Into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, M. A.. President. 

Snell Seminary for Young \_mis, 

568 TATVEXjI'TIX ST., O^I5:ij^]Xri3 , 


Full Seminary Course of Instruction given. Pupils Stted to enter the State University 
and Vassar or Smith College. Send for Circular to 

MARY F!. SNELL. ' PrlnolnalH 

RICHARD B. SNELL, I t^rmctpals. 



This is a new Compound for Preventing Mill< from 
Souring. Dairymen by the use of this can raise ull the 
Cream in the hottest weather. For sale by 

203 Fremont Street, - - San Francisco. 


"Oreenbanit" 98 degrees POWDERED OAUS- 
TIO SODA (tests 99 3-10 per cent) recommended b; 
the highest authorities In the State. Also CommOE 
Caostic Soda and Potash, etc., tor sale by 

Manafaotarers' Asenta, 
104 MarkatSt and 8 OaUfornla St., S F. 


PtrmiKCst, Moat T>>iraMe, En^fcst Hunnlnc', nnl In every war TITE JlEST PKET) 
' TTKlt ,„„.ic._AII Si,. .. r„r Il-.n-l or Pr>«rr. Carrier, inv l.ngth. For I.n^ 
' " ~ ' " 1 Cutnloguc 

'Ii-braitd Oititr iii.lal Fiiiiniiii; Mill 

. »rj\nufa<.turer(i of tl 
] of llor*. I' and H.n 





Best and Strongest Ei jlosiyes in tlie f orli. 

As other makers IMITATE oar Oiant Powder, so do they Jndson, by Mano&otarlng 
a second-grade, inferior to Jndson. 

BANOMANN. NIELSEN & CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 

The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank Blasting. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stump, Tree or Root olear 
out of ground at less cost than grubbing. 
Railroaders and Fanners use no other. 



DsiQg 1118 BeDoit Comgiteil Rollers, 


has been in Use on this Coast for 9 years, 


Four years in succes.sion, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon. 

It is the most economical and durable Feed-Mill in use. I am sole 
manufacturer of the Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all ready to 
mount on wagons. 

Chico, Cm,.. Feb. 1, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. Mery, Esq —Dear Sir: The !)xH Barley 
Crusher bought of you and used in the Califonii* 
Mills gave entire satisfuction; have crushed 8000 
pounds an hour I have also crushed as much or 
more on set 10x20 when wortiing forUeneral Bid well, 
which set he is using in his mill to-day. Yours truly, 

pr-rnr Traver, May 3, 1887. 

Having used one of the Barley Crushers manufact- 
ured by M. L. Mery, of Chico, Butte County, I can 
say it will do all that is claimed for it, and to those 
wishing an A No. 1 machine, I would recommend it 
as the very best. I have crushed X> tons in 11 hours' 
worlf. J. D. GOLDEN. 

M. L. Mery, Manufacturer, Chico, Cal. 

1 thank the public for their Icind pratronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico, Cal. 


Golden Gate, Ocean Spray, Embossed, Front Washout, 
and Cliff-Stream Back Washout Closets 

Willi the Suprine Tank made by J. BUDDE, are the best made and 

Gold Medal awarded at State Fair, 1S88 and 1839. 
I claim to have the largest and most complete stock of Water Closets 
on the Pacific Coast. 

Handsome Woodwork, Latest Designs. 

Joseph Budde's Cliff-Stream, 
Embossed Back Washout Closet, 
with Tank. 

The Popular 
with Trap. 

Joseph Budtle's Oce.m Spray Em- 
bossod *'ront Washout Closet, with 
Tank anu Mahogany Seat attached. 


S. Freeman & Sons Mfg. Co,, Racine, Wis. 


With Patent Spiral Spring Lazv Back. Has a 
very soft and easy fprlnf;; is well-proportioned, 
roomy andj ccmfortahit). Has seat for two, 
wooden dash atd box under seat for parcels. 
Body is framed, glued, and strengthened 'by 
roclier-platos and steel braces. Finitbed in rich 
.Scarlet Lake, or Brewster Green, with Black 
body. Substantial one-incii Sirven wheel, 15-16 
inch steel axle. U^holatcring, Corduroy or 
Evans Leather. Shafts leatlier trimmed. Weight 
IT.'j lbs. Shipped securely crated. Fully war- 

HAaNESS, Etc. 


33 AND 35 

, San FraocisGo. 

DEWEY & CO. { 

aao MABKBT ST. S, K. 
BlevAtor, la Front. 



f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS, 

[July 5, 1 90 



Factory, Worcester, Mass. 




Made from Tested Steel Wire and 
Fully Warranted. 


OF- ■ 


Save imt:, *D tncy are fastened readily. 

Insure a^'ainst loss of hay resulting from brokSD bands. 

Make Bales of Uniform Size. 

All Lengths and Sizes Carried in Stock. 

We Solicit a Sainplu Order. 

Better Than Wire! Cheaper Than Rope! 

To set the length of Tie required, add three inches to th( 
measure around the bale when under pressure 
Cost of Hale Ties is from 25 to 60 cents per ton of hay. 

Write for Price Lists and Discounte. Address 


31 IMLetlTX St., Saxx Fx>ei,jaclisco. 



Can be Easily Operated. Is Fireproof and Durable. 

Write for Circulars to 






Warebonse and Wharf at Port Oosta. 


Money advanced on Qraln In Store at lowest possible rates of interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wbeat fumlsbed Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricoltnral Implements, Wa^ns, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN BVBBY, ManaKar. A. M. BELT, Aonlstant Manager 


We have on hand or make to order any style or .lattern. 

Specialty— Henderson Buckboard, Stages, Wagonettes. 


Stockton, Cal. 



Ig the most beautiful tract of land in Santa Cruz. It commands charming views of the whole of Monterey y, of 
the Pacific ocean and uf the Santa Cruz mountains, it lies on a handsome, elevated plateau, fronts on the jous 
Cliff Drive, at the wildefit and most picturefque part of the bay shore, and adjoins Garfield Park, whi the 
Chri8tian Church of California is now erecting a $15,000 tabernacle and where thousands of people will s mer 
annually from this year on. 

LOTS, 50x125, $200 TO $400, 

Fronting wide and beautiful avenues, on easy terms. 
Slaps of Santa Cruz and Surfside, price lists and descriptive matter mailed free to any address. 


E. A. ORENNAN, Resident Manager, 624 MARKET ST., San Fran< .co. 

127 Paclflc Avenue, Santa Cruz. 

Send'for Catalogue of RAISIN MACHINERY to 



We now offer our Enti e Stock of 

Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons. 4 Spring Wagons, Carts, Hsiess 
and Lap Robes. 

BRIGGS CARRIAGE CO., 220 & 222 Mission St 

O. ORXSOO. -<?%^e;oixt. '■'AN FRANCISCO. AL 



The only Sickle Grinder that does its work thoroughly. 
Grinds anvthini.' on a ranch. Grinds one or bith sides 
of a section at the same time. Coruuduiu Stone doesn't 
heat or wear out. 

G. "W. LEWIS, 120 Sutter Btreet, 8. F. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. 

C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 


Crockett, Contra Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


Porlalile Stnw-Bumiiig Boilers 4 EngUies. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Qrape Ciashers and Stemmers. Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pnmpe, and all appliances used in 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumpe. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 


• J.32 Poet Street 

It is a fact universally con- 
ceded that the Knabb sur- 
passes all other instruments 



An Iron Ferrule, which incloses three sides of 9 slat- 
end, with a rivet passing through this Fert 1. 


Partirs desiring these Protectors for Header 'rapers 

or Comlined Threshers made with thiiii on, ua get 
them by addressing 


Freanc Cal. 




This is an apparatus to urnlag 
straw and sulphur and a foroea 
the fumes down their ho which 
never fails to kill. I wll re tlOO 
in caae the exterminator m* Dot 
kill (if properly applied every 
ground squirrel that ii iestbly 
fumes comes in conta with. 
Thousands are in use, P 3 SS.OO. 
Send for circulars to 

F. B. BROW. 1. 
30 a. Main St, Los Angele 0»L 

JoLY 5 1890.1 

f ACiFie ^URAb PRESS. 


State Horticultural Society. 

At the regalar meeting held Jane 27th at the 
State Board of Trade, Judge Blackwood pre- 
sided in the absence of President Hilgard, who 
was in Southern California. Dr. Gastav Eisen 
was elected a refiular member. 

The Board of Directors reported that a prop- 
osition had been received from Dawey & Co. to 
furnish a stenographer and publish a full report 
nf the proofledings of the society in the Rural 
Press for $5 a meeting. The directors advised 
that the proposition should be accepted on trial, 
the arrangement to terminate whenever deemed 
advisable by the society. The proposition was 
agreed to. 

The directors also presented the following 
for the approval of the society : 

That the State Horticultural Society desires 
to impress upon those intrusted with the Oali- 
fornia exhibit at the Chicago World's Fair the 
desirability of having departments under the 
immediate management and control of ex- 
perts in the branches of production repre- 
sented, and in accordance with this plan it 
urges that the display of horticultural products 
should be conducted by practical borticult- 

That our delegates to the World's Fair Con- 
vention be instructed to present this proposi- 
tion for the approval of that body. 

The resolutions were adopted. 

Mr. Lelopg exhibited peach apricots from R. 
C. Kells of Yuba City, of which seven weighed 
two pounds and the fruit measured 6^x7 inches 
in circumference. Mr. Lslong showed also the 
Prunus Simoni grown by Mr. Thomas of 
Visalia, which was reported to have sold in 
the East at $12 per orate, after having been 20 
days en route — showing the durability of the 
variety as well as its acceptability at the Eiet. 
He also showed the Clyman plum, a California 
seedlinp', which has sold this year notably well 
at the East. 

The Secretary showed the Grelok plum as 
grown and prooagated by Chapin & Meeker of 
Poway, San Diego county, a plum of the 
cherry plum class, but ripening two weeks 
earlier than the common oherry-plum, and not- 
ably superior to it in quality and in appearance. 

Howard Overacker, Jr., exhibited the trunk 
and stump of a prune tree worked on the apri- 
cot root, on which the top had broken cquarely 
off at the juncture of the two woode, although 
it bad attained four inches in diameter. Mr. 
Overacker also showed peaches thinned and 
unthinned to illustrate the attainment of size 
by thinning. Mr. Wolleb exhibited Schmidt's 
Bigarreau oherry, a handsome black variety re- 
cently introduced. 

Fruit ProBpecta and Prices. 
R^v. A. H. Perkins of Alameda reported the 
prune crop fair in his region, and early peaches 

Judge Blackwood of Haywards reported apri- 
cots a light, crop, Bartlett pears fair; prunes 
have gained in size, and will produce fair 
weight, though lo'^s in point of numbers. He 
had been offered 2^c. per pound for his apricots, 
which is much better than earlier In the season, 
and he had come to the conclusion tha*', as a 
rule, it is not advisable for growers to sell 
futures on their fruit. 

Howard Overacker, Jr., of Niles. reported 
apricots a short crop, prunes good. Bartlett 
pears fair. Prices have improved; 2^c. is of- 
fered for peaches and 3a. for Birtletts. 

I. A. Wilcox of Santa Clara reported that 
some fruits had dropped badly. Peaches were 
a good crop. Prunes had sold for ^^(Si'io. per 

W. G. Klee, who had recently visited Ventura 
county, reported the apricot crop very large. 

Dr. Eispu reported the outlook for the raisin 
output of Fresno about the same as last year. 

I. H. Thomas, of Visalia, reported by letter 
as follows: "The grape yield in this county 
and Fresno will be large; prices in sweat boxes 
5 to 5^ cents. Apricots will all be dried in a few 
days; selling at 11 to 12 cents dried. The 
peach crop will be fair. Prices for green fruit 
for drying 1^ cents per pound, Prices offered 
for dried peaches 11^ to 13 cents per pound." 

There was a general discussion concerning 
the desirability of obtaining fuller reports of 
crop prospects and prices. Mr. Bancroft urged 
that the society should undertake this work, 
and Rsv. A. H. Perkins thought it would be 
feasible, by aid of blanks sent out to growers, 
to get valuable reports. Upon motion, the 
subject was referred to the Board of Directors, 
to perfect and submit a plan of operation which 
could be tried during the next fruit s^-ason. 

A letter was read from John G. Jessap, of 
Oregon, asking the society what steps had been 
taken in regard to committees appointed to 
erect a monument to the memory of his father, 
W. H. Jeesup, who died in New Orleans while 
attending to the business of the society at the 
exhibition two years ago. 

The Secretary stated that it was understood 
that the money due the society for premiums 
for fruit exhibited in Mr. Jessup's name at the 
New Orleans exhibition should be devoted to 
erecting the monument, but Mrs. Jessup had 
received the money and devoted it, by the ad- 
vice of friends, to other purposes. 

An essay on cherry growing, written by W. 
H. Pepper, of Petalnma, was read by the 
Secretary. The essay la given on another page 
of this Issue. 

A general discussion of the coming World's 
Fair, at Chicago, was had but no action was 

B. M. LsloDg distributed copies of hit printed 

report of his recent investigation of fruit pros- 
pects and insect matters at the East and South, 
and exhibited specimens of the injurious and 
beneficial insects which he had collected. The 
subjects were received with much interest by 

Mr. C. B. Turrill suggested that the chief of 
the department of the census embracing the 
statistics of horticulture be communicated with 
and asked, if it be found impossible for him to 
visit California, to appoint a Californian horti- 
culturist to supervise the collection of statistics 
relative to California horticulture. The secre- 
tary was instructed to correspond about the 

Dr. Gustav Eisen accepted an invitation to 
address the society, at its next meeting, on the 
raisin industry. 

Against Brutality. 

Governor Waterman has placed himself hon- 
orably upon record as earnestly opposed to the 
brutal slogging matches which are, by their 
viciousness and frequency, giving our State a 
vile name and outraging every sense of decency. 
He has written the following letter: 

G. A, Johnson, Attorney General, Sacramento — 
Dear Sir: The fair name, honor and renown of 
California has ever been dear to me, whether in the 
private capicity of a citizen or as one in the occu- 
pancy of official position. In my devotion to the 
interests of California, in the endeavors I have al- 
ways made in behalf of her progress and prosperity, 
and my ambition to see her occupy the front rank in 
the States of the Union, I have been actuated by 
the purest and sincerest of motives. In this I have 
not occupied an isolated place, but have found my- 
self one among many. In my official and personal 
intercourse with yourself, it has been my good for- 
tune to be thoroughly in accord with yourself on 
many propositions, and particularly those affecting 
the progress and prosperity of California, and 1 take 
this opportunity in connection therewith to thank 
you thus publicly for the many courtesies 1 have 
received personally at your hands and the assistance 
at all times rendered the Executive office. 

Therefore, in furtherance of our mutual views 
respecting the position occupied by California at 
home and abroad, I desire most sincerely to direct 
your attention to the fact that the State has been 
thoroughly and completely disgraced by the main- 
tenance of organizations given up to degrading and 
disgusting exhibitions of brute force in the so-called 
scientific contests between so-called scientific ath- 
letes, which are nothing more nor less than prize- 
fights, in opposition to decency and the good order 
of society, against which the law made and provided 
in such cases should be operative in those localities 
of the State where these unlawful practices take 
place. They should no longer be permitted to de- 
fame and degrade the soil of our State, and the 
mere fact that is advanced that their patrons con- 
sist of those in the higher walks of life, should be a 
still further incentive to put an end to the exhibi- 
tions alluded to, in order that their pernicious ex- 
ample may not affect those in the lower walks of 

As it is now, it is an evil and a shame, producing 
no good or benefit, and only indulged in js a mere 
speculation by those who pursue prize-fighting as a 
means of subsistence and support, and for gam- 
bling purposes. Will you do me the favor, in the 
absolute interests of the State, of inquiring into the 
matter, and if the local officers of law are not able 
to cope with the subject, I invoke your aid, as the 
chief law officer of the State, and ask you to pro- 
ceed immedtately and take such decisive action and 
measures as will in the future preserve and protect 
from so foul a blot the escutcheon of the State of 
California. Yours, very truly, 

R. W. Waterman, Governor. 

From the Huer-Huero. 

Editors Press : — While we highlanders of 
the chaparral may see ourselves outstriped by 
our neighbors of the valley in many ways, still, 
like Danald of the Glen, we have our recom- 
penses and enjoyments. AtCreston our friends 
have a Grange and a Farmers' Alliance, both in 
full blast. They also have a beautiful school- 
house with gingerbread all ever it and a silver- 
tongued bell away up in the dome. The car- 
penters are hammering away at two new church 
buildings for them, and their goose seems 
otherwise to honk at a considerable altitude. 

We of the Huer-Huero do not envy our 
neighbors for these things nor expect to rival 
them in their prosperity. We are plain coun- 
try folk and do not try to put on city airs. 
Our schoolhouse is modest, for it had to be 
measured by our purses. It is being built from 
the proceeds of a tax upon the di°trict, which 
was carried without a dissenting voice. 

We bad a picnic there the other day — the 
first one ever er joyed by us in this neighbor- 
hood, and the Rev. Mr. Allan of Oreston a few 
Sundays ago delivered to us the first sermon 
that ever found its way into these hills. 

A neighbor also a short time ago had one of 
his horses stolen, so you see we are coming 
rapidly to the front in the ways of civilization. 

The young orchards set out last spring are 
promising well and we are persuaded that be- 
fore many years we will be heard from in the 
way of fine frnits of almost every description 
that can be grown In the State. 

The Government land hereaboats is all taken 
except the very roughest. Good land cin still 
be had at a low price, but will soon rise in value, 
as it is proving its great adaptability for fruit 
trees and vines. J K. T. 

Grettton, S. L. O. Co , June 25, 1890. 

The first drive of logs on the Truokee river 
made bv a local lumber company contained 
4,000,000 feet, 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported bv Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


43°. 767-— Tube-Cleaner— F. Brady, San Quen- 
tin, Cal. 

430,828 —Cultivator— J. D. Burkhart, Day- 
ton, Wash. 

430.779-— Latch-Opener — W. M. Leavens, 
S. F. 

430,807.— Gas Apparatus— McColIum & Burt, 
Riverside, Cal. 

430,669.— Animal Shears— D. F. McDonald, 
Berkeley, Cal. 

430,667.— Ship's Berth — D. F. McDonald, 
Berkeley, Cal. 

430,741.— Ore Furnace — J. R. Moflfitt, Chi- 
nese Camp, Cal. 

43t,oo2. — Bed-Lounge— A. Morris, S. F. 

430,787. — Attaching Addresses to Labels, 
Etc.— j. D. Robertson, S. F. 

430,762.— Drier— H. H. Taylor, Santa Rosa, 

430,710. — Welding Machine — Toulouse & 
Delorieux, S. F. 

430,904.— Car Coupling — G. W. Weller, 
Biker City, Or. 

The following brief list by telegraph for July 1, will 
appear more complete on receipt of mall advices: 

California— Peter Abrahamaon, S. F. , oven-door; 
George D. Crocker, Oakland, awiogine-window; George 
Cummings, S. F., automatic damper for steam boilers; 
Frederick Gutzkow, S F . elevator; Charlea R. Hay, as- 
signor of one-balf to R. H. Marchant, S. F., can-printing 
devine; Bartlett Mclatyre, aaeignnr to Vulcan Iron 
Worka, S. F., gang edger; George W. Thisaell, Pleasant 
Valley, fruit-grader. Washington— Hans O. Strand, 
Montisano, shingle-cutter and dresaer. Oregon — -'eorge 
B. Williama, PortUnd, ant >matic air-brake; George 
B. Williams, Portland, releasing attachmenb for air- 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co. , in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent busineaa for Pacific Co^ist 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the ahorteat poaaible time. 

Progress in San Diego. 

San Diego is not to-day considered a boom- 
ing city and possibly has less Inhabitants than 
when the census enumerator began work, yet 
he who thinks that when the "boom" died the 
city also died errs greatly. The reaction from 
the wild excitement of speculative days caused 
city and county alike to pause, but after a few 
short months when values had again settled to 
a working basis, new enterpris&s were pro- 
jected and to-day the faith of the people in 
their beautiful city and its tributary country is 
stronger than ever. This summer finds more 
street-paving being done than any other one 
season in the history of the city. I might al- 
most say more than all former efforts combined. 
Within the past few weeks the first cable-car 
line of the city has been opened to the public 
and as a model of consl'rnction and equipment 
it bears inspection. Throughout the county 
increased willingness to invest capital is shown. 
The Jamul cement works are being developed 
and will soon be ready for business. This 
summer the Otay Watch Co. madp their first 
watch. This summer also the West Coast 
Match Co. of National City manufactured their 
first matches. The manufactures of asbestos, 
paints, and terra cotta ware is rapidly increae- 
ing. Iron works for the production of mill, 
mining and ranch machinery are doing their 
part to develop the surrounding country. Of 
these and other industries, many and varied, I 
shall in the future give a more mino»^e descrip- 
tion. J. B. H. 

An Excellent School for Girls. 

The Snell Seminary — a view of which ap- 
pea-B upon another page — has been established 
in Otkland for a dozen years. It enjoys a well- 
won reputation as a school where pupils not 
only receive thorough intellectual drill and in- 
struction in all branches deemed most desirable 
for young ladies, but are also subject to such 
influences and training as tend to form noble 
characters and adorn them with the graces of 
true womanhood, The location and appoint- 
ments of the buildings, the high aims and long 
experience of the principals, and the general 
esteem in which the institution is held, all com- 
mend it to the favorable consideration of 
parents who have daughters to educate. 

A Holstein Dairy in Berkeley. 

The San Jo°e Mercury of June 26th says: 
A carload of fine Holstein-Friesian cattle sold 
by Geo. B. Polhsmus to P. G. Galpin of the 
firm of Doyle, Galpin & Co., lawyers of Sm 
Francisco, passed through the town last night. 
The cattle presented a magnificent appearance, 
and are not only a credit to Mr. Polhemns but 
to Santa Clara county. It is safe to say that a 
finer lot of cattle cannot be found." 

These cattle were en route for Mr. Galpin's 
ranch near Berkeley, Alameda county, where 
he has fitted up a dairy with the latest im- 
proved machinery and appliances to properly 
match the fine cattle with which the lands are 
to be stocked. Mr. Gilpin will find much sat- 
isfaction in this progressive undertaking. 

Tacoma Portrayed.— Will Carson has pub- 
lished a very large view of Tacoma in colors. 
Accurate sketches of the buildings and the 
general surroundings give a very good notion, 
of the city and Its looation, 

Fruit Outlook in Southern Oregon. 
H. Cartel, volunteer United States Si 
Service observer at Ashland, speaking of i 
crop outlook in Southern Oregon to a reporter, 
said: "We will have the finest crop of fruit 
this year, size and quality considered, Southern 
Oregon has ever seen. The yield, too, i?ill be 
larger than in any year past. A number of 
young orchards are just beginning to bear, and 
the trees are all healthy and thrifty. As for 
peaches, we can beat any other section in the 
State. They are absolutely as fine an article 
of that fruit as the world produces. Ashland 
will ship more fruit this year than ever before, 
and we also htwe prospects of getting one or 
more canneries." 

A Racer Undervalued. — A Terre Haute 
dispatch says that the famous racehorse Axtell 
has been assessed at $8000. The Farmers' AU 
liance is not patitfied. The members claim that 
Axtell cost $105,000 and earned $40,000 the 
past season, and that $75 000 is a fair cash valn- 
ation. Axtell's owners threaten to remove him 
from Terre Haute if the assessment is made 

Glanders in Santa Barbara Co.— The 
Lompoc Record refers to Soren Lirsen, an ex- 
perienced veterinary surgeon, as authority for 
the statement that there are quite a number of 
glandered horses in that vicinity — enough, if 
not disposed of or cured, to spread the disease 
through all that portion of the country. 

Agricultural Directors.— E C. Voorhees 
of Amador county and Eugene J. Gregorv of 
Sicramento were appointed directors of Dis- 
trict Board of Agriculture No. 26, by the Gov- 
ernor, on the 26 h ult. 

Twenty five stone cutters at the Stanford 
University were discharged on Monday of last 
week. They will not be re-employed until 
Stanford returns from E irope, in August. 

Recent Improvements at Santa 

Pertinent to the views of Santa Cruz, which 
appear upon the first page of this issue, are 
some statements concerning the recent improve- 
ments and development of the country, for 
which we are indebted to the Carnall-Fitzhugh- 
Hopkins Co. of San Francisco, a firm which is 
taking a leading part in the progress of the re- 

The magnificent beach, the delightful cli- 
mate, and the picturesque environment of 
Santa Cruz have made it a name in almost 
every land in the world, and lately the denom- 
inational church societies have here followed 
the example of the Methodists in founding 
their now widely known summering place at 
Pacific Grove. The natural advantages and 
the abundant rail facilities of Santa Cruz have 
attracted more than one church to establish 
here a summer home at the seaside. The most 
important of these is 

Garfield Park, 

The establishment of the Christian Church of 
California. It is located within the city limits, 
and occupies ten acres of land on a handsome 
plateau In full view of Monterey bay, in the 
center of which tract there is now in conrse of 
construction a Tabernacle with a seating capac- 
ity of 2000, to cost when completed $15,000. 
Already cottages of the members of this church 
are going up on the lots of Garfi'jld Park, and 
by midsummer of this year the Tabernacle 
will be completed, and an encampment of 
many thousands of people will be in session at 
this point. Here will be the very life center of 
this flourishing and ambitious church society; 
and before the end of this year its educators 
propose to found in the vicinity of Garfield 
Park a sectarian college of first-class order, and 
thus establish an educational center that will 
be of great advantage to the locality. 


Another enterprise which is now claiming 
much attention is one in which the Carnall- 
Fitzhnesh- Hopkins Co. and their resident man- 
ager, E. A. Crennan of Santa Cruz, are con- 
ducting with much enterprise. The tract Is 
properly named " Snrfside," and it occupies a 
high tableland in the southwestern part of the 
city, and commands the most extended views 
of all that picturesque scenery described above 
— from the farthest end of Monterey bay to the 
summit of the Santa Cruz mountains. It lies 
adjacent to the curvilinear streets of Garfield 
Park and extends down to the shore line, 
fronting on the famous Ciiff drive and over- 
looking the wildest part of the whole coast of 
the bay, where the most msgaificent displays 
of surf may be seen. Its avenues are the near- 
est thoroughfares from the businrss part of the 
city, and from the Tabernacle in Garfield Park 
down to this part of the cliff, which attracts 
thousands of people, winter and summer, to 
view the wild play of the waves upon the rug- 
ged shore. 

Surfside has been laid off with broad streets 
and avenues, and subdivided into large, hand- 
some lots. Its drainage is perfect. The pipes 
of the water company are laid to it. Its posi- 
tion is unparalleled. Its views are charming. 
Its roads and drives are delightful. 

An advertisement in this issue gives other 
facts concerning this property, and indicates 
how those interested may by inquiry receive 
■till further information, 


f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[July 5, 1890 

breeders' birectory. 

Six llnee or len Id this Directory at 60c p«r lln* per month, 


JERSEY BUr.L No. 408 p. C. J. C. C. for sale 
cheap. A fine fout-.vear-old animal. Addiees Dellwood 
Poultry Yards, Napa, Cal. 


Uorees and Hoist eia Friegi&n Cattle from the most 
noted families. H. P. Mohr, Mt. Eden, AUroedaOo., 
Cal. Visitors welcome. Correspondence solicited. 

J R. ROSE, I'ikevil'e, Sonoma Co , Cal. , breeder of 
Thoronshbred Devons, RoadEters and Draft Horses. 

CHARI-.?!S F. HUMBERT, Cloverdale, Cal., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Kecorded Holatein-Friesiao 
Cattle. CataloKues on application. 

A. Heilbron & Bro., Props., S.ic Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruiksliunk Shorthorns; also Registered 
Ueretords; a floe lot of young bulls in each herd for sale. 

PEROHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horsegand 
niares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at my 
ranch near Lakepurt, Laice Co., Cal. New catalogue now 
ready. Wm. B Collier. 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holslein and Jersey Cattle. None better. 

beat thoroughbied Poultry and Kggs. Address Uibbaid 
& Ellis, Sinta Rosa Breeding Association, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn's Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer & Breeder 
of registered shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Young stock for sale. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, BoDom* Co., CaL, bieedei 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hol- 
gtelns, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

GEO. B. POLHKMU8, Coyote, Cal. Holstein-Fries- 
ian cattle, comprising males and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 1»$9, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTBB SAXB St SON, Lick House, San Frandsco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, o( 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

GEO. BEMBNT & SON, Maple Grove Farm, Oak- 
land P. O., breeders of Ayrshire Cattle S, Essex Swine. 

HBNRY HAMILTON, Westley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
stein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for gale. 

BL ROBLAR RANOHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal., Francis T. Underbill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mall. C F. Swan, manager. 


JOHN McFARLtNG, 706 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
for Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Pigg. 

B. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 

E. F. Musson, Fitclibourgh, San Leandro, Cal. 

Oal.; send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Thoroughbred F iwls and HgifS for Hatching. Light 
Brabma<i, Langshan^, Plymouth Rocks, Brown, Black 
and Wnite Lr^'borns, $2 00: Houdans and Buff Cochins, 
$] 60; Minorcas and S anish, $100 per 13. Cienuine 
Imperial Pekin Ducks' Eggs, $1.60 per 11. 

O. J. ALBEE, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 

OHAS. R. HARKER. Santa Clara, Calif. White 

Plymouth Rocks, exclusively. None lietter anywhere, 
Eai^t or West, If you want the latest and best improve- 
ment in poultrj, get geimine White Pljniduth Rocks. 
Write for prices. Eggs, $3 per 13; packed to go safely 
any distance. 


Ferry, Cal. , breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for sale. 

L. U. SHIPPBB, Stockton, Cal., importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys k Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

a. W. WOOLSEY & SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
k breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 

B. H. OBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer. 
South Down Sheep from Illinois and England for gale. 

AMDBEW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; gee adv't. 


JOSEPH MELVIN, DavigvUle, CtX., Breeder of 
Polan d-China Hogs^ 

WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pies. Circulars free. 

TTLBB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., bre«def of 
Ihoraughbred Berkghlre and Essex Hogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal ; see adv't 


APIARIAN SUPPLIES for gale by Urs. J. D. 
Enag, Napa City, Cal. 


That the public should know that for the past Eighteen Year* our Sole Baslnegg has been, and now Is 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) ami breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jack.?, Short Horns, Ayrshires, 
and Jerseys (er Aldemeys) and their gr.'ules; also, all the Tarieties of breeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at very reasonable price* and on conTenient 
term*. Write or caU on us. PETER SAXE and HOMKR P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct 22, l&SiS. PKTKR SAXE &. SON, Lick Boa**, 8. F. 

A. XJ O T I 




The Late O. Younger 
At Public Sale, Tuesday, July 8, 1890, 

1 1 A. IM., at 


Twnty-two trains a day to all pait? of the Coast. Major- 
ity of Premiums and Gold Medal won by this herd, State 
Fair, 1SS9. Mdk, Beef and Show Ring is the foundation of 
this herd. Six months' credit on bankable paper. 

ED. YOUKGEK, Manager. 
KILLIP & CO , Auctioneers. 

82 Men'KonDery St., San Franciscn. 






Young Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal guaranteed. 
OPFICB-ai8 OaUfomla St., San Francisco. REDWOOD CITY, CAL. 


Ducks, Turkeys, Geese, Peacocks, Etc. 


Publisher of "Nlles' Paclflc Ooast Poultry and Stock Book,'' 

\ new book on suljectB connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
tiiij Pacilic Coast Price 50 cents, post-)>aid. Inclose stamp for information. 


Jersey and Holstein Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles. Cal. 


W€^T^W\ Live Stock Owners' Mutual 
I Protective Association, 


HON. B. V. SARGENT, President 

G. W. GVLLANAR, SerretBrv. 

.JAMES E. PALMER, Business Manager. 

EDW. INGRAM, Vice-President 
FUKl). D. HOWARD, Actuary. 
R. H. WILLEY, Attorney. 


VOLNEY HOWARD, General Manager. 

Little's Chemical Fluid Non-Poisonous 


One gallon, mixed with CO gallons of cold water, will dip thoroughly 180 
sheep, at a cost of one cent each. Easily applied; a nouribher of wool; a certain 
cure for SCAB. Also 

X-alttle's PAtenl; Fo-c^dex- Sits. 


Mixes instantly with water. Prevents the Hy from striking. In a two-pound 
package there is sutlicient to dip 20 sheep, and in a seven-po;ind package there is 
suflTK-ient to dip 100 sheep. 
O .A^ T T O N , B U Xj Ij cfis GO., 


Successors to FALKNER, BELL & CO.), 
STRBHiT, .... 


COLTS mm. 


One and a half miles northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Ooaoty, has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded ut all times, 



p. O. Box 149, f?an Lenndro, Oal 

Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
Baden Station. - San Mateo Oo.. OaL 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Graddatkd April 22, 1870. 
AdTloa by Hall, $2. 


No, 11 Seyenlli St., near Mariel, San Fraicisco, Cal. 

nnen Day and Night. Telephone. No. SSftS. 

Veterinary College. 

^oxjiwi^jsia XOS3. 

Thf mitst succf-ssful .-ollt.L'O <in Ihrs cmtineiit. 
F.T liirther piirlicuWrs aiiilrcss the Sccretiiiy, 

.lOM. HUOIIRS, IM. K. C. T. S., 
S.%:i7-2.';:lO fttnte .Street, Chlrnica, III. 

Superior Wood and Hetal Engrav- 
r IIk 1 H Vin&' lug. Eleotrotyping and Stereotyping 
kllQI Ul lllQ-done at theoffloeof tUs paper. 



Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 19 head of Imported Stock. 

Young liulls and Crossbreds on Devons for salL'. 

zz. avr:Ecn.A.ivr. 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all imported from Entrland in 'ss, or bred 
direct from Imported Stock, and all registered. 

■ t!RKEI>i:K or- 

American Merino Sheep Without Horns. 

The only llock in the United States. When we bouKht 
our sheep East 20 years ago, among them was a ram with- 
out horns. He grew to he a large fine »hcep, shearing at 
2 years old, a 12 months' llcece, 3& lbs. of long white wool. 

I have bred from him and bis get ever since and have 
never made an out-cross and.never used the same ram but 
one year on the same tluck. My rams at 2 years old will 
weigh from 160 to 180 lbs.; have a strong constitution, 
without wrinkles, and will shear on an average about 25 
IbH., a 12 months' fleece, of long white wool. Rams and 
Ewes for sale. P. O. Address: 

Stony Point, near Petaluma, Cal. 

FRANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal. 




Orders promptly filled and satiffa tion guaranteed. 



Los Angeles, Cal., 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Fnll-Blonded 
Yorkshire. CIsvel md 
Bar, OldeiibnrK, Ger- 
-• man Coach and Kn- 
-gllHli Bhire Draft Stal- 
.<' lions. The best Coach and 
1^ Dr«ft Horses in the world. 
Stabiles permanent'y located. 
Third Importation. We give Ristprn prices and guar- 
antee our horsfs. Correspondence solicited. Adaress 

lOOS OllTe St., Lot Angeles, Oaf. 
Our Horses are full registered in Europe and America. 


1616 and 1618 Mission St., 
Telephone No. 8003. SA.V FKAN'CISCO. 

W ATKINS & DTJHIO, Proprietors, 


Horses bought and sold. Auction Sales every Wednes* 
day and Saturday at 11 A. H. A full I'no of Draught, 
Driving. Saddle and Business Horses. Part'cular atten- 
tion paid to country sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale h' rsag. Stock sold on commiseion 
and boarded at low rat«8. 

July 2, 1890.] 



Account Book 


The Dairyman's Account Book Is the moit 
practical thiii^c of the kind ever seen. It 
gives ruled pages for daily record of milk 
yield, butter made, and sales, for 12 months ; 
convenient size, nicely printed and bound. 
Wells, Kichardson. & Co., Burlington, Vt., 
manufacturers of tlie celebrated Improved 
Butter Color, the purest, strongest, and 
brightest color made, will send a copy free 
to any butter maker who writes enclosing 
stamp. Also sample of their Butter Color 
to those who have never used it, and a 
pi-etty birthday card for the baby, if you asl6 

PoJuTi^Y; Etc. 


Oor. 17tb St Oaetro Sts., Oakland, Oal. 

Manufactory of the PACSl- 
BROODER. Agency of 
the celebrated silver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilaoa Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances In great variety. 
I Also every variety of land 

and water Fowl, which 

have won first prizes wherever exhibited. E^gs for 
natchtng. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Oulde, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp for 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1817 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

raiskd bt IBB l=»ot;«.lx».xaa.*», 


Afford more profit than any other busi- 
ness for the capital invested. The 
most successful machines made; any 
one can manage them. A large 32 
page Illus rated Catalogue, describing 
Incubators, Brooders, etc., sent to any 
address on receipt of 2o stamp. Cort- 
tains more information than is given 
m many 25c books. Address, 



1812 Myrtle Street. Oakland, Cal. 

I> Send Stamp for Circular. 

EGOS FOR H4TOHJNG from Prize- Winning 
Black Lnngahans. My birds are first-class. $3 for 13 
eggg. Corrcsponderce cheerfully answered. 

W. E CORNELL, Box 136, Des Moines. Iowa. 


Insect Exterminator 

Manufacture(i solely from Pyrelhrum 
flowers, grown in California, in a locality 
r here the soil and climate are peculiarly 
adapted to the proiiuclion of flowers rich 
in the essential oil which makes them so 
remarl;ably destructive to insect life. 

Avoid the Worthless and Spurious 
Preparations, soil! as Insect Powders, 
and u-e Buhach from original packajjes, 
and ch ar your piemises of all Annoying 
and Destructive Insect Pests. 


None Oenulne With- 
out the Trade Mark. 

If your dealer doesn't 
keep it, order directly 
.loin the 

BqMcIi Producing & Manufacturing 


KITCHEN urENSIL consists of a Can, 
Biscuit or Cake Cutter, Doughnut Cotter, 
Patty or Tart Cutter, Meanure, Dredge, 
Strainer, Nutmeg, Cheese or B ead Gmtir, 
also Nutmeg and Stick Cinnamon Holder. 
In order to more thoroughly in» roduce the 
Utensil, anybody sending us 36 cents by 
mail, the price of th« Utensil, we will send 
him free a copy of the most valuable and 
practical egg preserving receipt that ha» 
ever been used by people who l<now how to 
double their money in a few months by 
putting down Eggs. 'I'his Receipt is the result of eight 
years practical tests and is guaranteed. Costs 30 cents 
per 100 dozen . Egijs put down by this method, after 
nine months were found to be perfectly fresh and would 
fry, poach or boll, and could not be dete ted from a 
fresh-laid egg. Good Canvassers wanted. SMITH MFU. 
Co., Alameda, Cal. 


Italian Queens, $3.60 eaoh; Black Queens, $1 each. 
Swarms from ¥2.60 each; Smoker, tl. Comb Founda 
tion, (1.26 per pound; V-groove Sections, 9< per 1000 
Oomb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, «to. W 
STY AN k SON, The Homestead Apiary, Sao Mateo, Oal. 


September 23 to 27, 1 890, Inclusive. 




Closing October 4, 1890. 

Additional Program will be Issued about July 1st. 

TUF18DAT, SEPTEMBER 23, 1890. 
No. 2— Runnlr-g. Amador Stake; for sll ages; open to Amidor, Calaveras, San Joaquin and Stanislaus 

counties. S20 each for ail starters; S150 added. Second horse half of entrance money. One mile. 
No. 4— Trotting. 3:00 class. GUARANTEED PURSE $1,000 


No 8— Trotting. 2:25 class. GUARANTEED PURSE 81,000 

No. 12— Trotting. Four-yearToId or under. Purse $600. Open to Amador, Jalaveras Tuolumne, and all San 
Joaquin Valley counties. Four moneys. 


No. 19— Trotting. 2:30 class. GUARANTEED PURSE 81,000 

No. 23 -Trotting. 2:40 class. GUARANTEED PURSE $1,000 

C;0 3Nr ID IT lOKTS: 

Horses for Races No. 2 and 12 must have been owned In the counties named six months prior to the day of the 
day of the race Five or more to enter, 'hree or more to start. 

GUARANTEED PURSES— Entranre 10 per cent of purse, payable as follows: July Ist, ISOO, with 
entry, S30; August Ist, $35; September let, ?'!5, when horse mnst be naiu-f'. Neglect of above reiiuire- 
ments will forieit entry and previous payments. Eight entries required, four making final payment; three or 
more to start. Four monevs. 

All other conditions, as appears in National Trotting Association Revised Rules, subject to full conditions of 
this Association i:\iblished in our Speed Program of IBOO, will govern. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, President. 

J. M. LARUE, Secretary, P. O. Box 188, Stockton, Cal. 













and Cotton 




sxt:e*fXiT Eis. 








Warehouse, Nos. 122 to 128 Michigan St., Nos. 45 to 53 La Salle Avenue. 

Commissions one cent per pound, which includes all charges after wool is received in store until 
lold. Sacks furnished free to sliiinn rs. Cash advances arniufred for whou desired. Write for circu- 
ars. Information furnished promptly by mall or telegraph Vvhen desired. 

immm inercliapts. 



— AHS — 

General Commission Merchants, 

810 Oalifornia St., S. F. 

Uembera of the San Frandaco Produce Exchange 

tWPersonal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad. 
vancej made on Consignments at low rates of Interest. 


Commission Mercl\axits 



Green and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on ConslgrnmentB. 
308 ft 310 Davis St., San Franclico 

(P. O. Box 1936.1 
itVConsignments Solicited. 




501. 503, 505, 507 and 609 Front Street 
and 800 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission .Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 

(K8TABLI8HBD 1864. J 




89 Olay Street and 28 Oommerolal Street 
Bar Fraroisoo, Caii. 

EUQBNB J. Grroory. [Established 1852.] Frakk Orboort. 


Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St., • Sacramento, Cal. 

San Francisco OfBce, 313 DavlB St. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Eto. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 k 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 


And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry. Game, Eggs 
Hiaes, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St.. and 221. 22S 
226 and 227 Washintrton St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kinds of Oreen (»n<i Drlod Fruits. 

Consignments Solicited. 324 Davis St., S. F. 


iNooRroRATiD April, 1874, 

lathorlzed Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid ap and Reserve Fnnd 800.000 
DlTldends paid to Stockholders.. 62 7,500 

A. D. LOGAN President 

1. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELMER Cashier and Uanager 

'RANK MoMULLEN Secretary 

General Banking. Deposits received, G«ld and Silver. 
Bills o( Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wheat 
tnd country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. MONTPELLIER, Manager. 

Any ONE wishing to rent a well-improved farm of 
480 acres in a healthy locality, at very moderate cash 
rent, can learn particulars by applying to "Cash 
Rent," Box 27, Tulare. Cal, 




[Jdlt 5, 1890 

Market Review. 


San Francisco, July 2, 1890. 
The weather conlinues favorable for harvesting. 
There is an absence of hot drying winds, and in 
their place we have fairly cool weather, which is all 
that can be asked for securing the crops. Trading 
in farm products continues quite active in fruits, 
and a growing demand for cereals at advancing 
prices for wheat. The Eastern and European mar- 
kets (or wheat have advanced since last Monday, 
closing strong to-day. The following is to-day's 
cablegram : 

Liverpool, July 2. — Wheat — Steady. California 
spot lots, 6s lo'Ad to 7$; r ff coast, 36s 3d; just ship- 
ped, 3SS gd; nearly due, 36; 3d; cargoes off coast, 
firm; on passage, quiet; Mark Lane wheat, quiet 
but firm; English country markets, generally dearer. 
Forelern Grain Review. 

LONiX)N, June 30. — England is likely to require 
all the cereals America can send this year. The 
continued wet weather and cold, blighting winds are 
rapidly destroying the crops. Hay is rotting on the 
ground; wheat is getting mildewed; fields are being 
turned into ponds, and nothing is ripening. As for 
fruit it nearly all comes like most other things from 
abroad. People are dependent on foreign supplies 
for provisions and delicacies of every kind. Every 
year makes the prospect worse lor the ICnglish farm- 
er. Fortune seemed likely to be more favorable the 
present season, but rain set in, and since the begin- 
ning of June tHe country has been wrapped in gloom. 

The Mark f.iirie Express says: The weather has 
been exceedingly unfavorable for wheat. Oats prom- 
ise well, but barley is less regular. May English 
wheat is firm. Owing to the scarcity of samples, 
flour is inactive. 'At Liverpool there was a decline 
of 3d to 6d per sack on American. Punjab advices 
are that the last yield of wheat is 2.000,000 quarters 
below the previous yield. Reports to-day of the 
scarcity of good English wheat caused an advance 
of 6d to los. Foreign wheat is firm in request 
while it has advanced 6d. Flour is steady and 
maize is stiffening. 

UverDOoI Wbeat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Juno. .luly. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. 
Thursday.... 89ll}» 78'.d Tejd 7»Hd 79?rt "92i'l 

Frldav 6<lljd Tsil 7i.ld 78ljd lf-l\tl 7^24d 

Skturilay 760d 780d 'sjd 73l jd 7s2 1 782jd 

Honday 7»id 7sjd 7Ri<i 782 1 782Jd 782?d 

Tuesday Tsjd 79Ud 7s2id 78ajd 782rid 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. n. Market 

Thursday 35«d 3593d 35f6l Firmer. 

Friday 3o9<id 35s3d SB (Jd Sceaily. 

Batiuday 35s61 35s3d H.'isCl Firmer. 

IfoDday a.lsSd 35 (i i :i5 Od .stronjr. 

Tuesday 3us9d 35s9d 35a9d Fiiiuer. 

Eastern OralD Markets. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheal 
in New York for the past week: 

Day. June. July. Ausf. Sept. Dec. 

Thursday 92^ 92} 91i 91} 91' 

Friday 92^ 92^ 911 91 » 'i 

Saturday 92i 9 .J »!« 91 i 92J 

Monday 93 92 91 J 935 

Tue9day 94} 93} 933 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week : 

Day. June. July. An^. S"pt 

Thursaay SO J 88» 87 ,S7} 

Friday 8Si 85J 86 88J 

Saturday 85} 88 868 873 

Monday 85 851 sctj 863 

Tuesday ... 8Sa 89; 

New York, July 2. — Wheat — 965^0 for cash, 
94 Kc lor July, 93 ^c for August, 93H<?for Septem- 
ber and 955fc lor December. 

Chicago, July 2.— Wheal— 88>;3C for August and 
ig}ic lor September. 

IncreaelDK Cost of Canned Fruits. 
Phii-AI)KL1'HIA, June 28. — An investigation has 
been made by the Press into the effect the increased 
rate of duly proposed on tin plate would have on 
the price ol canned good?. The figures are as fol- 
lows: The proposed increase of duty 10 $2 15, so 
far as the increa.sed price on canned goods is con- 
cerned, would amount to about 3c per dozen cans 
of the standard quart measure. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

New York, June 27; — Itriidstreets says: A 
wailing disposition is manifested by most operators 
in wool, whether at mills, city lofts or in the coun- 
try. Much maohinery is temporarily idle, and there 
is no prospect of f n immediate revival of activity in 
manufacturing. Requirements for material for con- 
sumption are accordmgly reduced. Hitherto the 
country markets have been stronger than those on 
the seaboard, as is usually the case during the clip 
time, but of late weakness has developed in the in- 
terior as well as in New York, Philadelphia and 
Boston. A great deal of stock at the points of pro- 
duction is held above the views of Eastern buyers. 
Quotations (or many descriptions of wool on the 
roast are nominal on account of reduced supplies. 
Little or no speculative interest is manifested. The 
London sales opened with prices five to ten per 
cent lower than at the dose of the list series. This, 
coupled with a dull goods market abroad, tends to 
discourage the American wool trade still further. 
1 he latest dispatches, however, indicate rather more 
buoyancy here. 

New York, June 29. — Weak streak in wool. 
Speculators assert that the juice is squeezed out of 
the prices. Manufacturers are somewhat gloomy 
over the prospective condition of woolen goods. It 
is certainly nearer a trade-buyer's market than at 
any time since the new clip. Some of the principal 
points are said to be ready to receive bids once re- 
fused. London market dull. Sales of 20,000 
lt)S. Spring California and 75,000 lt)s. of scoured 
at private terms; 126,000 lbs. Spring Texas, part 
Western, i7@20c; 80,000 lt)<=. Fall, 20c; 22,000 lt)s. 
scoured, 52^^; 100,000 Itis. XX Ohio and fine De- 

laine, 3Sc; 130,000 lbs. XX and above, 34c; 3000 
R)S. unwashed Uelaine, 27HC; 20,000 lbs. Kentucky 
Braid, 22^230; 40,000 lbs. foreign pulled, l^VlC\ 
228,000 lbs. domestic, 835,000 lbs. foreign, private 
terms. Boston reports many idle mills and con- 
sequent light business. Sales, 2.005,000 pounds 
foreign and domestic, including 210,000 pounds of 
Spring California at i7@27c. The Philadelphia 
market is lightly attended. 

Messrs. .Sherman Hall & Co. of Chicago write 
under dale of June 24th as follows: The amount of 
business transacted in wool last week is less than 
for the previous week, but is considerably in excess 
of the receipts, indicating a healthy condition of 
trade. Manufacturers are buying steadily to meet 
current needs, and are not overstocking in anticipa- 
tion of any increase in prices of woolen goods. 
Prices are consequently firm, with light stocks of 
all grades, giving an advancing tendency to the 
market as soon as the demand will cause a scarcity 
of any grade. The volume of sales foot up nearly 
800,000 pounds, covering all descriptions of wool, 
from pulled to the best unwashed. The sales of 
pulled from Armour and Swift forming a less per- 
centage than for times past. Woolen-goods market 
continues steady. and firm, excepting on very heavy 
winter woolens, which are quite dull. Spring and 
summer wear, and also worsted goods, are well sold 
ahead and are very firm. The demand for Colorado 
and New Mexico wools is still very urgent. Long 
wooled pelts are strong with a large inquiry. 


New York, June 29 — New samples of California 
barley were shown, and the quality was commended. 
The opposition to the proposed tariff on Canadian 
barlpy is'bringing large delegations of maltsters and 
merchants from many prominent Eaistern points 
who are working vigorously and jointly for a reduc- 
tion. These committees strongly support the bill 
against adulteration of beer products, and they ask 
the West to add its influence. 

Peaches of 1889 pack scarce from $2. io@2.25. 
New goods would find buyers, but few are now of- 
fering. Well-known brands of raisins range here at 
$1.65®!. So, loose; $, layers, free on 
board at the coast. California hops are full at last 
figures with light offering, but rather more of a 
brewers' demand than usual for summer. There 
was a fair inquiry for fine brewers. 

Local Markets. 







'After August. 


Buyer Season. 'Buyer 1890. 

S. S. 












B. '90. 




Buyer 1890. 

















Thursday | J^' 

Friday | 

Saturday | \ 


BAGS— The market is steady at 7c for standard 
size grain bags. 

BARLEY — The sample market has exhibited 
more strength toward the close of the week under 
review. Receipts are free, but the demand is good. 
In futures, trading has been quiet, owing to dealers 
not being disposed to short the market at present 
prices. The following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: No sales. Sales yesterday 
afternoon were: Buyer season — 200 tons, $1.14^; 
100, $1.15; 100, $1,15^ ^ ctl. 

BUTTER — The market continues to be well sup- 
plied. The local, consumption is large but the ship- 
ping demand is slow. It takes the best gilt-edged 
to fetch our outside quotations, and this too in a 
small way. Lirge consignment parcels would have 
to be placed at slightly lower prices. 

CHEESE. — The market is fairly steady at current 
quotations. The demand appears to be enlarging. 

EGGS— The market is liberally supplied with 
eggs from east of the Rocky Mountains.' As a rule 
they are good. Selected California eggs bring full 

FLOUR— The market has a stronger tone. The 
scarcity of gilt-edged milling wheat is against 

WHEAT — The sample market is very strong at 
an advance. As usual exporters are paying more in 
the country than in this city. Our quotations cover 
to-day's bids in the interior. Still higher prices are 
reasonably expected by large operators. In options, 
trading has been quiet owing to short sellers fearing 
that the market will go to still higher figures. The 
following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890—500 tons, $1.41; 
100, $l.4iH; 400. $"-40?i: 500, $1.40^. Buyer 
season- 200 tons, $1,46^ ctl. Sales yesterday 
afternoon were: Buyer 1890—100 tons, $1.40^^; 
800, $1 40}^; 100, $1.40^8 ^ctl. 


Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 
Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing July 2d, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks. 105, 347 1 Middlings, sks 

Wheat, ctls i4i,22ol.\lfalfa, " 

^rley, " 29,629 Chicory, bbU.. 20 

724 Broomcorn, bdls 

528 Hops, bis 57 

3,986 Wool, •• 5.590 

Hay, tons 3,560 



Corn, " 
'Butter. " 
do bxs 
do bbis 
do kegs 



Straw, ■ 90 

Wine, gals 193,855 

Brandy, " 5,260 


Cheese, ctls 1,1051 Raisins, bxs 

do bxs 46 Honey, cs 

Eggs, doz 32,28o'Walnuts, sks . 

do " Extern. 93,900! Fla.xseed, sks 

Beans, ctls i, 157! Mustard, sks .' 

Potatoes, sks 25,976 Almonds, sks . 

Onions, " 2,<8i) Peanuts, sks.. 

Bran, sks 7,183 Popcorn sks. . 

Buckwheat, sks. . . 
•Overland 126 ctls. 



Mi^ssrs. ( lapp & Co. of New York write as fol- 
lows: Looking back over the past 60 days we can- 
not perceive any reason to conclude that the 1890 
world's crop will reap more than expected. 

Present indications point to a: 


United States and Canada (if we reduce re- 
serves to the miuimuni points) ot 90,000,000 

Austialia 20,000 000 

India 26,000,000 

Ku88ia and Rouinania 88,000,000 

Au^tro-Huutrary 8,000,000 

Turkey and Principalities 10,000,000 

Sundries 20,000,000 

Total 262,000,000 


Tnlt-d KiDKdom 145,000,000 

France 25,000,000 

BelKium, HolUnd, Spain and Portugal 2iJ,ooo,noo 

Italv and Sicily 30,000,1100 

Orcece 4.000 OOO 

Oerniar y and Switzerland 20 000,000 

Weat Iniliea, Central America and China 25,000,000 

Total 269,000,000 

Inspector Abel of the Pioduce Exchange reports 

stocks of grain in tons in city warehouses July ist as 


Wheat. Farley. Oats. Com. Bran. 

June 1, IS90 3.596 13,869 2 509 524 1.50 

July 1, 1890 2.102 9,819 2,321 1 161 200 

At Port Costa the amount of wheat was: June i, 
55,09s tons; July i, 45,760 tons. 

The receipts in June were 5652 tons barley, 1682 
tons oats, 1862 tons corn, and 3562 tons bran. 

The local wheat market held weak up to Friday 
when a better tone set in resulting in a decided im- 
provement on last Monday. The advance was 
brought about by adverse crop advices abroad, and 
confirmation of a short crop in India. The situation 
in this .State is in favor of the holding interests, for 
when prices recede to very low figures it is only a 
question of time when they recover and make quite 
an advance, particularly with the statiiiical situation 
and crop advices being favorable to the selling in- 
terest. The crop in this State will be short of last 
year's while the tonnage supply will equal that of 
the past season. It is stated by those well informed 
regarding crops that there are more fields foul this 
year than for a long time past. This is said to have 
particular reference to the Sacramento valley. While 
the grain will be more foul the grade will be largely 
improved. Millers continue to meet with dilTicully 
in buying the more choice grades of wheat. While 
this is partly owing to scarcity, it is probably largely 
due to strong holding. 

Barley has ruled fairly steady throughout the week. 
The general feeling among the better informed is 
that prices will rule higher during the season of 
1890-91 than they did during the past season. This 
opinion is based on the light carry-over, short crop 
and large consumption. The grade this year will 
average higher, both in size and weight and in color, 
than for several years past. It now looks as if Eng- 
land will again draw from us, provided the Canadi- 
ans are prevented by high duties from selling to the 
New England and Middle States. Without the 
latter outlet, Canada will have to ship to England, 
in which event our barley will have stronger com- 
petitive selling abroad. This may be partly offset 
Ijy better prices at the ICast, provided the railroads 
do not get, .is they have always done, the advance 
brought about by higher tariffs by charging higher 

Oats have held dull but strong. The available 
supply is light, but buyers do not express any uneasi- 
ness owing to new coming in soon. The consump- 
tion continues free. 

Corn is steady under moderate receipts. The 
buying appears to be confined as far as possible to 
legitimate requirements. Crop advices are favor- 

Rye is fairly steady. 


In ground feed there is nothing new to report. 
The demand is free, but the supply is liberal. With 
a falling off in the supply which is liable to occur, 
there may be another slight advance in the price of 
bran and middlings. Ground barley is firm and 
meets with good sale. 

Dealers report more liberal offering of new hay, 
which causes easier prices. It is not at all unlikely 
but they are pursuing their usual tactics of bearing 
the market so as to contract for supplies at a low 
range of prices. It is claimed by many that the 
crop will be less than it was last year, while others 
again are very pronounced in the opinion that the 
crop will be larger. There is one thing both parties 
are agreed upon, and that is that the carry over of 
old is very small while the consumption will proba- 
bly be larger. 


Cherries are nearly out of the market, as are cur- 
rants. The receipts of apricots, plums, peaches 
and apples, while fairly free, are not up to former 
seasons. There are more of the first three being 
dried and also being shipped to the East than there 
was in 1889, this, of necessity, cuts off a large 
source of our supply. The quality of the peaches 
and apples show a decided improvement. Pears 
are coming in sparingly. 

In berries there are no material changes to note 
in either raspberries or strawberries. Blackberries 
are in freer receipts, but yet prices do not shade 
off much. 

For green fruits, dryers and canners pay previous 
quoted prices, but it is claimed that luUy 5ic a 
pound more has been paid in some instances for 
prunes, apricots and peaches than we quoted. The 
first consignment of canleloupes came from the 
ranch of F. S. Hill, at Winters, arriving in good 
condition and selling readily at 50 cents apiece. 

In dried fruits there continues an exceptionally 
good demand with lull prices paid; even a slight ad- 
vance on our outside quotations has been realized 
by some driers. The run is chiefly on peaches and 
prunes, but apricots are not neglected. Nectarines 
are steadily gaining in favor. Figs promise to meet 
with a good demand. 

For raisins in the sweat there is a good inquiry. 
From 5 to 6c is paid. It now looks as if the raisin 
pack will meet with a better market than it did in 
1889. The cholera in Spain ought to operate 
against the importation of Spanish rai.sins, for it 
is claimed that the paper in the boxes can bring the 
germ of the disease. 

The first consignment of watermelons came to 

hand on yesterday. The shippers were W. R. 
.Strong Co. of Sacramento and G. W. Thissell, 

New dried apricots are coming to hand and sell 
at I2}^@i4c in sacks, and I4(g<i5}ic in boxes for 
sun-bleached. Sun-bleached, dried peaches, future 
delivery are quoted at i2@i3V^c for unpeeled. 
Dried prunes, 6@8}ic, according to size. 


Bullocks are weak under free offerings and only a 
fair demand. Mutton sheep are very strong. Mis- 
souri points are drawing from this coast while there 
have been free shipments by sea up north. The 
local demand is active, while the supply is less than 
last year owing to the past winter being of the worst 
kind for sheep. Hogs are steady. Cows and horses 
are unchanged. 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take ofif the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On foot, Hght grain fed. 4(84^0 Tb; 
dressed, 6@7C 1$ lb.; heavy, 3K@4C ^ ft.; 
dressed. 5"^@6cl^tb. Stock hogs, 4^@4Hc t^ft. 

BEEF— Sull fed, 6}^ @— c lb. ; grass fed, extrp, 
6@ — c ^ft. ; first quality, 5>i@— cj^lb.: second 
quality 5@5!4c ^ lb.; third quality, 4}ic@ — }9 
ft). ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C lb. 

VEAL— Small, 6@8c If ft. ; large, 4@6c 

MUTTON— Wethers, 7)^@8c ft.; ewes, 7® 
7Kctf ft.; lamb, spring, 7'4®8%c. | 


In garden truck rhubarb is about out of market, 
as is asparagus. Summer squash, tomatoes and 
cucumbers are lower under freer receipts. String 
beans and peas do not show any material change. 
Corn is coming in more freely with quality im- 
proving. Egg-plant, okra and peppers are in 
slightly better supply. 

The receip's ol onions do not show much of an 
increase, but owing to a more restricted outlet the 
market is in buyers' favor. The quality shows to 
better advantage. 

The receipts of potatoes have been quite free. 
The shipments from this city are not very large, but 
from interior supply points there are free shipments 
to distributive points that draw from us, which in 
cutting our dealers off naturally brings about lower 
prices here. The quality of the potatoes is good. 


Poultry holds steady for all kinds except for broil- 
ers which are lower. 

Honey continues easy under free receipts quotable 
as follows: New White comb, io@iic; do, in i-lb 
frames, ii@ii5^c; new White extracted, s'A^\ Am- 
ber, 4@5c ft. 

Beeswax is firm at 22@24C ^ ft. 

Beans come in sparingly but owing to a slow de- 
mand prices do not rally. 

Hops continue strong. Recent contracts for new 
crop are reported at is@i9C. Four Corners, pub- 
lished at Wheatland, says: The crop on Bear river 
will not be so large as anticipated, but will be of ex- 
cellent quality; crops in Washington and Oregon 
are reported not so promising. The Sacramento 
crop will be short. Stocks on hand are very small. 
There seems to be a great demand growing in Eng- 
land for California hops, as is evidenced by the fact 
that four or five heavy dealers of London have been 
to this coast making connections. California hops 
stand next to Kents in London, as the writer fouud 
by personal investigation last fall. A large part of 
the Pacific coast crop is contracted for, and those 
who have not already secured them will probably 
have to pay good prices all around. Everything 
points to a curtailed yield and fair prices, and we 
think the growers will manage to get a fair return 
this year. 

Wool continues to move off freely owing to grow- 
ers meeting the market. It takes the very best 
selected clips to fetch top quotations. 

Exports by sea last week aggregate as follows: 
Wheat ctls, Liverpool, 75,420. Flour bbls. China, 
14,819; Japan, 2791; Hong Kong, 16,023; Nanaimo, 
loi, Honolulu, 250; Tahiti, 1120. Dried fruits lbs, 
Guaymas, iicg; Victoria, 750. Beans lbs. Hong 
Kong, 14 374; Sydney, 2148; Honolulu, 8168; Vic- 
toria, 1886. Broomcorn lbs, Sydney, 31,564; Mel- 
bourne, 93.629; Auckland. 6497. Hay bales, Hono- 
lulu, 1005. Bran sks. Honolulu, 2024. Wine gals, 
Guaymas, 2622; New York, 208 696; Victoria, 370; 
Honolulu, 1927, Tahiti, 485. Wool lbs. New York, 
1,044.486. Mustard seed lbs. New York, 19 304. 
Brandy gals. New York, 25.850. Barley ctls, Hono- 
lulu, 3574, X'lctoria, 201; Tahiti, 460. Corn ctls, 
Honolulu, 366. 

From the Commercial News of July 2d the fol- 
lowing summary ol tonnage movement is compiled: 
1890. 1889. 

On the way to this port 246 052 254,871 

On the way to neighboring ports 17,477 29,829 

In port, disengaged '3,567 "i45S 

In port, engaged for wheat.... 32,821 46,511 

Totals 309 917 342,666 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July i. 1889, to June 26, 1890, the following 
are the exports from this port: 1890. 1889. 

Wheat 13,495-859 13,008,653 

Flour 1,148,340 845,232 

Barley 952.248 I|298.i53 


Baling, Duplex, lb 12 

Manilla, lb 15 

Twine, for hope, balls, tarred, tb, Manilla 16 

" *' graiie vine, balls, lb " 16 

" " " coils, tb *' 16 

" sprlDg, lb *' 28 

•• binder (600 ft. to tb). lb 18 

Duplex twiue 3c per lb leaa. 

Don't 7ail to Writ«. 

Should this paper De received by any subscriber who 
does not want It, or heyond the tijne. he intetuU to pay 
for it, let him not fall to write us direct to stop IL A 
postal card (ooetini; one cent only) will sufBce, We will 
not knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish It, but U It Is continued, through the (allure of tha 
anbsortber to □otlty us to discontinue It, or some Irra- 
iponglble party requested to stop It, we Rhall podHTelv 
demand payment (or the time It is sent LoOE CA&irtJLLT 
AT tuiIabxlon TOCB riPSB, 

JoLY 5, 1890J 

pACIFie f^URAb f RESS. 


California Fruits East. 

Chicago, June 26. — The Montgomery Auction 
Co. sold to-day for account of the Earl Fruit Co. 
and others, two cars of fruit. Royal Ann cherries 
brought $; black Bigerreau cherries, $2.05; 
Black Republican cherries, $; peaches, 
$[.35@i.i5: apricots, $i.i5@i; cherry plums, $2,05. 

Chicago, June 27.— Porter Bros. Co., agents 
for the California Fruit Union, have just sold two 
carloads. Peaches brought 950 to $1.35; apricots, 
$1.10 to Ji.65; plums, $1.15 to $3.40; figs, $2. 

New Yokk, June 27. — The latest quotations for 
foreign products in this market which come into 
competition with California products are given 
herewith, to enable Californians exactly to estimate 
the present competition here: Malaga raisins, 
loose, per box, from $1.75 to $2.60. the latter being 
for four-crown Malaga raisins; $2 25 for Valencia 
raisins; off stock, tV^ t0 75ic; same, layers, 9K to 
9^c; Sultana raisins, 9 to i2]4c; London layers, 
$2 25 to $2.45; French prunes, sixties to nineties, 
8^ to 9c; Turkish prunes, boxes, seventies to one 
hundreds, yJic; Turkish prunes, bags, to S?ic. 
The first Valencia raisins are expected to arrive 
about the ist of September. 

New York, June 27. — A prominent dealer in 
canned goods says there has been a large increase 
in the sales both of this year's and last year's Cali- 
fornia pick, and large quantities of Calilornia goods 
are being bandied at Philadelphia. There is an ad- 
vance of from 10 to 15 per cent on the opening 
prices for California peaches, and the market for 
apricots is firntfr. Apropos of this statement the 
Commercial Bulletin has the following: Quite a 
lair amount of 1889 pack, standard California 
peaches, has been moved here at $2.10 to $2.25, as 
to the brand, and aprico's, new and old, tire de- 
cidedly firmer at $1.60 to $1.65 here for standard 
brands. It is also reported by dealers that some of 
thf more progressive retailers are placing orders for 
first-class brands of new salmon, recognizing the 
fact that the article is cheap at the present prices. 

New York, June 28. — A sale of California fruit 
took place this morning and was largely attended. 
A smash-up on the Erie railroad delayed the con- 
signment 24 hours, making an immediate sale neces- 
sary. The fruit was soft, but brought good prices. 
P.ums averaged $2, cherries $1.75, peaches $2, and 
apricots $2 15. 

Goodsell auctioned a lot of California fruit to-day. 
Thirty boxes of plums brought from $t.20 to $2.25; 
185 boxes of cherries, $1.05 to $1.85; 100 boxes of 
peaches, $1.80 to $2.20; 200 crates of apricots, 
$2.15 to $2.20. 

Chicago, June 28. — Porter Bros. Co., agents 
for the California Fruit Union, sold apricots to-day 
at 35c to $1.75, peaches at $i to $1.70, plums at 
$1.20 to $5.60, and figs at $1.55. 

New York, June 30. — It is ascertained that a 
number of offers for California prunes, apricots and 
peaches went out from here last week at a consider- 
able advance over the offers of the previous week. 
Better offerings are made for both canned and dried 
fruits from California. Several packers have with- 
drawn prices the past few days. Some who pre- 
viously adhered to the opening figures now quote 
10 cents per dozen advance on peaches. -Meantime 
it is reported, on seemingly good authority, that the 
pack of fruits in this State will be short. It is also 
reported in the green-fruit market that the cherries 
in New Jersey are attacked by the cherry rot, there- 
by further shortening an already short crop. 

At the sale of California fruits this morning, at 
Goodsell's auction, the following prices were ob- 
tained: One hundred boxes peaches at $ 
2.20 per box; 100 boxes apricots, $i.90@2. 25 per 
box; 25 boxes cherries, $1.35 per box. 

Chicago, June 30. — Two auctions occurred to- 
day of California fruit. Sgobel & Day auctioned 
one carload at the following prices: Royal Hative 
plums, $ per box; Alexander peaches, 
$2.05@i.85 per box; Royal apricots, $ 
per h*lf-crate. All this fruit carae in good condi- 
tion, and was from the California Fruit Union; but 
some apricots were a little green. There was a large 
attendance of spectators. The demand is strong, 
there being little fruit in the market, excepting 
bananas and oranges. 

Goodsell auctioned a lot at the following prices; 
Peaches, $2.20@i.6o; apricots, $2.25'§i.8o; cherry 
plums, $1.85. 

Porter B os., agents for the California Fruit 
Union, sold four carloads of fruit. Peaches sold 
for $t.45@$i.8s, with the exception of rotten stock 
at $(.20; apricots, $1.50®$!. 85, with the exception 
of overripe at $1 30; plums, $i@$5.6o; Bartlett 
pears, $5.90; figs, $1.40®!. 51;. 

Chicago. July i. — Porter Bros, sold to-day two 
carloads of fruit: 

Plums, small boxes, brought $ to $1.45; reg- 
ular size, $1.50 to $4.40; apricots, $1.65 to $2.50; 
peaches, $2; Bartlett pears, $5.80. 

Chicago, July i. — The Montgomery Auction Co. 
sold to-day one carload of California fruit at the 
following prices: Peaches, $2 to $1.80; apricots, 
$1.95 to $1.60; Royal hative plums, $2.65 to $2.50; 
cherry plums, $i.qo. 

Chicago, July 2. — In the market for California 
green fruits, apricots and peaches area shade firmer, 
but plums are a trifle easier. Apricots, 20-16 boxes, 
according to quality, $i.8o@2.20. Peaches, $2@ 
2.25. Prunes, crates, BUck Tragedy, $3@4. Plums, 
20-lb crates, Claude, $2.25; do. Cherry, $1.50®!. 75; 
do, lo-lb crates. Cherry, $1.15®!. 25; do, 20-ft, 
Royal Hative, $i.75@2.25. New figs, lo-ft boxes, 
$1.25. Oranges rule quiet with sales as below: Cali- 
fornia St Michael, paper rind, $6@6.50; Rodi, small 
sizes, ^ box, $6.50®?; Rodi, large sizes, f? box, $5 In beans there is but little movement. The 
late hot weather has been calculated to curtail con- 
sumption and cause a corresponding reduction in 
sales. The supply is ample, and prices range as be- 
low; California Lima beans, choice, S^®sKc }$ 
lb; do, common, 2@4C. Hops are quiet on account 
of being scarce; the demand is fair and the market 
rules firm. Washington, according to quality, 24® 
2SC. Oregon, 23@25c. 

A RESERVOIR which will make a lake three 
miles ID diameter, with an average depth of 65 
feet, is to be built by the Hemet Ltnd and 
Water Company at San Jacinto. Work begins 
Inside of two months. 

Buoa'KS AND Bdckboakds. — A cocDplnte aa<iortmeDt of 
vehicles in every grade and style. For ciroulara write 
Frank Brothers, Saa Francisco, * 


{FuTniBh_cl for publicatiou in this paper by P. T. Jenkins, SerKeaiit Signal Service Corps U. S. A.] 



62 Nw 


Red Blufl. 


.CO 76|Nw 

Co! 82I N 


90, Nw 



8. Francisco. 



Loa Angeles. 

San Diego. 


Temp .... 

Weather . . 




Wmd .... 


Temp .... 




1 Weather . 

































































































100 Nw 


















Explanation. CI. forcUar; Oy , cloudj; fr , fair; Cm., calm; 
of raiufall in the precediog 24 hours. T iudicates trace of rainfall. 

imiicatts too snail to ir.eaiiiie. Ttmteiature, w od ai d wtalher st 5 P. M. (Pacitic Standard time) with amount 

Domestic Produce. 

Bxtra choice In good packages fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the tower 
quotations. Wednesday, .luly 2, 1890. 

6 ((/) 6i 


Bayo, ctl 3 90 @ 4 20 

Butter 2 00 @ 2 25 

Pea 2 20 @ 2 40 

Bed 2 25 @ 2 75 

Pink 2 80 @ 3 CO 

Large White ... — @ — 
Small White .. 2 20 @ 2 40 

Lima 4 75 @ 5 00 

Fid Peas.Wkeye — @ — 
do grpen .... — @ — 

do NLes 2 00 (^1 2 25 

Split G><a — 

Choice toE»tra80 00 (9 95 00 
Fair to Good.. 70 00 Ca 75 00 

Poor 50 00 # 60 00 


OalUomia 6 @ 6i 

German 65@ 7 



CaL Poortofalr.lblO a 12 

do good to choice 13 @ 15 

do Giltedged... 16i@ 17 

do pickled — @ — 

do in kegs — @ — 

do Creamery in 

rolls 17 @ 17i 


Oal. choice mild 7 @ 
do fair to good 
Yciuug America 
N. York Cream. 12 @ 13 
Western 7 @ 10 


Oal. ranch, doz. 20 & 21J 
do do sol'cted 221(8 - 

do. store 17 & 19 

Bst'm.cldst'rage — &I — 

do fresh 15 @ 17 

do selected.. 18 @ 20 
do to arrive, . . ^ @ — 

Bran, ton 14 00 @15 50 

Feedmeal .20 00 @22 00 

Gr'd Barley 23 00 ^24 00 

Middlings 21 50 (423 00 

Oil Cake Meal. .25 00 @ — 
Per 100 lbs.... 7 60 @ — 

Compressed ....10 00 (ai4 00 
Wheat, per ton. 8 00 SlW 00 
do choice.... 12 OJ &U 00 
Wheat and Oat«10 00 Stl4 OO 

WUd Oats 7 50 (»]0 00 

Tame do 8 OO ®10 00 

Olover 8 00 @ 9 50 

do ch'ceredtop — $d — 

Barley 7 00 @ 9 00 

Barley and Oats — — 

Alfalfa -@ - 

Stock Hay — (a — 

AlfalfaC'mpr'sd — @ — 

Straw bale 45 ^ 55 

New hay.Wheat — @ 
do do Oats. . — @ — 

Extra, Oity Mills 4 00 (ft 4 20 
do Co'try Mills 4 00 @ 4 20 

Superfine 3 00 @ 3 60 

Barley, feed, ctl. 96J(a 1 OIJ 
do Choice 1 02S@ 1 05 
do Brewing... 1 C7}@ 1 10 
do do Choice. . 1 I2J@ 1 15 
do do giltedg'd 1 174® — 
Chevalier cace — @ — 
do com to good — & — 

Buckwheat 1 75 @ 2 15 

Com, White.... 1 00 @ 1 10 

Yellow 1 10 (8 1 25 

Oats, milling.... 1 65 @ 1 75 

Surprise 1 70 @ 1 75 

Choice feed 1 60 @ 

do good. 1 55 @ — 

do fair 1 50 @ — 

do Gray 1 45 & 

do Black 1 40 © 1 50 

Rye 90 93J 

Wheat, milling. 
Gilt edged.... I 38S@ 1 40 

do Choice X 36i(a I 37} 

do fair to good 1 35 @ — 
Shipping, cho'ce 1 35g@ — 

do good 1 Sim 1 33; 

do fair I 26}@ 1 30 

Dry Ight to h'vy 8 (8 9 

Salted 5 @ 8 


Oregon, 1889 ... . 14 @ 20 

Cal 1389 Choice 18 C* iO 

do Fair to G'd 13 @ 16 


Silver Skin ... I 00 (8 1 75 


Walnuts, Oal. lb 7 m 

do Oh ce 9 @ 

Almonds, hd shl. 5 @ 

SoftsheU 9 @ 

Paper shell... 12 (§ 

Brazil lli@ 

Pecaua 9 @ 

Peanuts 6i@ 

Filberts lljO 

Hickory 6 (a 9 

Chestnuts 14 @ — 

Pine nuts 7 @ 8 


New 75 (g 1 00 

do choice. ... 1 25 @ 1 60 
Early Rose, ska. — (se — 

ChUe - @ - 

Peeiless — @ — 

River Reds — ® — 

Humlmldt ~ (» — 

Petalnma — @ — 

Burbanka 1 50 @ 1 75 

Swept — @ — 


Hens, doz 6 00 @ 8 00 

Roosters.old.... 6 00 ® 7 .50 

do young 8 50 ISII 00 

Broilers, small 2 50 ffi 3 50 
do large 4 00 ® 5 00 

Fryers 5 C @ 6 00 

Ducks, tame 4 I @ 5 00 

do young 5 00 C<« 6 .50 

Geese, pair 1 00 O 1 25 

Gos iugs 1 25 @ 1 75 

Turkeys, Gobl'r. 19 @ 21 
Turkeys, Hena. . 16 @ 18 

I'igeous 2 50 @ 3 00 

Rabbits, doz.... 1 .50 @ 1 76 

Hare 1 75 @ 2 00 

Manhattan, ^ tb 12 @ — 

Oal. Bacon. 

Heavy, lb 10i& 

Medium 12 # 

Light 13 (ft 

Extra Light.. - @ 

Lard 9 @ 

Oal. Sm'k'dBeef 11 @ 

Hams, Cal 12 @ 

do Eastern... 12i@ 



Olover, Red. 


Cotton 20 @ — 





MUlet, German. 

do Common.. 
Mustard, yellow 
do Brown .... 

Rape . . 

Ky, Blue Grass. 

2d quality 

Sweet V. Graaa. 

Orchard 12 @ 

Hungarian.. . 74® 





6 (8 

'3 a 

6 1 





Humboldt and 


20 (? 

i %i 

Sac'to valley. . . , 

15 a 

i 22 

Free Mountain. 

20 d 

i 24 

S Joaquin valley 


1 17 

do mountain. 

17 « 

i 22 

Cala'y & F'th'U. 

15 (S 

t 24 

Oregon Eastern. 

13 a 

» 22 

20 d 

i 25 

So'n Coast, def . . 

10 a 

t 14 

So'n Coast, free. 


i 19 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Choice selected. In good packages, fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 


B.^nauas, bunch I 00 ® 3 50 

Cranberries — (st 

Limes, Mex .... 4 50 ® C 00 
o Cal sml case.i 75 @ 1 50 

Wednesday, July 2, 1890. 

do green 15 @ 20 

Parsnips, ctl.... 1 25 ^ 1 50 
Peppers, Aiy, lb 
do greoo, lb. . 

(0 1 50 
12 # - 
10 Ca 12i 

emon8,Cal.,bx. 1 00 @ 1 50 .Turnips, ctl 7j @ 1 00 

• ~ _ .. .. i_ . I 75 ® 1 00 

75 @ 1 00 

do Sicily, bx.. 5 00 @ 6 00 i Beets, sit 

do Malaga 4 00 @ 6 00 iCabbagu, 100 tbs 

do do Seedling 1 60 @ 2 50 1 Carrots, sk 

Pineapples, doz. 3 00 @ 3 50 Mushrooms, Cul 
Strawberries.... tivated, lb 

fair, chest... 5 00 © 8 00 Wild, lb 

choice, chest. .10 OO (915 00 'Cucumbers box 
Cherries, I ox .. 45 (rt^ I 00 jTomatoes, bx... 

Apricots, bi 50 @ 75 Rhubarbbv 

Curriints, chest. 3 50 @ 5 00 
Raipbetries do. 5 50 O 9 00 
Rrkberrics,do.. 5 00 @ 7 00 
Cherry plums. . . 60 @ — 
Figs, box, black. 40 (a 75 

do white 50 (S 75 

Plums, blue, bx .50 (3 1 Oo 
Ptach plums... 1 25 @ 1 50 
Pears, bx 50 ~~ 

do Bartlett. . 1 00 <a 1 60 
Peaches bkt 40 O 1 00 

do box 50 i« 1 20 

Apples coin box 50 ^ 75 

do choice.... 1 00 (ft 1 25 
Okra, dry, lb.... 6 10 

Garileu pcius, lb 
.Sweet ilo do 
String Beans .. . 

Wax, do 

Fountain do.... 
Asparagus, bx. . . 
do choice bx . . 

do fancy 

Squash, sum- 
mer, bx 

Garlic, lb 

Green corn do/. 15 
dodo com sk . 1 00 @ 1 25 
Egg Plant, lb.. IC @ 12i 







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Vaqueko Contest at the State Fair. — The 
Board of Agriculture Has decioud tbat inas- 
much as the old California vcqaero's life is a 
novelty to a great many of oar present resi- 
dents, that an exhibition of the manner in which 
experts handle the Cilifornia bronco, would 
not be out of place. And to that end, they 
have directed that one morning, Monday, Sept. 
15th, be devoted to this novel sport. The an- 
nouncement will no doubt attract wide atten- 
tion both from contestants and spectators. 

Fisii Baos. Wagons of pioneer merit and sold by the 
trade everywhere. Ask for them or write Frank 
Brothers, San Francisco. 






Lecturer on Horticulture in the College of Agriculture, 
University of California; Horticultural Editor of 
the Pacific Rural Prbbb, of San Francisco; 
Secretary of the California State Horticultu- 
ral Society; President of the California 
State Floral Society, Eto. 


PART I: General.— The Climate of CaUfornia and its 
Local Modifications; Why the California Climate Specially 
Favors the Growth of Fruits; The Fruit Soils of California; 
The Wild Fruits of California; California Mission Fruits; 
lut.roductiou of Improved Fniit Varieties. 

PART II: CULTUKAL.— Clearing Land for Fruit; The 
Nursery; Buddiug and Graftmg; Preparation for Planting; 
Planting the Trees; Pruning Orchard Tries; Cultivation; 
Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines; Irrigation of Fruit 
Trees and Vines. 

PART III: Okohard Fruits.- The Apple; The Apri- 
cot; The Cherry; The Peach; The Nectarine; The Pear; 
Plu'ras and Prunes; The Quince. . ., „ 

PART IV TiiK Ghai'K.— Rise and Progress of the Grape 
Interest; Propagating and Planting Vines; Prumngand Care 
of the Vine; Grape Varieties in California. 

PART V: Skmi-Tiu)1'Ioal Fruits.— The Date; The Fig; 
The Olive; Tiie Orange; The Lemon, Lime, etc.; Minor Semi- 
Tropical Fruits. „ . , „ 

PART VI: Small Fri its.— Berries and Currants. 

PART Vll: Nuts.- Nut-Growing in California. 

PART VIII: Fruit Prkservation. -Fruit Canning, 
Cry talliziug and Drying. , . , 

PART IX: Fruit Protection. ■- Injurious Insects; 
Suppression of Injurious Animals and Birds; Protection 
from Winds and F'Osts. „ „ 

PART X; MisOiCLLANEOUS.— Melon QrowlDg; Fruit 



PUBLISHBKS Paoifio Rcral Press, 
220 Marlcot Street, Elevator 12 Front Street, 


A New and Splendid Tcclmieal Treatise. 

The Manufacture of 



Preservation ot Tiuits and VegetaHes. 


A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar and 
Acelawf, i idtr and Fruit Wiues; Prtaeivat on of Pruiis 
and Vegetables by Cannii.g and Evaporation; Prei)aiation of 
iTiut Buiters, Jellies, Ma nialade?, Catchups, Pickles Mu.s- 
tards, etc. Kdited from Various sources by Wni. T Hrannt 
one of the Ediiors of -The Teclin.) Clieniical Receipt Book '• 
llhis rated by 7!t engraving.s. In one volume, 8vo, 4i9 pag. s 
t] '''""'^'j"-""- '"■^tl,jree c f jKixtagc to any addiexs in 

CONTENT.'^. -Part I. The Manuf.-ictnre of Vinegar 
(.llAl'TERl. Introcluclion. II. Theory of the Formation of 
Vmega- III. The Vinegar Ferment anl its C n iitions of 
Life. iV. Products of Acetous Fermentation. V Methods 
of Fabr cation of Vinegar. VI. Quick Process of Fabrica- 
tion of Vinepir. VII. Artang.'meut ot a Vinegar Factory 
VIII. Aitificial Veniilation of the Vinegar Gene ators 
Automatic Viufgar Apa'atu^. X. Ope ations in a Vinegar 
Factoiy. XI. Prepar.^tion of the AlcohoUc Liciui(< XII 
Kj'Ciiliou of ttie Work in a Vinegar Factory. XIII Dis- 
turbing Inttuences in the Fabrication of Vinegar XIV 
Mtthfd of the Fabrication of Vinegar in Apparatus of 
Sp cial Cou.struction. XV. V rther Treatment of Freshly 
Prepared Vinegar. XVI. Preparatiim of Vinegar from 
Various .Materials. XVil. Preparatio i of Viuegar Special- 
ties. XVIII. Fabrication ot Wine Vinegar. XIX. Chem- 
i-al Examination of the Raw Materials and Control of the 
Operation in a Vinegar Factory. XX E.xamination of 
Vinegar as to the I'resence of Fr'reign Acids and of Metals, 
as well as to its Derivation. X.\l. Manufacture of Wood 
Vinegar.. X.XIl. Prepiratic n of I'lire Conceutratid Acetic 
Acid. X.XIII. Ace' ates and their Manufacture. 

Part II. Ma ufacture ot Ciders, Fruit-Wines, etc 
CiiAPTK.K XXIV. Introduction. XXV. Fruits and their 
^imposition. XXVI. Practice of t.i.e Preparation of Cider 
and Fruit- Wines. X.XVII Cider from Apples and Pears 
X XVlll. Fruit Wiues; n, from Small Fruits; b, from Stone 

Part III. Canning and Evaporating of Fruit. Manufact- 
;ireof Catsup.i, Fruit-Butters, Marmalades, .Jellres, Pickles, 
and Mustardi. (Jhapter XXIX. Prtservation of Frui'. 
-XX.X. Evaporation of Fruit. XXXt. I'rcpaiation of 
Pickles ai<l Mu tards. Appendix of XVI Tables. Index. 

?5§, •■'« illiisfni/ed circular. 6 pages, 4to. giving 
the full Talile of Contents of this volume, will be sent 
free of postage to any one in any part of the world 
who will apply by letter. 

?ja. Our new and. Revised Descriptive Catalogue 
of Practical and Scientific Books. 86 pages Svo A 
List of Books on Distillatiou and Rectification of 
Lujuoi-s. Brewing and Fermentation, Wines, Su- 
gar, Starch, etc., as well as a circular showing the 
full table of Contents of " The Techno Chemical Re- 
ceipt Book," sent free of postage to any one in any 
part of the world who will furnish his address. 



810 Walnut St.. Philadelphia, Pa., U.S. A. 

Take care of your UOKSK. Civilized Mao advances 
rapidly and the Horse will " Keep up with the Band " If 
well cared for. Horse Boots, Robes, Blankets, etc. 
Saddles, 86 to 87S each. Harness, 88 to 8250 pet set. 
American and English Saddlery Goods. 

VA/ . X>£i-\7-llS Cfc SOZX, 

Between Sansome and Battery, SAN FRANCISCO. 


— MANn;'AClllHERS 01' — 


Kitdien and Bakery Ontfits, Grate Bars, 
Bake Ovens and Furnace Custings. 

814 & 818 Kearny St., S. F. 
Prop's Jackson Foundry. 

|yilC|LITnRQ on the Paclflo Coast should secure 
"» " f ' ' Uno their Patents through Dswey iiCo.'s 
MiNiKa ADD SoilMTiFio PRI88 Patsot Agsooy, No. 220 
Uaiket St., S. F. 


f AciFie f^uraid press. 

[July 2, 1890 

Our Arid Lands will be Reclaimed! 

Kcvolwtiimized bv the uie of the 


Capacity 600 to 120,000 
Gallons per Hour, 

Water, if containiog 60/' of 
or Sand, can be pumped 
from wells or etri ame with 
one foarth less fuel 
(Iian any other 
known method. No 
mailiincry to wear out or 
roiuire constant atteotion. 

eiwnsihle parties. See 
whittl'e users have to say 
about it. Address 


"Lewlston, 1. T. 




Powerful and Durable 



O. H. EVANS & CO. 

(Sucoesaors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and lis Beale Street, 8. F. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and aU kinds of MACHINERY. 

HORTON & KSNNBDY still continue to supply 
the famous 


These Windmills have been advertised in and known 
by the readers of the Pacific Ki kal Phkss for over 20 
years. Tlie Best is the Cheapest. Write for circulars 
and prices. 


Liveraiore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

San Francisco Agency, JAMES LINFORTH, 87 Market St. 


Horse Powers 
Windmills, Tanks 

and all kinds of Pump- 
Inv Machinery liuilt to 
order. Windmills from 
$66. Horse Powers from 
$50. Send for Catalogue 
and Price List. 


^£r^ CO., 61 Beale St. 
San Francisco. 

IF vor wavt "THE tower 

vol IION T invK. TO n.lJIB 
STILI.," sand lor ..ur |>rj|il«l mat' 
vine every coiii-eival.le 
..r work. Our 


ball a « .L:i.n..i.e hile 
th." lillint; Tower in not expfn. 

«!•'• AERMOTOR CO., 

Llik^n. III. bnucb: U Mliia SU ^ 
Sio FruiciAco, Cftl. 


We have the Latest improvements In 


For all Formations and 
for any Depth. 

Seal 20 cts. Ut cailicg 





1.1 ml.. . .I.-Itiin:. 1;..%..!'. : J. Artt^iaD, 
I I'r liuf T..,.|N, I..,.;;ii.-.. H,.i|rrs, 

I l-,n..|... Kncyt'lupt'dlii. I.>'<4 

.A* .(i-f:t>iiij;H, Kttrtli^»Slr:il;., licurmi- 
Jf\ iiutionqiinlilv wiit«T;iii:iu.iI.'J^. 
LKPt ■"'e AoKTleim Well n..rk>, 
if A Aororn, III. 

— — II Ji l> s. (anal 
I bimL-o, 111. 
I I 13 Kin St., 

Dnilit*. Texas. 




Most Powerful, 

Most Durable, 

Lightest RunnlDgr 

And Beat Resulated. 

These mills have been in use tlio past M 
years, requiring little or no care. 

The Deep Well Pumps maim faf tared by 
tills Pompany are meeting with unpar- 
alleled success. 

We make the Davis Improved and also 
Open Center Wheels. 

Our Tanks are made with Patent Hoop 

as- Reliable Agents wanted in all the 
principal cities aud towns of the Pacific 


Aurora and Market Streets, STOCKTON, OAL. 





Machinery of all Kinds. 



Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

£8tlmat«8 Furnished on Application. 

' Send for Catalogues. 




Affords the cheapest and moat convenient power for Ranch, 
Vineyard or Dairy purposes, as well as for running dynamos 
for electric lights, pumps and ever} other variety of machinery. 

It possesses in the same degree the wonderful energy ana 
power that has made the Pelton Wheel famous in all parts of 
the world. 

These motors are made of varying sizes, with capacities 
ranging from the traction of one up to 16 and 20 H. P., enclosed 
in iron cases, all ready tor pipe connections, and are warranted 
to develop a given amount of power with one-halt the water 
required by any other wheel. 

The cost, considering capacity and efficiency, Is fully 60 per 
cent less. 

Circular, giving full Information, sent on application. 

Parties writing for infurmatioD should give full particulars 
as to power wanted, source of water, supply, with head or 
pressure. Address 


121 Main Street. San Francisco, Cal. 



AUTOMATIC f;OVERVi>H MOTORS our Specialty, for Electric and other 
tine rcguUtion work. Our new MlXl.Ni; WHEEL witli O0VERNi>K a great success. Send 
for new Catalogue. 


3i) Dearborn Street, Chicago. 









Lap-Welded Wrought-Iron Water Pipe, 

Coupled with Patent lead-Iiued Couplinjfs. Dippeil ready for layiny. Circulars and prices furnished upon 





Kstabllshed 18S6, 

Largest and Oldest Piano House West of ttie Roclnes, 





Sold OB easy installments when desired. Write tor 
illustrated Catalogue. 

Wareroois. 20 OTarrell St., near Market. S. F. 


Coitiiiied Screw and Toggle Lever 


Using two baskets so 
that while one is under 
the press the other can 
he emptied and tilled 
ready to move under 
the press as soon as the 
fi'st basket is pressed. 
First Premium awarded 
at all fairs wherever 
exhibited. Parties de- 
siring a press combin- 
ing Power, Speed and 
Ease to Handle, can see 
them at ihe wineries of 
the following parties 
who have purchased 
and are using thein at 
their wineries: Arpad 
iiaraszthy & Co., San 
Francisco; Prof Hilgard, University of Caiifornia, Berk- 
eley; J. B. J. Portal, San Jose; I. De Turk. Santa Rosa; 
Paul u. Burn),' Wino Co., San Jose; <;eo. West, Stockton- 
Kate r. Warfleld, Glen Ellen; Joseph Drummond, Olen 
Klleii; Lay Clark & Co., Santa Rosa; J. 4: F. Ituller, 
Windsor; R. C. Stiller, Oubserville; Vache Freres, Old 
San Bcriiirdlnn; J. F. Crank. San GahrUI; Wm. Allen, 
San Gabriel; Wm. Metzer, Santa Ro8»; .1. Lawrence Wat- 
son, Glen Ellen; Walter Phillips, Santa Rosa; Ely T. 
Sheppurd, Glen Ellen; Win. Pf, tier, Gubierville; Joseph 
WaUer, Windsor; Rancbito Fruit & Wine Co., Ranchit >; 
Downey Fruit & Wine Co , Downey; Wni. Palintag, Hol- 
litter; A. Burnhaiii k Sens, Bennett Vallev; E. E. Meyer, 
Wrights; Hill & Marshall, Petaluma; C. "Weller, Warm 
Springs; Seward Cole, Colegrove; Chas. J. Duni, Uealds- 
burg; Olen Terry Wine Co., Clayton: H. L. Gordon, San 
Jose; Mrs. A. C Furniss, Calistoga; B. W. Hallenbeck, 
Sinta Clara; Thos. Buckingham, Kelseyville; Buckner 
Bios. & Regiia, Santi Rosa; C. P. Howes. San Francisco; 
Cucamouga Vine.^ard Co , Cucainonga; J. C. Mazel, Pino; 
Dr. W. W. Hay, Nordhott; Wm. MaitUnd, Boulder 
Creek; Madam Kli>!8, Glenwond; D. M. Delmas, Mount- 
ain View; Will. Bihler, Lakcville; J. L. Heard, Center- 
ville; M. Bollotti, Sonoma; John HInkleman, Fulton; 
R. J. Northam, Anaheim: J Auzerais, San Jose; O. C. P. 
Sears, Sononu; J. D Williams, Cupertino; James Fin- 
layson, Ilealdsburg; P. & J. J Oobbi, Healdaburg. 

Also Worth's Improved Grape Elevators, Injproved 
Continuous Pressure Hydraulic Pre sts. Worth's Patent 
Power Grape Steminer and Crusher, Worth's Patent 
Horse-Power, and all kinds rf machinery for wine-naakers. 
The Large Tongle Lever and Screw Press is ca|>able of a 
presmre of 268 tons or .WOoounds to the s<|uare inch, the 
small press has 36 tons or 240 (xjunds to the square inch. 

Petaluma I'nundry and Maihine Works, P. O. Box 288, 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Oat 



Patented April S, 18S3, and April 17, 1883. 



For Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, 
Levee Building, Leveling Land, 
Koad Making. 

This implement will take ud and carry its load to 'any 
desired distance, carrying 1.^ to 20 cubic feet, according 
to dirt. It will distriliate the dirt evenly, or deposit its 
load in bulk as desire *. It will do the work of Scraper, 
Grader and Carrier. Can be used with two or four horses, 
although best results obtained with four horses. ONE 
MAN ONLY required to handle this Scraper. Address 


Agrlcaltural Works, - - Stockton, Cal. 


204 California Street, STOCKTON, OAL. 

Harvester and Thresher Teeth Maker. 

All Teeth faced with superior steel imported by myself. 
Sat'sfaction guaranteed. Will rtfer to all iwrsons using 
Uouser Macoineshaving tee^-h with my name on them. 




No twisting of main wires, no sag to fence, 
pickets easily removed and replaced^ Write 
for prices and circular to Lansing Wheel- 
barrow Co., Lansing, Mich. 

JDLY 2, 1890J 

f AClFie F^URAlo PRESS, 


geeJg, Haul?, ttc. 
The Yokohaina Gardeners' 


Nos. 2] to 28 Nakamura, Yokohama, Japan, 
Offer for sale all varieties of 


Of Japanese growth, in lots to suit purcliasers, at lower 
rates than ever before offered to the public. Catalogue 
prices include packing, boxing and transportation to the 

Most careful attention paid to packing and boxing. 

Orders must be accompanied vfith cish, which can be 
sent by bank diaft, postal money order or registered 

Trees, etc., delivered in San Francisco, if customers 
prefer, at a small advance over catalogue prices and 

For catalogues and full particulars, apply at the 

Japanese Garden and Nursery, 

Or to P. O. Box ZnO^ San Francisco, Cal. 

TAHITI ORANGE SEED.— The " Tropic Bird," 
which just arrived for us with choice cargo of 
Tahiti Orangew, is the last cargo of the season from 
which reliable Seed can be procured. Seed from 
later arrivals now on, as all experienced nursery- 
men know, is too late in the season to cure properly for 
planting and will not produce a strong stock. One 
• argo is due in the latter part of July, but too late. 
Those who desire Seed from this cargo are rt quested to 
send their orders immediately. L. G. SRES.>VICH & 
CO., Nos. 505 & 607 Sansomc St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Get Trees Cheap! 

I have a surf>lus of Peach Seedlings now growiLg in 
my nurseries, m splendid condition; will contract to bud, 
in lots of not less ihan 1000, to any suitable varieties of 
prune, plum, peach, apricot, nectarine or almond. 
Terms oo application. 

Napa Valley Nurseries, Napa City, Cal. 


offered at very low prices by 


303 to 312 Wayne and Crescent Ave., B. H., 

Wholesale Catalogue free to any part. 

LEONARD COATBS. Proprietor Napa Valley 
Nurseries, founded 1878, solicits correspjndence or per- 
sonal calU from any desiring Nvusery Stock. Everything 
trictlv first-class. Bbipping facilities excellent. Address 



Those Grapes make the finest seedless raisins known 
For sale by J. P. ON8TOTT, 'Suba City. Ual. 

Important to Fruit Growers. 

Protect Your Trees from Sunburn, 
Borers, Rabbits, etc., by using 

The Patent Tree Protector. 

It is the Best Tree Protector in use, 
and is now being used extensively as a 
Preventive of Canker Worm in Old 

Waterproof and Adjustable ; Saves 
Time, Trouble and Expense; Costs from 
one to two cents per tree; rnly for 
joung trees. Special s.izs s made to order. 

We also make a specialty of Fruit 
Paper for packing Fruit for shipment 
East. Send for eaniplos and prices. 

I*«toifi.o 3F"cii30i* Oo. 

so & 82 First St., San Francisco. 

Codiin Moth Destroyed. 


New Codiin Moth Trap 

Will entirely clean an Orchard in two years. 

Satistaotiun Guaranteed. Write to 

Winters, Yolo Co., Cal. 


Has proved the most rapid workin^c machine for GRADING PRUNES, BOTH GREEN AND DRIED, that bas ever 
been introduced. Wherever it was used last season it gave peifect satisfaction, both in the quantity (f fruit 
g-ra'led and the way it did the work. The capacity Is practically unlimited, as it will grade the fruit perfectly as 
fast as it can be shoveled into the machine. 

I make all sizes of this Grader, from the Urge 30-inch cj'Hnder down to a small hand machine for the u<ie of 
growers whose crops are small. I furnish the Grader mounted complete, or the Cylinder alone if, as is often the 
case, the purcitaeer prefers to mount it to suit Iiimself. 

Send for circulara and prices. 

Z>. 33. VV ASSS, 

141-143 FIRST STREET, 


Red Top, Timothy, Red Clover, Kentucky Blue Grass, 

W. H. WOOD & CO.. 117 to 125 J Street, SACRAMENTO. 





Prevents and destroys all fungus growths. 
Will ttlectually check mildew and coulurc. 
Universally used In Southern California 
as a preventive and cure of the Mysterious 
Vine Disease. 

Best and Only Li(|U;d Compound in use. 
Always ready. 

Liniment in use for man or beast. 

Poison Oak, etc. 

Send (or circular and testimonials to 

OnEertli Graftii Componnd Co., 

211 and 212 Uavia Street, 

Sin Francisco. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

iS-Pree Coach to and from the House. J. BECKER, Proprietor. 


Protect Your Trees 

Against Sunburn, Rabbits, 
and other Pests. 

The Excelsior Fruit 
Tree Protector 

Is not only a protection 
against Sunburn, but be- 
ing cljemita ly prepared, is 
proof against Rabbits, Bor- 
ers, etc , and is approved 
and btiug used by all 
orchardists who have ex- 
amined its merits. Buy 
no other until you have 
seen the EXUELSIOR. 
Its suii|i]iritv of fastLijiiig will reconiniend it, as it re- 
ijuires one- third less time to ad just it than any other make. 

Price for Protection against Sunburn, Rabbits and 
other Pests, $2 per 100. Send for Samples. Special 
Sizes to order. 

BONESTELL & CO., Agents, 

401 & 4 03 Mansoine .St., San Fi-auciHCO, Cal. 

• ^^^(lu. I'lTfertloiidutillstiralhi! ^ 
liquitl auiouiatic:illy.aDil willflprayD 
100 irt-fh pfr hour. Chi-aprsi anil Best. ■ 
OiillltB for Hor>e I'owcr. Circiilars free. 
— riRLlt FOIiCE l'( Ml' < O. Lurkporl, N.V. g 

n n I k| O [* A practical treatise by T. A. Garrt 
U ll II 11 U t Siyiog the results of long experl- 
wiinilMta ence In Southern California. IM 
Mill Tlinr Pi^^B, oloth bound. Sent post-paid 
I III IIIKI' reduced price of 76 cte. per cop; 
WWbl Ullk by DKWKYIi CO.. PubllBherB,S. F. 


-jles one lo two lono 
-u hour. Loads 10 
i,o 15 tons in car. e> - - 


f Double Easy on man and 

I Working. | f bca 

?^.''r;'=B'^..„r Uaes no doorR. 

]m' ';^'or::;:v:\i::" ■ A ('r"uil^ ^ 

^,1;^^ niT'MU'u ;j^jS(l2^jjS?l.v,LU Prices. aiir 

The most powerful, rapid and durable Press in Americi. 


Champion Full Circle Baling Press, 
The Miller Lightning Hay Press, 
The Junior Monarch Hay Press, 
The Improved Petaluma Hay Press, 

And all kinds of 

Hay, Hide, Hop and Wool Presses, 

Send for catalogue giving full description. 
Wo are Headquarters for all kinda of Haj- 
iiif; Tools. 





A mounted, hoiiz'mtal double ender. Size of hale 
when in ths press, 17x22x40 inches. Average weight o' 
ha e, 220 pounds. Capacity, from 16 to 25 tms per day. 
Uses 4 men and works with 2 horses. Ri QUIRES NO 
TRAMPING. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 



Size of bale in press, 2'2x24x46 inches. Average weight 
of hale, 260"iiounds. Capacity, from 20 to 35 tons per 
day. Uses 5 men and works with 1 or 2 horses at option 
of baler. REQUIRES NO TRAMPING. Uses rope or 
wire. Puts from 7 to 8 tons in a box car. 

FTice «1000 



JMONARCH JR.<„o,|u,yb;h3«S0O 
k THE oaSlCt'— 




Size of bale in press, 22x24x48 inches. Average weight 
of biles. 260 pounds. Capacity, from 15 to 25 tons per 
day. Uses 3 or 4 men, at option of baler Woiks with 
1 or 2 horsts. Uses rope or wire. DOES ITS OWN 
TRAMPING. Puts from 7 to 8 tons in a box car. 
'Price $500 


Same principle as Junior Mouarth, only smaller and 
heavier. Size of bale, when in press, 17x20x40 inches. 
Average weight of bale, 220 pounds. Capicity. from 12 
to 20 tons per d»y. Rtquires 3 men and 2 horses. Uses 
wire only — rope will not hold. I)')K3 ITS OWN 
TRAMPING. Puts 10 tons or over in a box car. 
Price $600 


Size o' bale in press, 24\24n60 inches. Average Weight 
of bale, 250 pounds. Capacity, from 10 tc 18 tons per 
day. Recpiires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope or wire. 
Hay has to he tramped into the press Puts from 5 to 
6.J tons in a box car. 

Price !}3jO 


Size of hale in press, 26x26x50 inches. Average weight 
of bule, 235 pounds. C pacity, from 10 to 10 tons per 
day. Requires 4 men and 2 horses. Uses rope or wire. 
Hay must bo tramped in the press. Puts from 4J to 5i 
ton^ in a box car. 

Price $2S0 

The above IS the finest line of Billng Presses in the 
United States They are neaily double the capacity of 
those of other makers. 

<«• For large, illustrated Catalogue of the sam 


San Leandro, Cal. 

Au Steel. LIGHTNING FullOrcle 



Whon J say cure I do not moan merely to stop them 
roratimoandthonhave them return aRain. I mean a 
l^„S.V J made tlin disease of I-'ITS. EPUr 

fcP.SY or FALLING SICKNliSS a lifo-long study I niy remedy to euro tho worst cahps. Because 
others havii failed is no reason for ni)t now recoivine n 
cure. K.indatonce for a treat iso and a Frue liottia 
of m^inWbj'Ja^niedT. Give Jixpresa and Post Officer 
IL. G« UOUT, AI. C..183 Pearl St. New \iukl 



1358-1360 MARKET ST. S.'F I 




[July 6, 1890 


Put Your Windmill Up to Stay! 

has purchased* "^.ree More Large 
Windmills and Tanks from us this 
year for Boad Sprinkling, 

This makes EIGHTEEN of our 
Mills in use for the County. 

Supervisor Oarson says they are 
the Cheapest and Best Method of 
furnishing water for the above pur- 

We think the CONTINUED SALES to the County ought 
to convince " Doubting Thomases" that our Windmill is not 
an experiment. 

THE NORTHERN GAS WELL CO. of this City have 
just got one for filling the large reservoir so as to get the 
full capacity of the gas from the well. 


Since we T>l«ccil it on the market 
one year ago we have sold over 
one hundred: every one is Riving 
splendid satisfnctioii. 

The only dillorence between thfs 
Mill and improved Davis is in the 

Write for lllnstrmted Cata- 
loK'iei Free. 



They are Warranted to Stay Up in any Storm, no matter how Severe. 



C. H. HUFFMAN, President National Bank, Merced, using 

CRAWi'\)RD <<c O'DONELL, Pomona. 

G. HUNZIKER, Cloverdaie. 

F. T. EWING, Yuma, Arizona. 

.T. O. BRODFORD, Biggs, Butte County. 

.1. HRUSIH, Oakland and DavisviUe. 

J. W. JONES, Turlock, using Fifteen. 

R. T. MARSALES, Oakland, bought over Thirty. 

CRESSEY BROS., San Luis Obispo and San Jose. 

H. BAROROFT, Merced, b ught over Thirty. 

J. T. BEECHER, President Farmers' Union Bank, Stockton, 
ijsing Four. 

L U. SUIPPEE, President Stockton Savings and Loan 
Society, using Two. 

H S. S.VIKiEN T, Ca-ihier Stockton Savines Bank, using Two. 



J. M. WELSH, Manager Stockton Milling Co. 

A B. WOODWARD, Woodland. 

STEPHEN SANGUINETrA,Stockton, using Ten Irrigating 

MillH. ^ ^ ^ 

C. W. YOLLAND, County Clerk, San Joaquin County, Irri- 
gating Mill for aUalfa. 
J. HOBARr. Veniura. 

WASHINGTON HI'RD, French Camp, using Three, one 
fourteen, one twenty, and one twenty four-foot. The 
twenty and twenty- four-foot mills he uses to fill a renpr- 
voir, which has a capacity of two million gallons. He 
says those two mills will fill the reservoir in five days. 
When the reservoir is full, the gate is opened and twenty 
acres of alfalfa, several acres of fruit trees and a young 
vineyard are irrigated. 

This is a Out taken from the Outfits we 
furnished to San Joaquin County. 


Other Windmill Oompanies are saying 
that we will BANKRUPT OURSELVES be- 
cause we sell at such LOW PRICES. 

We answer that strict attention to busi- 
ness, together with a suflBcient supply of 
cash to buy all our material, enables us to 
quote prices that cannot be met, quality of 
goods considered. 


We are quotiog Special Prices where our 
Mill is not in use, and we find that orders 
invariably follow the first, at advanced 
prices. Get your orders in first and get this 
advantage. We think that this is the best 
way of introducing our M ill in new places. 
Where our Agents are appointed we cannot 
offer these Special Prices. 

With ordinary trade wind llic mill will pump the 12,WK) gal- 
SIMON NEWMAN, Newman, using over Thirty, and many ions in live hours. 

other parties too numerous to mention. The pump is a flve-inch suction and lift pump, 7-lnch stroke. 


Tanks at Prices that will 
Surprise you. 

Irrigating Windmills, Tank's. Horsepowers, Hay Presses. 
Tank Frames. Tank Houses. Pumps. Etc. 


Works, Corner Main and Otter Sts. Office, 347 Commerce St. 

Telephone 314. 


Vol. XO.-No. 2. 

Songsters Prom Fatherland. 

A little over a year ago several bandred 
■iDging birds — skylarks, thrusbes, finohea, 
nightingales, etc , were imported from Ger- 
many and set free at Portland, Oregon. No 
fears as to their doing well were entertained by 
those who introdaced them, but the question 

birds have been brought here there has been 
more care taken to protect birds of all kinds, 
and boys have not persecuted them so much. 
The little songsters are quick to notice this, 
and show their appreciation by making them- 
selves more at home in the city. 

Staking Hops. — Mr. Daniel Flint of Sacra- 

Silk Culture Before Congress, 

In a recent allusion to the silk industry, we 
remarked that there were propositions be- 
fore Congress ostensibly in the interest of the 
promotion of silk culture, which the people of 
California had no oonfi'ience in. The state- 
ment had a broad application which was not 

( DEWEY & CO., PublisherB, 
( Office, 220 Market St. 

A Scene on Lake Zurich. 

To give our readers a little change from con- 
templation of Pacific Coast scenery, we present 
this week an engraving of one of the most 
beautiful scenes in Europe, a part of the L%ke 
of Zurich and its surrounding mountains. The 
Jj'ik.e of Zurich, lying in the northeastern part 


was — would they know whither to migrate at 
the approach of winter, and would they return 
the following spring ? 

Now we are pleased to learn from the Ore- 
gonian, several persons report seeing some of 
ihese songbirds in different parts of the valley. 
One has heard nightingales in the vicinity of 
Silverton. James Watt reports that a pair of 
strange birds which sing late into the nignt are 
nesting in his orchard, near Amity, doubtless 
another pair of nightingales. Many persons 
have noticed that there is an unusual number 
of native birds in the gardens about town, and 
that they are much tamer than usual. This is 
owing to the fact that since the German song- 

mento has experimented with four acres of hops 
in a new system of staking. He used redwood 
stakes 8 feet long 2x2 inches, set in the ground 
one foot, and 8 feet apart. Instead of cord he 
has used wire running at right angles fastened 
on top of the stakes with a staple. The pick 
ers can reach the arms of the vines and strip 
them. Mr. Flint finds that this system is far 
ahead of any other in point of economy. 

There are fig trees on the ranch of John 
Fulgham, 12 miles west of Visalia, the limbs of 
which have bant down, entered the ground and 
taken root, thus giving promise of another tree 
from the brapph of a Hying one, 

intended. We did not refer to measures for 
the promotion of silk culture which placed the 
disbursement of funds under the direction of 
the Department of Agriculture. We under- 
stand that Mr. Amos Adams, the well-known 
Californian, prepared a bill for the promotion 
of the silk industry whush met the approval of 
Secretary Rask, and was introduced in Congress 
by Mr. McKenna. We intended no reflection 
upon that measure. It is possible that an effort 
may be made to enlist the co-operation of prom- 
inent friends of silk culture in this state in 
support of this measure and thus supplement 
and extend the work now in progress in this 

of Switzerland, is celebrated for its piotareique 
beauty and its historical interest. The lake is 
23 miles long and 2.^ miles broad, and it 
extends from the city of Zurich in a south- 
easterly direction, nearly filling the valley to 
the hills on either side, which are the foothills 
of the Alps. Ths shores nearly its whole dis- 
tance on both sides are sprinkled with the finest 
villa dwellings, owned by people of all nations. 
The engraving on this page represents the 
southern part of the lake, with its beautiful 
islands and shores, and shows the Alps in the 
distance. On the island upon the right are graves 
of some of the leading men of the Reformation, 
for here they took refuge from persecution. 


f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

[Jolt 12, 1890 

C[o F^F^ESf O N D E N C E. 

OoneepoadeDtfl are alone rc^poaeible for their oplnionf. 

Napa Valley Notes. 

EuiTOKS Pkess:— Propitions weather for the 
farmer has prevailed in our valley siDce the 
wiuter ralos. Crops have grown well, as a 
whole, thongh late sown grain will not amoant 
to much, and many fields have already been 
cat for hay. Thus far the seaeon has been 
pleasantly oool, a few days only of warm 
weather now and then being noted. This ha? 
made it exceedingly agreeable for field men on 
our ranober, and in fact, for " all olaeees and 
conditions of men," 

Oar cherry crop, which was in many orchards 
an excellent one, in all a fair onr, has ripened, 
been picked and marketed. Sima disturbance 
in the weather — either rains when the trees 
were in bloom, or late frost, or we know not 
what — shortened the crops somewhat. Several 
nrchardists, who took advantage of the Napa 
Valley Fruit Union, shipped their fruit to dif- 
ferent points Kant and received excellent re- 
turns therefor. Oar cherries have long been 
noted for their superiority in our S;ate mar- 
kets, hat when we lately read in the market 
reports from New York City that ours were 
the finest white cherries ever sold on Broad- 
way, retailing at 40 and 60 cents per pound, we 
were naturally elated. 

Five or six carloads of cherries were shipped 
Ktstward from Napa City this seasoc, netting, 
as before stated, fine prices. Present indica- 
tions are that more of our orchardists will send 
their fruit Kkst another year throagh tho- 
Uaion, the success met with this year tend- 
ing to infuse new life into the fruit business. 

This, in fact, was needed, for the complaint 
of small returns from local or S. F. markets has 
not been infrequent. The large cannery, lo- 
cated in Nipa, which was in operation last 
season, and where considerable of our valley 
fruit was sold, is closed this year. Agents for 
canneries in oi.her parts of the State, are fre- 
quently in onr orchards and make large pur- 

It is true that quite a large number of trees 
in our orchards were killed by excessive moist 
are last spring, but that fact should not dis- 
courage our orchardists, for so severe a season 
will not, in all probability, come again for a 
score of year?, if ever. Oar Ios°, too, is small 
compared with that of several other localities 
in this State. Oar younger orchards, planted 
to the more approved varieties of fruit, better 
pruned and more carefully cultivated, are 
coming into excellent bearing condition, and 
are not disappointing their owners. 

The apricot crop will be light in many parts 
of this county, ar, also, will that of early 
peaches. A few vaiieties of this latter fruit 
are ripening and are selling in the local mar- 
kets at good figures. In valley orchards apples 
will not yield largely. 

The fruit-drier at Napa has been enlarged 
and will probably soon commence operations. 

The vineyards that cover the v.illey and 
spread over many of the hillp, from YouDtville 
northward to Calistoga, are in splendid condi- 
tion. To see this large area (one may ride for 12 
or 15 miles through solid vineyard) is worth 
coming far to behold. The contract between 
this mass of bright green verdure and the gold- 
en yellow stubble-fields later in the season, is 
particularly pleasant, though, for a fact, very 
few stubble fialds are now to be found in the 
upper valley. 

As one views this large tract of vineyard the 
question naturally arises, "Where will all the 
help come from to handle this crop?" For the 
vines will yield largely this season. Then, 
again, comes up the matter of cooperage. The 
capacity of our many cellars will be taxed to 
their uttermost. We note very few quotations 
for the prospective crop, though some fair cffers 
have been made. 

U, W. Crabb of Uikville has laid out a fine 
race track in the midst of bis large vineyard, 
where he or his drivers speed his fast horses. 
You have probably noticed Mr. Crabb's appli- 
cation for space at the World's Fair at Caioa- 
go, and what he proposes to do ia the way of 
diupUying his winee. He is one of our moat 
enterprising vineyardists and wine-makers. 

Haying is over. The yield, in the aggregate, 
ia large, though per acre it is smaller than last 
year, Mnoh is now being baled; rates $1 10 
per ton, 'Ihe larger portion of the crop is thus 
cared for. Prices are not very encouraging for 
farmers. Some of them will feed their crop, or 
a greater portion of i', to stock, buying sheep 
or oattle, afterward selling them to the butch- 
er. There is but little money made In raising 
hay, yet the annual production is quite large — 
large enough to keep prices down, 

Eirly wtieat is almost ready for the header, 
and the harvest will have commenced by the 
time this letter reaches you. Ltte sown wheat 
has not done very well, 

Tne very high figure at which potatoes were 
rated last winter, induced many of our farmers 
to plant a large amount of this escolent. This 
orop looks well, generally speaking, and dis- 
proves the theory, a long time prevalent, that 
good potatoes could not be grown in this viUey. 
We know of one man who realized handsomely 
on his crop last season. 

The annual fair of the Napa and Solano A^ri- 
cultural Sjciety, which will be held at Napa 
next fall, promi es to be a notable one. Toe 
two that have been given here proved success- 

ful, and, profiting by past experience, the di- 
rectors will endeavor to make the coming one 
more so. The track, one of the fioest in the 
S ate, is always kept in excellent condition. 
The tall, close board fence surrounding the 
track and the (tills, have been whitewashed 
lately, making the premises very attractive. 
Since these fairs were inaugurated there has 
been an increased interest manifested in many 
parts of the country in horse and cattle breed- 
ing, particularly in the former. Cattle and 
sheep are raised in limited numbers only in the 
larger valleys of this county, bat in the hilly 
portions their number, in the aggregate, is 
quite large. Still, our local butchers freqaent- 
ly draw on Oregon and Nevada for supplies of 
beef cattle. 

Very little real estate has changed hands in 
the connty for a year or more, though prices 
have not lowered to any great extent. There 
has been a vary small demand for farm lands 
throughout the State, during the last year, so 
wa are not alone in this matter. Orchard 
property has proved so valuable this season, it 
is patent that land suitable for fruit culture 
will not depreciate in value, but rather will be 
held firm at present prices, which are lower 
than in many other of the bay counties. 

Constant improvements are being made in 
N >p>. Though some are disposed to cry " hard 
tim- " yet there is no place of its size In the 
State that is mo't prosperous or stands on a firm- 
er footing thanNips. Forty or fifty thousand 
dollars worth of new buildings are now being 
erected, or will be this season. This speaks well 
for a dull vnar. K 

A'apa, July 3, 1S90. 

Arizona Notes. 

KbiTOR.s Press: — The correspondents' page 
of the RcRAL of June 2lst skipped t Ay? I, 
for one, plead: " Kxcnse me. Too busy." So, 
too, all round. Bat we all turn np at the post- 
office on time, and expect the Rural to be just 
tie same, whether we help a mite, with our 
pige so generously allotted to correspondents, 
or not, Arizona is not forgotten; but the aver- 
are reader of the Rural, I dare say, is puzzled 
to know where all those fat cattle come from; 
and how comes it that a country of climatic 
conditions such as is attributed to Arizona can 
produce anything I 

Lat some reader of history examine the re- 
port of Oommodore Wilkes, who, under the 
high authority of the United States of America, 
reported California a dreary waste, scarcely 
able to sustain the population then in the coun- 
try (A. D 1837). Lient, Cushing says of Ari- 
z)na(A. D. 18S9) that when the resources of 
Arizona are as well in hand as prehistoric man 
of the stone age had them, Arizona will be the 
pride of this American people; will be a 

Our Bees. 

While the winds of California are " playing 
sad havoc " with our brother bee men, our al- 
falfa fields are blooming, and our bees are busy. 
We cm't boast of the big things on the work 
of a day or a season, but for one year, with 
another I find Arizona for honey business safer 
than Southern California. 

The reason I know. " I've been there !" List 
October, between the 1st and lOtb, my bees 
made a run of storing in honey, filling op very 
full, after I had very cautiously gauged their 
supply for their winter use, and I bad to go 
over the whole apiary, to give the queen room 
to get into winter shape, else spring would 
have found my hives blocked np with bard 
crystalizad honey. 

Our Indlane. 
Last week a certain gentleman and his moat 
estimable spouse from San Francisco, stopped 
off for a day or so at our town of Tempe. Soon 
after taking quarters at the Tempe hotel, a 
party of Indians rode into town. Oar new 
guest flew, screaming to her room, creating 
some littlb attention. Oar hotel proprietor 
succeeded partially in quieting the lady by as- 
suring her that one's person and property were 
50 per cent safer in Tempe than in the City of 
San Francisco or New York. 

Our Mormons is another sauroe of (apply to 
thfl "penny-a-liner," 

Not long since, our connty had a convoca- 
tion of teachers, known popularly as teachers' 
institutes. In the duties of the day a certain 
young lady reported, read her piece, and rep 
resentea Masa City, onr Mormon colony. In 
the evening, at the hotel, a certain lady lately 
from the Eist, a graduate of one of those K»st- 
ern normals, accosted Miss H, of Meaa Olty, 

" And you have been teaching oat in the 
Mormon settlement !" 
" Ob, yes," 

" Well, do you know," continued our lady 
from the Eist, "that I am coming over' there 
one of these days, jast to see a Mormon ! I 
have read and have heard so mach about them 
that I really am anxious to see a Mormon," 

" Well," replied Miss H , "if jast to see a 
Mormon is the only cause of the trip," rising 
to her feet with a gentle bow, " I can save you 
the trouble. Behold, a Mormon ! Born of 
Mormon porents and z>ialous in the faith; yet I 
speak the Eaglish language and pride myself in 
our free schools and in being a school-teacher." 

Oar Kistern lady had really been picturing a 
Mnrmou out in her mind as something quite 
different, but her face turned red, just a little. 
Tempt, A. T. Geo, Kay Miller. 

Some Bee Talk. 

Editor:' Press :--A few days ago I made a 
visit to my friend C , who is somewhat in- 
terested in bees. He had just finished irrigat- 
ing his garden, and was preparing to put a few 
sections on the most populous of bis hivef, 
when I made my appearance. 

" Hello ! yon are just the fellow I want to 
see," he exclaimed, as be canght sight of me ; 
"just come here and take a look at this colony. 
I bived them last Thursday, and I want you 
to see what they have done in a week." 

He gave them a few puffs of smoke at the 
entrance and then removed the cover, exposing 
to view a beautiful mass of white-capped honey, 
" They have the foundation in both stories 
drawn out and filled with brood and honey," 

said Mr, C . "I took every frame oat this 


" Yes, they have done splendidly," I an- 

" Don't you think that they are pretty 
bees ? " he asked, as he removed a frame and 
held it to my view. 

" Yes, they are pretty bees surely; they are 
as well marked as any Italians I have ever 
seen. Where did you get the queen — one that 
ynu raised yourself ? " 

"Well not exactly," he answered. "Do 
you remember those queen cells that you gave 
me laat spring, when I visited you ? After 
they were all batched out I distributed the 
queens around through the tpiary. Yon gave 
me eight rjueen cells, and they all came from 
the same liive. Well, yon know all my bees 
were pure blacks before I introduced these 
queens, and there were nothing but black 
drones here : and how this one queen came to 
be purely mated I oannot undeistand, I do 
not think that she got mated with a drone from 
your apiary, as It is ten miles from here." 

"Such a thing might be possible," I an- 
swered; "drones make wonderful flights some- 
timep.^and worker bees, too, for that matter. 
If I remember right, Mr, H. A. March of 
Fidalgr, Washington, had bees that went be- 
tween seven and eight miles away in search of 
stores, " 

" How did he find out that they went that 
far ? " 

" Why, the bees went across the water to an 
island seven or eight miles distant; he watched 
them, saw them go toward the island, took a 
boat and went there and found bis Italian bees 
there by the hundreds. Ha watched them after 
they were loaded np and saw them take a direct 
line toward his apiary," 

Well, according to that, I should not be 
much surprised if drones did really go ten 

"Yes, I am inclined to believe that bees 
will mix at that distance, and no doubt that 
queen of yonrs was mated by a drone from my 

"I have been bothered considerably this 
spring by skunks eating the bees, and to rem- 
edy this I had to elevate the stands as yon see 
them, I set a steel trap and canght a couple, 
and sinoe then I have not noticed any signs of 
their presence," 

" Yes, it ia a pretty good idea to have your 
hives cff the ground at least 16 inches. 
When Mr. ScbattlU visited me at Piacerville, 
he told mo that he did not like my style of hav- 
ing the hives so close to the ground; it was too 
handy for skunks and toads, I was never 
bothered by the toads eating bees, but some- 
times by skunks; my hives, as you know, were 
set only about four inches from the ground; bat 
whenever I noticed the presence of skunks, I 
set a figure-fonr trap in the apiary, bated with 
honey, and I have always managed to catch 
them, A few good healthy skunks would soon 
destroy an apiary, as they kill the baes only for 
the honey they contain, and it takes several 
thousand bees to satisfy their appetite, I have 
never caught a skank in the act of killing beer, 
and I do not know how they do it," 

" Well, I have, and I will tell you," said Mr, 
C. "I got up early one morning to go to town, 
and as I went down to the barn I noticed some 
black object in front of the hive, and upon 
closer inspection I found it to be a skunk; it 
was switching its tail at the entrance of the 
hive, getting it full of enraged bees, and then 
it would turn around and pick the bees out of 
its tail, one at a time, crush them between its 
teeth, some way to get the honey out, drop it 
and pick up another, I think that a skunk 
would destroy a great many bees in a few hours. 
Oh, yes! Mr, W., I have a hive here I wish 
you would examiue before you go; three weeks 
ago it contained a virgin queen, and this morn- 
ing I looked at them, expecting to find a laying 
queen, and instead, I found it Infested with 
l*ying, or fertile, workers. What do you think 
I had better do with them ? " 

"Oh! that will be easy to remedy," I an- 
swered; " let me have your smoker, and I will 
get a frame of larviu from this fine Italian col- 
ony; yoa bring me tnat empty hive yonder, and 
we will set it where the fertile-worker colony 
stands; we will place this frame of unsealed 
brood in the empty hive, and carry the fertile- 
worker colony to a new location." No sooner 
said than done, "Now let us remove all the 
combs in the fertile-worker colony but one; we 
must shake all the bees off, and put nothing but 
the combs at the new stand; the bees, being 

mostly old ones, will return to the old location, 
and the fertile workers will remain with the 
old hive, at the new location; in two or three 
days, take the one frame from oat of the old 
hive, and drown the bees that are on it or kill 
them some way. The fertile workers must be 
killed, because if they go back they will return 
to their old tricks again, and the colony soon 
dwindles out of existence," « 

" How do yon suppose the queen got lost ? 
She was a fine-looking queen, and I remember 
of taking especial notice of her," 

"Possibly when she was out on her wedding 
flight," I answered; "a great many virgin 
queens are lost that way. Some seasons I 
notice as high as 15 queens lost in an apiary of 
100 colonies. Sometimes the queen's wings are 
defective, which prevents her from flying out 
to get mated; generally, in that case, you will 
find her in the hive laying drone eggs; but 
never kill a queen that lays drone eggs, until 
you are pretty well convinced that she is actu- 
ally a drone layer, as many young queens, 
when first beginning to lay, commence with 
drone eggs, and keep it ap quite awhile some- 

" Yes, I have noticed that several times; one 
queen, tnat I have, laid drone eggs for about a 
month before she commenced to lay worker 
BRgSi and I was about to pinch her head cff, 
when I discovered she had been mated. Hello! 
Mrs, C, is calling; supper must be ready, so let 
us go." 

M ore of this interesting visit anon. 
Grizzly Flat, Cal. S. L. Watkin.s, 

(She V'^eyard. 

Table Grapes on the Foothills, 

Editors Press:— Mr, Whitoomb of Colfax 
has carried off the honors on table grapes for 
years past. When in Colfax I visited the dif- 
ferent vineyards and orchards, and would like 
to predict that Colfax will make a record not 
only in grapes, but in peaches as well this sea- 
eon. Why Mr, Whitcomb has all the notoriety 
ia difficult to understand, as Messrs, Btker, 
livings, Hubley, Haikness and Hanson havu 
equally as fine and larger vineyards, 

I found the vineyardists basy, sulphuring, 
Buckering and cutting back. The preferred 
method of sulphuring was by means of a small 
box with wire cloth tacked over the bottom. 
The box was about half filled with sulphur and 
a sufficient quantity dusted on to each vine by 
moviug the sulphur over the bottom of the box 
by the hand. It occurred to me that a "Hunter 
K. our Sifter " would be "just the thing" for 
this work. The grapes in this section are free 
from mildew. The sulphuring at blossoming is 
done to make t'le grapes set. 

All of the fruit and grapes of this section are 
grown without irrigation, cultivation alone 
urodncing the finest table grapes in the S:ate. 
I think it possible for some of the growers to do 
still better, as in Mr. Whitcomb'a vineyard I 
saw great clods of earth that would have 
brought a Sacramento or Sutter county fruit- 
grower out with his pulver;/9rat once. That 
the section does so well with moderate cultiva- 
tion is proof that it is the right location for 
table grapes. 

I asked Mr, Whitcomb: " What grape is 
the most profitable?" 
"The Purple Damascus." 
" U it better than the Tokay ? " 
" Yes; it's ever so much bettera grape — a fine 
grape — and once it is known the Tokay will be 
a drag in the market." 

"How about its shipping qnalitiea ? Will it 
open up as fine as the Tokay ?" 

" Yes, sir, I've shipped them to London and 
they arrived in the very best condition. Mirk 
my words; for this section the Purple Damas- 
cus is the coming grape." 

Mr. Hubley is counting on his Emperors 
making a showing this season. In the patt he 
pruned them too short. Mr. Wooleey of the 
famous ranch of lone, in an evening's pleasant 
and profitable conversation, stated in reply to 
my query as to his opinion of the proper 
method of pruning the Kmperor : 

" I think the Emperor belongs to the same 
family aii the Sultana and in consequence the 
first two buds would not bear, and therefore the 
canes should he left with three to five budr," 
Then he smiled and laughingly added, "For 
J ears I pruned my Sultanas as I did my other 
grapes and wondered why I couldn't get the 
yields other growers did. Finally, in looking 
up grapes in my 'California Fruits, 'I found that 
all these years I had been cutting off my grapes 
by close pruning. The Emperor and the Sal- 
tana want lots of wood." 

Grapes, like other fruits, have a great range 
of adaptations. Up at Georgetcwa the altitude 
is too great for any bat Eastern grapes, which 
do well where even the Mission failo, Tne 
Tokay has had the field as a shipping grapr, 
but now, as already stated, Mr, Whitcomii 
claims the Purple Damascus must excel it My 
friend Mr, Felix (Jillet, of Barren Hill Nuis- 
ery fame, took me through his vineyard at 
Nevada City when his 400 varieties were ripe, 
and, without knowing the varieties, I selected 
from taste and sight those that I specially pre- 
ferred; and this spring Mr. Tiillet treated me 
to one of bis pleasant surprises by sending me 
five rooted grapevines of the kinds preferred 
by me. They proved to be the White Mai- 

July 12, 1890.] 


voiee, Birdelair, Gen. de la Marmora, Chaise- 
)aa de Port aLd Bamonia of Transylvania. 
I want no better grapes than I feasted on in 
Mr. Gillet's model vineyard. I visited Mr. 
Gillet at one time near the spring of the year, 
and he treated me to grapes that were as fine 
in appearance and flavor as though they had 
just been picked from the vinp. 

Murphyt, Cal. E. H. Schaeffle. 


How to Dry Apricots. 

At the last meeting of the Sutter County 
Hjrticulural Society, a committee of five, con- 
sisting of Messrs. H. P. Stabler, J. P Onstott, 
B G. Stabler, U. Davis and R. C Kells was 
appointed to prepare and pnbiish a series of 
bulletins on fruit drying. The cbj3ct of the 
publication is to reach the small growers who 
do not attend the fruit meetings and who usually 
make a very inferior article of dried fruit. The 
committee claim no originality, but are simply 
setting forth the methods of the most successful 
driers in the State. 

Allow the fruit to become thoroughly ripe on 
the tree; pick carefully and immediately haul 
to the drying ground, where the fruit should be 
graded into at least three sizes. 

Trays for drying are usually two by three 
feet, and made of sawed lumber not dressed. 
In catting use a sharp knife, or a Mosher pat- 
ent pitter. See that the fruit is cut entirely in 
two pieces, and not pulled apart leaving a 
rough edge. As soon as possible after picking, 
cat and place the fruit on the tray, cup side up. 

The fruit ie now ready for the bleacher, 
which consists of a box three by four feet on 
the bottom and seven feet high, the inside to 
contain cleats which allow the trays of fruit to 
slide in. The amount of and time of burning 
the Bulpbur are disputed questions among fruit 
men, but for a bleacher oi the siza above indi- 
cated, a double handful of sulphur ignited on 
the ground under the fruit and allowed to burn 
for 30 minutes will be found sufficient. The 
trays are then placed on the ground in the sun. 
After two or three days, some driers prefer to 
bunch the fruit from seven to eight trays into 
one, leaving a day or two. Before the fruit is 
so dry that it will rattle on the tray, and while 
it still has a leathery feel, it should be taken 
up in the heat of the day and spread about ten 
inches thick on a tight floor in a room pro- 
tected from moths by wire screens on the doors 
and windows. As often as once a day for a 
week the fruit should be turned with a wooden 

Grade again just before packing. It is then 
ready for sacking or boxing. Only the best 
quality of white sacks should be used, or if 
boxed, the regular 25 and 50-pound boxes are 
the proper kind. Line the bottom and sides of 
the box with oiled paper, face the bottom with 
average fruit and press with a common lever 

Disease of the Walnut. 

The Santa Ana Blade gives the following: 
There is a disease prevalent among soft-shell 
walnut trees known as the "black knot" which 
gives the walnut growers some trouble. It is 
a growth, or rather an accumulation, of dis- 
eased wood at the surface of the ground or just 
beneath it, which if allowed to accumulate will 
in time destroy the tree. This disease is to the 
tree about what the cancer is to the human 

There has been considerable discussion as to 
the cause of this disease. Some claim that it is 
produced from a bruise or out of the trunk of 
the tree, while others claim that it is caused 
from an insect of some kind that is wor'^ing on 
the afiTected part. The latter theory appears to 
ba the more plausible one. Dr. Miller, who 
owns a fine young walnut grove consisting of 
19 acres, has made a special study of the black 
knot, and has from his study and experiments 
found a remedy that is a sure cure. The first 
thing he does is to clean the dirt from around 
the diseased part of the tree, then take a sharp 
instrument and trim cS all the diseased portion 
of the trunk. To prevent the tree from blow- 
ing aboat and thus aggravating the diseased 
and weakened portion, he braces it with three 
or four guy ropes, as the case may n quire. 

Often the entire circumference of the trunk 
is diseased. When this ie the case the Doctor 
treats one si'^e at a time, always treating the 
north side first. After that side has healed 
over he then operates on the south side, taking 
pains always to protect the diseased portion 
from the hot sun immediarely after removing 
the diseased wood. 

Dr. Miller says he has had about 20 trees in 
his orchard affacted with the black knot, and 
has succeeded in curing them all. He showed 
a representative of the Blade some of the trees 
operated on that present a healthy and natu- 
ral appearance, the abnormal growth having 
entirely disappeared. 

The Peach Apricot.— A prominent fruit- 
grower of Sutter county in a recent letter to a 
local piper gives the following opinion of the 
peach apricot, which is gaining such a reputa- 
tion in the orchards of that region: "It attains 
to enormous size, is a regular bearer, a good 
canner and a splendid drier. This locality 
seems to be especially adapted to this variety 

of apricot, while it does not do well in other 
looalitiep, and vice versa with some other vari- 
eties. Tbe Blenheim does well in the coast 
counties and grows to a good size, but as yet 
has not grown to be large in this locality, while 
the Moornark grows to a good siz; but is a shy 
bearer. Hence I think the peach apricot is the 
apricot to grow in the vicinity of Marysville 
and in Sutler county. I mention these facts 
for the benefit of those who are about to plant 
apricot". As we now hold the reputation of 
growing the finest peaches in Cstliforni?, I think 
we can eoon gain the same reputation with the 
apricot, especially when we can grow specimens 
that will weigh over a quarter of a pound 

Olives in the Foothills. 

EinTOKS Pres-s : — Three years ago we de- 
cided to transform our very poor grain field of 
seven acres into an olive orchard. The soil is 
red, sandy loam — lava formation, not more 
than IS inches to 3 feet in depth, underlaid 
with rotten sandstone, and originally covered 
with a thick growth of chaparral and macztn- 
ita. After seeding for hay about ten years, it 
really no longer paid for seed and labor. 

We could not afford to buy many olive trees, 
80 we began with 200 very small ones — one-year- 
old cuttingf — none of them a foot high, and 
the stems sca> cely as large aa a slat>> pencil. 
These were {;lanted out in March of 1887. In 
.Taly only three or four had died, the rest mak- 
ing a most vigorous growth. 

One day, however, about 30 were killed by 
irrigating while the thermometer was at 103° — 
scalded, I suppose. 

The second year they made an astonishing 
growth, and now most of them are over seven 
feet in height, with stems from two to three 
inches in diameter. About ten of them bloomed 
the Utter part of April, and now have fruit. 

No sign of scale appears, and we scarcely 
fear that pest in this hot, dry climate. 

These trees were irrigated four times the first 
season, three times the second, and twice last 
summer. They have also been mulched twice 
with about a wheelbarrow load of stable man- 
ure to each tree. Jessima Leiou. 

Bulte Co., June 27th, 

[It would be an ungrateful tree which would 
not grow under such generous treatment. — Eu.i. 
Press ] 

Late Oranges. — There are many of the 
olaer and more experienced orange growers in 
California who are turning their attention to 
the profit in oranges that come into the market 
late in the season. After four years of almost 
exclusive planting of Navel oranges we find the 
sentiment is growing that the Mediterranean 
Sweet or Valencia are really the best oranges 
for profit to be planted. The great demttnd 
there is always for oranges in the months of 
April, and especially May, has caused the 
change in opinion concerning the Navel or- 
ange. J. DeBarth Shorb of San Gibriel ad- 
vised a Pomona fruit grower the other day to 
plant Mediterranean Sweets. He aigued that 
this variety of oranges kept better, hung on tbe 
trees weeks longer than the Navels, were always 
popular and were very abundant bearers. He 
said he solf^, two weeks ago, Mediterranean 
Stveets from five acres for $2.55 a box, and the 
net profit was nearly one-third (greater than for 
Navels at $3.50 a box. Mr. Shorb believes 
that the Mediterranean Sweet will always be 
the best-selling orange there is, and he quotes 
the fact that it has sold in Chicago and St. 
Louis for weeks at a better price than the far- 
famed Navel. — Pomona Progres: 

(She ^lEisD. 

Wheat Sown too Deep. 

A Report From the Oregon Experiment 

On the 28th of April last, John S. Vinson of 
Nolin, Umatilla county. Or., addressed to fol- 
lowing letter to B. S. Pagne of the U. S. Signal 
Service, and Oregon Weather Bureau, Portland: 

Sir: — I send you a sample of growing wheat, and 
am willing to expose my ignorance in ihetffort to 
assist in discovering the cause of so much trouble in 
raising wheat in this section. You will notice the 
grain started to grow, but for some cause the growth 
was checked, and new roots were sent out from the 
stem, the old roots dwindling away. I think the 
gr^in was put in the ground too deep. 

11 1 am right, this will account for the poor stand 
obtained on old mellow soil, as it would require 
very favorable seasons to produce crops where two 
[growths are necessary. 

Please let me know your opinion of the causes of 
the second growth, and if it is the best condition to 
produce crops. 

I am not an experienced farmer, nor do I find 
any one that is able to enlighten me on this subject. 

We expect a very fair yield of good quality, of all 
kinds of gr^in, but lall-sown grain is not a good 

Mr. Pacue promptly referred the matter to 
Prof. E Grimm, director and agriculturist of 
the Experiment Station at Corvaliis, who re- 
ported as follows: 

Prof. Grimm's Report. 
The wheat plants sent me I find not unlike 
acme grasses which I have observed growing in 
the arid regions of Colorado. Tbe leaves of the 
' plants are attenuated, and the bleached appear- 

ance of their lower portions show that they 
were covered with soil to the depth of 2 to 2^ 
inches. The plants showed two sets of roots, 
one of which was at the bate of the leaves and 
the other set from 1^ to 2 inches lower, and 
which had started from the seed, as is easily 
shown by the old seed which remains. This 
would place the seed at the depth of 3^- to 4^ 
inches. It has been found if wheat be sown too 
deeply germination is impaired, and often re- 
rooting takes place at the upper joint and the 
parts of the original stem and routs die away, 
thus causing great loss in the vitality of the 
plants. With fall-sown grain this evil is usu- 
ally corrected to a great extent, but spring 
wheat is always weakened, aa there ie no time 
for the plant to remedy the evil. In loose soils, 
and where the rainfall is light, the danger of 
deep planting is greater than with retentive 
soils in moist climate, as the moisture required 
to mature the crop must be husbanded iu the 
former case, and the plant rushed through its 
diffarent stages of growth as rapidly as possi- 
ble. It has been found by carefully conducted 
experiments that wheat planted at a depth of 
one-half inch will come above tbe ground in 
abont 11 days, while at a depth of 3 Inches it 
required 20 dayp, and at 4 inches 21 days to 
come to the surface. These figures will vary 
in d fferent soils and under different climatic 
conditions, but it is evident that in a dry cli- 
mate depth of planting is an important consid- 
eration as regards the length of time rr quired 
to push the plants through their first and most 
critical period of growth. In Umatilla county 
the effect of deep planting would affect the fall- 
sown grain similar to spring-sown grain in the 
Willamette valley, as the time lost in Umatilla 
county with fall grain would extend the time of 
root development so long that evaporation from 
the soil directly and exhalation from the plants 
would exhaust the soil moisture and not give 
the plant sufficient time to rectify the evil. 

This is especially true in comparatively dry 
climates. It is to be remembered that for 
every one pound o( dry matter stored up the 
plant has evaporated 300 pounds of water, and 
for an average crop of wheat, or barley, or 
grasp, there would pass through the plant 700 
tons or seven inches of water. It is evident 
from this that when soil moisture is limited as 
in Umatilla county, deep planting would be 
nexc to ruinous to the crop. One or two inches 
would be tbe best depth of planting; beyond 
this the wheat is liable to joint rooting, as just 
noticed, and besides losing much time in com- 
ing up, they become thin and attenuated and do 
not stool or tiller, or if eo this process is weak 
and irregular. Lateral bnds spring from the 
axils of the leaves, and as the growth of one 
succeeds that of another, upward decay and ir- 
regularity in the growth of others is the result. 
If only tbe upper bud succeeds as was the case 
with the specimens sent, much time is lost by 
decay of the lower part and the formation of a 
new system of roots. In this case I do not 
think there was sufficient soil moisture to sup- 
ply the water which a large leaf surface would 
r( quire, and hence the condition of this crop 

In transmitting the above, Assistant Director 
Paeue adds: 

Q jestions relative te soils and products, effect 
of climate on same, etc., will be gladly answer- 
ed if submitted. It is one of the piain objects 
of this Bureau and of the Experiment Station at 
Corvallis to enlighten the soil workers upon any 
questions tbat may arise in their occupation 
relative to soil, climate, productionp, insects, 
And the like. 

Hay Rakes. 

Editors Press: An important point in hay 
rakes was brought to my attention by Mr. 
Morris of Yolo. When cutting volunteer hay 
the old stubble has been a serious .damage to 
the crop. A wire rake gathers all. Mr. M, 
has lately started In with an acme rake, such 
as is advertised by Byron Jackson. He finds 
that it rakes the hay all right, but that the 
stubble drops down between the teeth, as it 
works back toward the wheels. This leaves 
the hay clean and bright as though it had been 
sown on purpose. 

Mr. Morris claims an important advantage 
over driving tbe horses, as illustrated in Mr. 
Jackson's cuts, by placing a boy on each. 
When they come to the winrow, the bunch or 
the stack, instead of backing cnt, each boy turns 
his horse about and drives the other way, easily 
making nhort turns in any direction desired. 

Mr. Morris is a very practical and suooessful 
farmer, whose enthusiasm in behalf of this new 
departure in hay-making will be of groat advan- 
tage to the manufacturers, F, S. C. 

Growing the Mongolian Pheasant in 

EiJiToiis Press: — Regarding the Chinese 
Pheasant, I am having extra opportunities of 
observing their ways and manners and customs 
while young. We found a nest and set the 
eggs under a domestic hen, and now have 12 
China pheasant chickens, five weeks old, run- 
ning at large with the hen the same as any 
cliickens. They are as tame as ordinary chick- 
ens, but their native disposition for running and 

hiding is still there. They are funny little I; 
lows, and act like little turkeys, only they are 
more sprightly and comical. They come home 
regularly to their roosting coop at night, or in 
case of a storm, and appear to appreciate shel- 
ter and something to eat as well aa their more 
civilized cousins. Bnt they eat — like the 
"Shanghai chicken" of the old song, they 
" eat most anything they can overhaul. " They 
are "rustlers for grub," as a miner would say, 
and the vineyardists and fruit and berry men, 
and market gardeners of California will be able 
to recognize that characteristic whenever they 
become plentiful in that State. They will eat 
grapes now (and the grapes are not bigger than 
peas), strawberries, cherries and nearly every- 
thing else in the fruit or vegetable line. They 
eat all kinds of insects as well, and as active 
and vigorous birds must, who get around as 
much as they do, consume large quantities 
of food. They are constantly on the go, and to 
say of them that they run with the hen is hard- 
ly correct; the hen runs with them, that is, 
when she can keep up. But they are of no 
practical use. We have plenty of other birds 
which do all their work without their destruc- 
tive habits. The quail is very much prefer- 
able. But we have got him, and there are still 
men foolish enough to want to introduce him 
into other places. Taey are welcome to do so, 
so far as my consent goes. I wish they would 
take away all there are around here. 

Aumtville, Or. P 8. Matteson. 

How I Glutted the Egg Market. 

" I have made the hen a study for many years 
and love to watch her even yet as she resumes her 
toils on a falling market year after year." — Bill 

Editors Press:— This pathetic sentiment 
wakes a mourutul echo in many a heart. 

I have had the usual experience, fired by 
glowing editorials in local papers on the 
'• Profits of Poultry Riising." I made calcu- 
lations on envelopes and newspaper wrappers, 
figured up a fortune, started into the business 
with ardor, kept scientific book accounts, found 
that the outlay was considerably more than 
the income, that hens wonid lay only when the 
price of eggs was at the minimum, and then 
—gave it up and left the incorrigibles to shift 
for themselves. 

This spring, however, most of my 40 hens 
being young, they aetonisihed roe by laying sev- 
eral dozen eggs more than we could poesibly 
consume at the table. This encouraged me 
somewhat. I even sold enough to come to 
$5.40 when eggs were at 15 cents. Then the 
price advanced to 20 cents, and those hens 
with one consent immediately stopped laying 
without even a cluck, posting up a notice on the 
poultry house door, "On a Strike." 

I know that hens ought to "cluck" when 
they leave off laying, so I set about searching 
for the reason why. I found it. I had left the 
care of feeding to alien bands, and my 40 hens 
only received a dole of one pint of wheat morn- 
ing and night. I found two or three sacks of 
middlings that were left over from last year's 
hog feed, and began to experiment. 

I mixed five pounds of middlings with sour 
milk, adding a tablespoonful of cayenne pepper, 
feeding this once a day in addition to their 
grain. The result was marked and delightful. 
For a month I had received one or two eggs a 
day, but under the new regimen the egg supply 
gradually increased to 20 eggs per day, within 
ten days. 

We now eat eggs three times a day, and 
I took twelve dczen to market (the country 
store) yesterday, receiving 25 Cents per dozen. 

Pentz, Bulte Co. Je.ssima Leiou. 

Raising Chickens. 

Editors — As the season is far ad- 
vanced fur an article on the raising of young 
chicks, yet I deemed a few thoughts would be 
appropriate for the later hatches of the season, 
and especially at a time, too, when fowls havo 
not the vitality and vigor that they have earlier 
in the season to impart. 

In the first feeding of young chickp, care 
should be taken not to give them soft food. 
We boil an egg hard and mix it with oatmeal 
and have it as dry as possible, and feed with 
that kind of food during the first week, and 
when the chicks begin to pick up wheat, feed 
with dry wheat the last feed at night, or with 
cracked wheat, which is better. The water in 
the dritiking vossels should be changed quite 
often during the day, and the coops ought to 
be cleaned daily. By following the abcve 
methods, there will be but few losses by dis- 

We commenced late in tbe season to raiee 
ohickenp, and have 75 or 80 chickens, and have 
lost but two from disease. Although it is late, 
we are still hatching as fast as we can get hens 
to eit. I will add that we never let the hens 
out of the coops with the young chicks in the 
morning, when there is a heavy dew or when 
it rains. O. F. Shaw. 

Sequel, June SO, '90. 

Difference in Tide Levels Near New 
York. — Ooservations of the tides of the Har- 
lem at Forham Landing with tho'e of the Hud- 
son at the mouth of Spuyten Duyvil Greek 
show that the level of mean high water in the 
Hudson is nearly a foot lower than in the Har- 
lem, and that the mean rise and fall of tbo tide 
in the Hudson am a little more than two feet 
less than in the* Harlem. 


f AClFie I^URAId f ress, 

[Jdly 12, 1890 


In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, issued 
pyery week, will he found additional matter from 
this and other jurisdictions, of Interest and import- 
ance to Pa-.roiis. Any subscriber who wishes can 
change free to that edition. 

Think up Your Plans. 

While yon are busy in harvest time and 
Grange meetings are slack, Pitrons, just try to 
keep your eye un the main chance, thinking 
and planning for extra good services in reviving 
Grange work when harvest is over. 

Otving to severe and long continned rains, 
farming was delayed throngh our past winter ; 
work being belated in the winter, made our 
farmers very busy in spring and early summer 
to catch up. Otherwise, we believe much more 
time would have been dt\ oted by zealous Pa- 
trons to forwarding Grange interests this year. 
So just keep the matter in mind, brothers and 
sisters, and have yoar plans ready for some 
splendid work in Aagnst and September before 
the State Orange meets. Write out some good 
suggestions for the Rural Pre.s.s and then 
follow them up. 

Election is Approaching.' 

Editors Press :— As another election is 
close at hand, the question naturally comes up 
whom should we elect to make laws for ns ? 
The farmer says we have too many lawyers and 
politicians in the Legislature to expect much 
good for him. 

Who is to blame for this but the farmer ? 
Things will be so jast so long as thelfarmers 
stay at home from the primaries and allows 
politicians and saloon men to fix up the ticket 
for them to vote. 

Now, brother Patrons and farmers, suppose 
we stop this grumbling because somebody don't 
do something for us, and try to do something 
for ourselves. We as Patrons have been try- 
ing to educate ourselves and our sons in the 
Grange to be able to fill positions of pnblic 
trust, either as delegates or representatives in 
the halls of legislation, s>nd I think we have 
succeeded in fitting a sufficient number to rep- 
resent us, if we only put them forward. If we 
are ever going to do anvthlng in this way for our- 
selvns, why not now? 

Well, then, begin now to think and talk to- 
gether as to whom yon want to put forward in 
your party to represent you, and do not stay 
at home, but go to the primaries and elect none 
bot a good, sober, industrious man as delegates 
to your county conventions, and you will have 
done a day's work that will be worth more to 
you than any other you have done in a long 
time. Don't say that you have no time except 
to go to the general election — that is too late ! 
Don't trust yourself in a structure built on a 
rotten foundation; but let us all come out and, 
M good citizens, do our duty to our»elvps, our 
families and our country. V. W. S. 

Highland Ranch, June SO, JS'JO. 

[This timely plea commends itself to every 
thoughtful reader, and we desire to add our 
hearty endorsement to V. \V. S.'s cogent ap- 
peal. — Ed.s. Press.] 

Stockton Grange Up and Doing. 

The Children's Diy, mentioned in the Pke.s.s 
last week, was decidedly a success and the sur- 
prise complete. The happy faces of our chil- 
dren, with their bonbonr, flags and national 
bags of good things, were indeed a pleasing 
sight. The Grange hall was beautifully dec- 
orated with flags of all sizes, filling the room 
and all present with enthusiastic patriotism. 
The exercises commenced with a march by the 
children in their different-colored capr, and 
embraced music, recitations and songs, closing 
with another march. The older members in- 
dulged in speaking, discnssed the merits of the 
Grange, and came to the conclusion that the 
day could not have been better spent nor the 
children been much happier. The committee 
then furnished everybody with delicious Iced 
lemonade, which was greatly enjoyed, and thus 
closed the Children's Day, 

Stockton Grange has taken a new departure 
and instituted a series of open meetings on the 
first Saturday in eaoh month, to continue 
throngh the summer and fall, the last one to 
take place the first Saturday in November. 
Members from the different Granges in the 
county have attended and assisted in these en- 
tertainments, and many, not members of the 
Order, have voluntarily offered their services. 

It is hoped that good results will attend 
these meetings, that the brothers and sisters of 
neighboring Granges will continue their inter- 
est in thorn and toke part with the sisters of 
Stockton Gianee. Nathan T. Root, Seo'y. 

Stockton, July G, ISUO. 

Will Brother Nash, Master of Hollister 
Grango, and Worthy O /erseer Riache corres- 
pond with the offijers of Gilroy Grange and if 
feasible unite in a visiting and revival meeting 
as lOon as harvest work vWl peamit ? 

The Master's Desk. 

R. W. DAVIS, W. M. 8. 0. OF CAUFORNli. 

The propriety of holding political conven- 
tions under the auspices of any secret or fra- 
ternal organization is very questionable. Oar 
Order is doing well. Its in6qence is 
most salutary and effectiv. With the 
profoundest regard for the Grange and its 
individual membership that oroposed to h»ve 
a convention of Masters and Past Masters for 
political purpose?, I feel that I have no 
authority as Master of the State Grange to call 
such meeting, and as a private citizen I most 
certainly decline to take such action. Let the 
Patrons of Husbandry do their full duty as 
oitizans and political parties and conventions 
will not dare to trespass on the rights of the 
agriculturists. Farmers, do vour duty. Be 
honest, be just and fear not. Dire to do right 
regardless of politician', parties or conventions. 
Be men of America. Vote as you think ! 

The Childrens' Diy picnic at Seb»stopol, J ane 
'2.S(h, wts a grand snnoess. Bros. Past Masters 
Divid Flint and S. T. Coulter, with a host of 
enthusiastic Patrone, were present. All had a 
good time and the day was profitably spent. 
Long life to Children's D»y ! 

Sonoma County Grangers will hold their 
next Children's Div jabilep at the splendid 
Grove and hall of Bennett Val'ey Orange on 
the Fourth Saturday of Jane, 1891. 

Sabordinate Oranges in this jurisdiction will, 
before this is read, have receiv,id from Pomona 
Grange of San Joaqu'n county a copy of a pro- 
posed election law. Let every Cr range examine 
it with care, and if found deficient in any par- 
ticular send amendments to the Secretary, 

The peveral committees heretofore appointed 
by the Master of the State Grange have some 
very important work to do. The trust that is 
in their keeping is mor» responsible than they 
may think. Let the Cliairm<)n of each com- 
mittee go at once to work. Consult and nre- 
pare a report, so that when the State Grange 
convenes no time will be lost in watting for re- 
ports of standing committees. 

There is some talk of the organization of a 
Grange at Glen Ellen; also at Foreatville, and 
at Healdsburg. All these towns are in Sonoma 

What can he the reason our Worthy Steward 
— Bro. W. W, Greer — does not give us some of 
his hot shot ? 

The railroad company proposes to give re- 
duced fare to all who attend the State Grange 
next Ootober. Patrons, prepare to be with us 
at VVataonvllle the first Tuesday in October. 
Save your pin-money, sisters; and brothers, 
lay by a few spare dollarr, for we want to see 
you one and all. 

Sister Ceres lately sent to the readers of the 
Rural a communication that is a credit both 
to her pen and to the station she holds in the 
Grange. Favor us often. Sister Sanders. We 
enjoy such mental bread. 

Be strong of heart, be steadfast of parpose, 
and the Grange will prosper. 

The Fourth of July has slipped by us, harvest 
is well along, the crop is fairly good, and why 
not do a small share of work for the Grange ? 
Remember one good turn deserves another ! 

Santa Rosa Grange has just elected two 
candidates and has three more at the outer gate. 

Remember, when you go to the S^ate Grange, 
to bny a /irst-chitt unlimited ticket to Watson- 
ville, and be sure to take the agenl't receipt for 
the money paid. If yoa do this, you will get 
home at one third the regular fare. 

Worthy Pomona's season is close at hand. 
Oar Patrons will be pleased to read something 
from her pen on the subject of fruits. 

The Grange will never die, provided it is con- 
stantly supplied with young, vigorous, intelli- 
gent new growth. Bring in the host material 
in your neighborhood, and etpecially don't for- 
get the boys and girls over 14 years of age. 

Sister Kinney's address to the members of 
the Order on the sphere of woman and her 
work in the Grange deserves to be read and 
favorably acted upon by every subordinate 
Grange in California. Think, sisters, of your 
opportunities, and having thought, then act. 

The Morrow County Allia'ice of Ohio have 
" Retolved, that no elective officer in thai county 
nhould have an annual salary of more than 
SIOUO." How that sort of fee bill would 
knock oat candidates for office in California I 

Facts don't fit where lies prevail. 

Will the farmers of this State tee to it that 
the coming Legislature pass some law that will 
bring relief from the burdens now borne by all 
persons who patronize insurance companies ? 
It would seem that a healthful competition in 
the insurance business would not be a bad thing 
for all classes of people who are oow insuring 
property from the dingers of fire. 

A Visit to Salinas. 

By Past Maktbk Steki.f. 
Dkar Bkotiier: — In company with my 
grandson, Ira Steele, I drove to Santa Oruz, 
Jane 27 tb, on the way to meet with Salinas 
Grange on the 28th, 

Meeting Bra. Pilkington, W. Sec'y of Santa 
Cruz Grange, I was in consultation with bim 
about Grange revival in that section until close 
npon train time — which had been changed, 
without my knowledge, from 4:50 to 4:45 r. M.; 
so I missed the cars by two minutes, which 
was a great disappointment. 

A telegram to Bro. Hill informed the Grange 
of our mishap and of the hour we would arrive. 
Bro. Hebbron, W. Sec , met us at the train 
and we were kindly provided for during our 
stay at Salinas. 

Bro. Oressey arrived from the south in time 
for the afternoon meeting, which was called to 
order by W. M., Hill at 2 o'clock. Bro. Cres- 
sey remained just long enough to give a short 
address, fall of mirth at first, followed by tell- 
ing points, with a vigor peculiar to his earnett 
nature. It must have cost him considerable 
effort to attend this meeting, as he left the 
regular train and traveled on a slow train, far 
into the night to r<>ach his home. 

After he left I presented isuob facts and 
thoughts as seemed to me suited to the occa- 
sion. It was an open meeting, bat the attend- 
ance was not large. Those presect gave good 
attention and appeared to be interested. 

W. M., Hill presided with dignity and ease 
He introduced the speakers in well-chosen 
words, expressing kind appreciation, and enter- 
tained the audience moit acceptably after my 

W. Sec. Hebbron also made timely and in- 
teresting remarks. 

I accompanied Mr. EJwin St. John on a 
very pleasant drive across the Salinas river over 
one of the long bridges built by Monterey 
county. There are four of them constructed 
by the San Francisco Bridge Co. at a cost of 
about 810,000 each. The Salinas is a danger- 
ous stream to ford on account of quicksands. 

The wheat and barley is fine in this portion 
of the valley. Mr. St. John estimates the 
yield from Soledad to Monterey biy at three- 
fourths of full crop. We visited the fair- 
gronnds and saw a fine lot of young horses 
being trained for speed. 

There are many nice buildings in Salinas. 
The town is growing and appears prosperous. 
Farmers are now very busy with their harvest. 
I intend to visit them again later, when they 
have more leisure, and hope for good results. 
Fraternally, I. C. Steele. 

What San Miguel Purposes. 

Editors Pre.<s : — San Miguel Grange has 
decided to take a vacation through the hot 
weather and harvest time, and reopen on the 
third Saturday In August. 

We have planned our campaign for the 
vacation. Through our local papers, personally 
addressed circulars and individual conversa- 
tions, we are going to try to reach the farmers 
of our community and get them " in touch " 
with Grange principles. 

When we reopen we propose to have our 
regular business meeting in the morning and 
an open meeting in the afternoon, with short 
addresses, recitations, music, etc., to which all 
farmers and their families will have a cordial 
and pressing invitation. I trust we shall gather 
in a harvest for the Grange. In September we 
expect to give an entertainment for the 
financial benefit of the Grange. Like every 
other enterprise, the Grange can be made a suc- 
cess only by enthusiasm and labor. Frater- 
nally, Emma A. Fisk. 

San Miguel July 7. ISOO. 

The Objei'T of all Discussion ought to be 
the elicitatiun ut truth, and whenever argu- 
ment is resorted to for the purpose of confirm- 
ing us in preconceived beliefs, the true ends 
and aims of reasoning are defeated. We should 
approach every subject with an unbiased mind, 
prepared to accept the truth as demonstrated 
by the facts adduced. We should weigh care- 
fully whatever is worthy of consideration, and 
then conclude, and not follow the common 
practice of firsv forming a conclusion and then 
casting about for arguments to bolster op a be- 
lief that has no logical foundation. There is 
great pertinency in the remark of an old 
theological writer, that "Two-thirds of the 
people do not know what they believe, and 
one-half of the remaining third do not know 
why they believe as they do." — Farmers' 

Non-Resident Aliens in Iowa. — Judge 
Kiivanagb ot ihe Poik county District Court, 
Iowa, has rendered a decision that an alien 
can acquire by inheritance no right or interest 
to real estate in that commonwealth. On Sept. 
10, 1889, Bernard Callan, a resident and citizen 
of Iowa, died in Polk county, leaving a small 
amount of personal property and several par- 
cels of real estate. He left no widow or chil- 
dren surviving him but several remote heirs in 
the State of Massachusetts and several others 
who are citizens and residents of Great Britain. 
Claims were filed against the estate, to the al- 
lowance of which the foreign heirs objected. 
The claimants contended that the foreign heirs 

had no standing in court, for the reason that 
they are aliens and their objections should. not 
be heard. The Court coincided in this view. 
The law passed by the 22d General Assembly 
prohibits non-resident aliens acquiring title to, 
or taking, or holding any lands or real estate in 
this State by descent, devise, parohase or other- 

Sebastopol and Santa Rosa Granges. 

By I'AKT Hastes Danisl FLikT. 

Ki)ITor.s Prks.s: — On Saturday, June 28tb, 
W. M., Ddvis, bis two children and the writer 
went to the picnic at Sebastopol called the 
" Children's Day." For the sake of independ- 
ence in going and returning at our convenience, 
we chose to drive over in a comfortable carriage 
behind a strong horse. 

The roads were good, and we passed many a 
fine farm with large orchards and improve- 

Sebastopol has the honor of being the ter- 
minus of a broad-gauge railroad of which they 
seem very proud. 

The picnic was held on an elevated piece of 
ground, thickly covered with young oaks, pines 
and madrona trees. With a little thinning out 
it will make a fine grove. On arriving, we 
found a large platform erected and the exer- 
cises in full operation. We were escorted to 
prominent seats and listened to a well-selected 
and well-rendered program, all except the in- 
strumental and part of the vocal music being 
by the children. Sjme of the features were de- 
cidedly novel. One was called "The Ten 
Lizy B^yp," and to enact It in a realistic man- 
ner, one ot the ten was so lazy that he did not 
get there on time and the Chairman had to 
pass it for awhile. The ten boys stood in a 
row, each holding some instrument or imple- 
ment. No. 10 recited his part or verse and 
sluggishly manipulated the saw; No. 9 the ax; 
No. 8 the hoe, etc., then all rested in concert. 
It caused a good deal of merriment and re- 
ceived more applause than any other piece. 

The singing was good, and the persons who 
took part in training tiie children deserve a 
deal of credit. 

The children appeared to enter fully into the 
spirit of the occasion. 

The wind seemed to blow right down from 
the tops of the trees on to our heads, and as 
Bro. Davis and myself carry around small spec- 
imens of our skill in tanning, we feel grateful 
to the sister who saw our peculiar situation 
and suggested that we replace our hats. 

We had so many invitations tolonch with the 
Granger sisters that we were in a dilemma just 
how to act. Finally we followed those who 
had the largest basket and most boxes, and did 
not err in our judgment. 

After lunch we were called on for remarks, 
when Bros. Davis and Coulter made some stir- 
ring speeches. 

The audience on the platform was dismissed, 
and iLvited out to participate in the contest 
for prizes which were quite namerous. 

There were a goodly number present and the 
young folks seemed to enjoy it greatly. 

The Children's Day bids fair to become an 
important event. 

The same officers were elected to take charge 
of it one year hence, in Bennett valley. 

The members of Two Rock Grange wore 
their badges which, I think, a fine feature at 
all of our picnics. It advertises us and shows 
we are not ashamed of our Order. Let badges 
be worn at all Grange picnics next year. I 
staid with Bro. Davis and his father three 
nights. They have a fine farm in Bennett 

One gets a very good view of a part of Santa 
Rosa valley in passing to and from the Davis 
farm. I can see that the town and valley is 
improving every time I make it a visit and I 
predict this will be a favorite place for private 
residence on account of its climate and public 
schools. The fog that rises over the coast hills 
has a tendency to cool the air and make the 
evenings delightfni. The streets and roads are 
paved and graveled, making nice drives for the 
fine turnouts I saw on the streets. 

By previous invitation I attended Santa 
K-jsa Grange on Tuesday, July Ist. I hardly 
know bow I could have spent the time more 
profitably and agreeably than in attending a 
Grange like this. In their invitation they said 
they wanted me to give them a good long talk. 
I gave them a long talk, but as to its quality, 
there may be various opinions. I must givu 
them credit for being a well-bred and forbear- 
ing people, for they showed me the courtesy 
and patience of over an hour's listening, and 
they did the honors of the Grange in good 
shape, too. Past Master Coulter and two or 
three other brothers were sppointed a commit- 
tee to escort and introduce Bro. Davis and my- 
self to the Grange, when we accepted the prof- 
fered seats beside the Master. 

I felt a little encouraged when I saw Sister 
Le Boyd there from Klk Grove, and when she 
was called on to entertain the Grange, she did 
not make any apology for nothing to say, but 
got right up and gave them an cffhand recita- 
tion, which was favorably recefved. 

After lanch, which was both choice and 
ample, Bro. Davis was called on as Master of 
Ceremonies. I never saw him more at home 
and in the true elements of a Granger than to- 
day. He was the life and soul of the Grange, 
and roused enthusiasm in all present by his 
elrquence and earnestness. 
Bro, Coalter made some excellent remarks on 

July 12, 1890.] 



taxation, the one-tax theory, election of U. S, 
Senators, etc, 

Kx-Senator Hinehaw of Sonoma Co. apoke 
in an interesting way on the ways and benefits 
of legislation, as well as some of the attendant 
evils. He gave great credit to every Granger 
in the Legislature, and believed they were 
there for the very best of motives. 

The young Master of Bennett Valley Grange, 
Bro. Crane, was listened to with attention. 
Bro. Carr, the veteran of Bennett valley, 
dropped some good words of encouragement. 
Sister Hantly gave several- stirring pieces of 
music, which greatly helped out the entertain- 
ment. Several others contributed, whose names 
have have just now escaped me. The meeting 
was well attended, and great interest was shown 
in the exercises. 

I expect nothing but success from Santa Rosa 
Grange, from its lurronndings and talented 
members. Let us hear more often through the 
Rural Press, D. F. 

Stanford's Loan Bill. 

Editors Press: — May I express my opinion 
on Senator Stanford's Lian bill ? 

It may be a good thing for some small farm- 
ers, but I think it will be more help to the rich 
land-owner than the poor man. It may help in 
Eastern States, but in the section of California 
where I live, I can't see much help in It for the 
farmer who owns SO or 160 acres of poor land, 
and nothing at all for the man who rents. 

Here land is assessed at from $12 to l'20 per 
acre. The bill gives you half the assessed 
value; that would be $6 and |10 per aero. 
Now on 160 acres you would get $960 at $6, 
and $1600 at $10 per acre. There are but few 
farmers here who would want so small a sum 
of money. Few places are mortgaged for less 
than $2000, and on up to $5000. The rich man 
with land assessed at $50 to $100 per acre, 
would reap the harvest. He could borrow 
money at two per cent on 160 acres or 200 acres 
of land, and loan it to his poor neighbors at 
five or six per cent, and maybe a higher rate — 
it would be according to how tight a pinch the 
poor farmer was in, or it need not go to a farm- 
er. You may loan to whom you please after 
you get the money in your hands. 

This is taking only a small amount of land 
for a rich man, but take thousands of acres, as 
some own here in this S'late, and see what a 
hatvest it would be ! We would soon have 
millionaires in California as thick as grasshop- 
pers, Stanford put a limit on the down-grade 
at $2.50, but he overlooked the more important 
part, the up-grade. In my opinion, there 
should have been a limit fixed there, say $5000 
or $10,000 to any one farmer. It looks to me 
as if that would be enough of LJaole Sam's 
money to speculate on. 

Most Eastern farmers try to get out of debt. 
In California we don't care. It rather looks 
like the more you are in debt, the smarter bus- 
iness man you are. 

Now how is Stanford's bill to help us ? I 
think it would make us more extravagant. 
Then I wager Bro, Snow would buy Betsey a 
new gown and take her to the State Grange I 
Maybe I don't see the best side of the bill. 

Brother Tom, 

Letter Notes. 

From Past Master Overhlser. 

I like the Press well. It fills the bill as an 
agricultural and Grange paper, and I will try 
to send you some subscribers. 

From Worthy Master Davis. 

Bro, Flint and I were at Sebastopol Grange 
2Sih alt,, and he spoke before the Granges 
nt Sonoma county at Hahman hall, Santa 
Rosa, the 1st inst. His speech was splen- 
did and will do good. I never heard him 
do better. There is prospect of several 
new Granges yet this fall. How is Gilt 
Grange? Oan anything be done for I 'ncoln ? — 
[Cannot some of our good Roseville brothers 
mud sisters note the above and with Wheatland 
Grange get up a union meeting and fraternal 
visitation at Lincoln ? Some of the old mem- 
bers of Lincoln will help arrange for the gath- 
ering ? — Eds ] 

Fourth of July Picnic. — Temescal Grange 
enjoyed a fine day's outing at Oak Grove on the 
Fourth, The ride to and fro was a pleasant 
one over the new California and Nevadi rail- 
road route. Major Edwin Sherman, secretary 
of the Alameda and Contra Coeta Co, Pioneers, 
a true and zealous patriot, oiade forcible and 
telling remarks, which were loudly applauded 
by the representative Patrons and Pioneers 
present. He also exhibited a rare relic to 
the audience — nothing less than a miniature 
bell made from metal taken out of the original 
Independence Ball of Independence Hall, Phil- 
adelphia, at the time the attempt was made to 
repair the crack in that old '* Liberty Bell." 
Nearly every one declared they had a good 
time. Some mistakes were made which will 
not likely occur again with Temescal picnic ar- 
rangemeutF, one of which caused a lack of time 
and of a sufficiently numerous rural audience 
for setting forth the grind principles of our 
Order to advantage. Financially, the enter- 
prise was a suoce«8, the funds received being 
sufficient to meet expenses for band, printing, 
advertising, eto. The Grange returns thanks 
to all attending friends, 

A thought is valuable both as a present «nd 
u a keepsake, 

The Australian Plan of Voting. 

A copy of the following circular letter has 
lately been addressed to every subordinate 
Grange in California: 

The undersigned Committee, who were appointed 
by the Pomona Grange of San Joaquin county to 
prepare a form of ballot law after the Australian 
system, herewith forward to you for your considera- 
tion a copy of a law so prepared, the same being ap- 
proved by the said Grange, and hope you will care- 
lully consider the same, and after due consideration, 
if you have any amendments to offer, please write 
them out, by reference to sections, and return the 
same to the Secretary of the Committee at as early 
date as possible that we may prepare a bill embrac- 
ing the amendments offered as near as practicable; 
same to be submitted lor consideration at the next 
meeting of the State Grange. Fraternally yours, 
J. D. Huffman, 
Secretary, Lodi, Cal. 
E. FiSKE, 


The proposed law is so nearly identical in its 
provisions with that formulated by the Feder- 
ated Trades, published in full in the Rural 
Press of January 26, 1889, and subsequently 
mailed as a circular to the various Granges, 
that we deem it unnecessary to reproduce it at 
the time; but the subject is one of deep in- 
terest to all loyal citizens and friends of good 
government, and we presume the committee 
will furnish copies of the bill on application. 

In Memoriam. 

Malachi Jordan, who died June 23, 1890, was 
one of the old settlers of San Joaquin county, 
and had done much to develop its agricultural 
resources. He joined Woodbridge Grange 
when it was in its infancy, in 1875. Those who 
knew him speak of him as a true type of 
"God's noblest work, an honest man." The 
following preamble and resolutions were adopted 
July 5, 1893: 

Whereas, It lias pleased our Heavenly Father to 
remove from our midst our worthy brother Malachi 
Jordan, we bow our heads in humble submission to 
Him who holds in His hands the destiny of all; and 

Whereas, By his demise, his family has lost a lov- 
ing husband and a kind and indulgent father, the 
Grange a worthy member, and the community an 
old and respected citizen; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we extend to his bereaved family 
our most sincere sympathy and condolence in this 
their hour of affliction. 

Resolved. That the charter of this Grange be 
draped in mourning for the period of 30 days. 

Resolved , That these resolutions be spread in full 
on the minutes of this Grange, be printed in the 
Pacific Rural Press, and a copy be sent to the 
family. Bro. E. G. Williams, 

Bro. E. J. MclNTosH, 
Sister M. A. White, 


Granges Reported, 

The following Granges have reported to June 
,S0, 1890: Carpinteria, Danville, Enterprise, 
Eureka, Hollister, Lodi, Magnolia, Merced, 
North Butte, Pescadero, San Miguel, Sebasto- 
pol, Stockton, Tulare, Two Rock, Valley, Wat- 
sonville, West San Joaquin, Wheatland, Wood- 

Kelseyville Grange. — This Grange, in 
Ltke county, formerly had 90 members. Some 
45 of ^hese have died or moved out of the coun- 
ty. Quite a number of those remaining are 
anxious to have the Grange revived, and with 
the help of new members, we expect Kelsey- 
ville Grange will soon again be in good work- 
ing order. Success to those who are laboring 
for it. Parties interested can address W. C, 
Coffin, Keleeyvllle, for further information. 

If brethren in Fresno or Tulare county will 
do a little canvassing, we are coofident a good, 
substantial Grange can be organized at Center- 
ville, in Fresno county. Why should there 
not be new Granges at Sanger, Traver and Por- 
terville ? Yisalia Grange should be revived in 
full force before the next State Grange, Who 
will stir up and organize a plan for instituting 
at least a dozen nnw Granges this season in Tu- 
lare, Fresno and Kern counties ? 

Hollister Grange is to have a visit from 
Bros, Cressey and 1. 0, Steele on Saturday, Au- 
gust 9ch. How would the W. M., W. O. and 
members of Gilroy like to have these old patri- 
archs cheer up a rousing farming meeting at 
Gilroy on Friday, the 8th ? Now is your time 
to invite them. Get some new candidates 
ready for them to finish. 

Farmers' Turnout in Kansas. — The Farm- 
ers' Alliance and other kindred organizations 
united in a grand demonstration at Emporia, 
Kansas, on the 5t;h inst. The procession was 
five miles long and over 20,000 people were 
in attendance. 

Carfinteria Grange, it will be remem- 
bered, has changed the date of its meeting and 
picnic from July 17th to Thursday, August 
14tfa, on account ot the ripening fruit which 
must be taken oare of during the current 

Eyerythinu bids fair for a large attendance 
and an interesting season at the Watsonville 
session of the State Grange, 

The Grange cordially invites every farmer 
and his wife and children to enroll their names 
on its roster. 

Crops and Grange in Umatilla, 

Editors Press. — Umatilla county has been 
favored with a splendid season so far. Wheat 
in the vicinity of HrHx, Adamp, Pendleton, 
Athena, Milton and Weston, will make a fine 
crop. Continued cool weather, with frequent 
showers, has been all the wheat-grower could 
ask. The grain promises to be of the best 
quality, and the yield up to the average. The 
same cannot be said of other parts of E istern 
Oregon, as the rainfall seemed to go in streaks, 
and in portions of the country that were not 
favored with early rains, the crops are not so 

Hay harvest is progressing very well. This 
is a delightful climate for the curing of hay, 
seldom, if ever, a shower or dew during har- 
vest. Heading will not commence before the 
15th of July. 

Juniper Orange 
Held a meeting on the 28th. A good attend- 
ance was noted, and a progressive spirit was 
manifest among the members, 

Umatilla Pomona Granee 
Meets with the Weston Grange July Sth, and 
a large attendance is exoeoted. At the last 
meeting of the Pomona Grange it was deter- 
mned to erect a building at Helix, the lower 
room to be used as a store, the upper room for a 
Grange hall. 

One of the most important questions demand- 
ing the attention of the Grange is the prices 
that we receive for agricultural products. 
Whenever circumstances arise that interfere 
with the rights of producers to market their 
grain, so as to deprive them of the profits legit- 
imately arising from their labor, some steps 
should be taken to help relieve the oppressed, 
I know the idea is prevalent that we can do 
nothing in that line, but such is not the case. 
Note the advances that have been made in the 
last decade by the Grange and kindred organi- 
zations, in the way of educating the great army 
of producers. Where mistakes have been 
made lessons have been taught, and the break- 
ers can be avoided, to a great degree. If the 
coming decade is marked by like advancement 
among agriculturists, accompanied with the 
experience of the past, great changes will be 
noted. The progressive spirit of the American 
people will not allow them to remain in quiet 
or go backward, and when the expenses ot any 
country or community are greater than their 
Income, bankruptcy is sure to follow. Statis- 
tics conclusively show that the producing 
classes are not enjoying the profits that right- 
fully are theirs:- Corners in produce of all 
kinds, second and third hands getting immense- 
ly rich off the business we create, white the 
same cannot be said of the farmers. This in- 
equality has wrought sore oppression — oppres- 
sion as broad as the United States. The same 
cry comes up from every country. Our cause 
looks no more doubtful than did the cause of 
the colonists when the first gun was fired at 
Lexington, as the same independent and pro- 
gressive spirit is still to be found in the Amer- 
ican people. I believe some of these wrongs 
will be righted, class legislation will be correct- 
ed, by the uniting of the class oppressed. By 
common consent must this burden be removed. 

HelU, Oregon. W. A. S. 

A Paramount Question. 

Oregon farmers have talked long and loud 
about agricultural depression. They have dis- 
cussed the subject on street corners and in 
Grange-halls, advanced theory upon theory, 
and adopted plenty of preambles and resolu- 
tions. Ecen politicians have taken cogniztnce 
of and studied the all-important subject. Sec- 
retary Rusk says: 

No possible relief can come to our farmers or to 
the country, no permanent remedy for present ills is 
to be found in measures which are rather the out- 
come of resentment than the product of reason. I 
would say to the farmers, stand firm as the ever- 
lasting hills in demanding what is right and in re- 
sisting any possible inlringement on your rights as 
citizens by any otner class or combination of people; 
but beware, lest in your just eagerness to secure 
your own rights you seek to infringe upon the rights 
of others. No measure that conflicts with the rights 
of any one class of citizens but is sure to follow the 
course of the boomerang and return to injure the 
hand that shaped it. On the other hand, let it be 
borne in mind by all classes of our citizens that the 
present conditions demand consideration now, and 
that consideration must be full and fair. For the 
time beinj;, it is paramount to all other questions, 
and, if necessary, every other interest must be pre- 
pared to stand aside in favor of measures looking to 
the relief of agricultural depression. 

Wasco and Sherman Business Council, 

We learn that the Wasco and Sherman Coun- 
ties Business Council of the P, of H, (whose 
meeting at BrskineviUe with Milbra Grange 
was mentioned by W, S. L,, Holder in our 
issue for 28th ult.) was composed of 1.3 Granges, 
8 belonging to Wasco and 5 to Sherman coun- 
ty. The total membership embraced about 
500, The recent Council consisted of 51 voting 
members. There were also present 100 visit- 
ing members, 

it being an annual meeting, the election of 
officers for the ensuing year was held, resulting 
as follows: John Medler, Pres.; E, Pitman, 
V, P.; H, S, McDiuel, Sec'y; A. Canfield, 
Treas.; L, Bjlton, Steward; J, J, Butler, G, 
K,; P, P, Underwood, Chaplain; Andy Allen, 
Agent; J, W. Messenger, J. A. GuUiford, M. 

W, Freeman, Executive Committee; .T 
Messenger, M, W, Freeman, E, Olds, Ooi 
tee on Co-operation, The next quarterly i, 
ing of the Council will be with Highluu. 
Grange, at Kingsley, Wasco Co,, Sept, Qcb. 

Dedication of Mono Hall, 

Editors Press: — July 5th is a day long to 
be remembered by Mono Grange, No, 25, situ- 
ated at Lewisville in the southwest part of Polk 
county. It was the dedication of their Grange 
hall, W, S, M,, H, E, Hayes, was to be pres* 
ent, but as be could not come, he deputized 
Bro. Voorhees, W, O,, to perform the service, 
Bro, Moore of Corvallis Grange, being master 
of ceremonies. 

It was the first time I ever had the pleasure 
of witnessing a Grange dedication. It is cer- 
tainly a beautilul ceremony. Mono Grange 
was well prepared in every particular. The 
music was especially fine and suited to the oc- 
casion. The part assigned to each was well 
performed. The visiting member from differ- 
ent parts of Polk and Benton couuties were 
many, and the invited friends from outside the 
gate were numerous also; but the generosity of 
the good sisters was sufficient for all, and many 
lunch-baskets were left intact. 

After dinner and dedication came interesting 
talks by Bros. Voorhees, Moore, Haley, Chit- 
wood, Dodson and others, interspersed with 
sallies of wit and good humor, which made the 
occasion pleasant indeed. This Grange is lo- 
cated in the midst of as fine an agricultural 
district as can be found in the valley. It had 
the misfortune to lose its hall by fire, several 
years ago, since which time it has kept running 
under adverse circumstances.. With a new hall 
and increased membership, I hope to see It 
grow to be a power for good. 

It is pleasant to see so many visiting Patrons 
here. It shows a social, fraternal feeling which 
is the result of Grange work. 

Crops look well, considering the dry season, 
and will soon be ready for the binder, 

J. B. Stump. 

Crop Outlook, 

The Balletin of the Oregon State Weather 
Bureau for the week ending Saturday, 
July 5l;h, says: The fore part of the week was 
extremely warm, -latter part cool and cloudy, 
with local rains to-day. Local thunder show- 
ers prevailed on the last two days of June and 
first day of July, The heat of the fore part of 
the week did little injury to crops. The 
weather during latter part of week was very 
beneficial. Fall wheat is now generally past 
the point where the weather could injure it. 
Spring wheat is doing remarkably well, and if 
no unforeseen causes interfere, the yield will be 
much greater than anticipated. Corn is grow- 
ing well Columbia Co. reports hay a fair 

crop, on uplands very good. In Washington 
Co., hay is an average. In Clackamas Co., fall 
wheat will be ready to cut inside of two weeks. 
Crop will be an average one or more, spring 
wheat and oits growing well. In Yamhill, 
Polk, Marion, Bsnton and Line, wheat outlook 
is very promising. Spring wheat will make 
more than was expected. Corn, oats, hops and 
hay will average well. Codlin moth doing 
some damage. Fall wheat will soon be ready 
to cut; heads are well filled. In Djuglas Co., 
good crops are now assured. Josephine ana 
Jackson counties will have fair cereal crop. 
Fruit crop will be large, except peaches; mel- 
ons promise to be plentiful; berries are abun- 
dant. Clatsop, Tillamook, Coos and Curry 
counties will have very good crops, fully up to 

the average Hay is generally reported to 

be short in Western Oregon and an average 
crop in Eastern Oregon. Wasco Oo. has indi- 
cations o( a batter wheat crop than for years; 
the same for Morrow Co. Sherman and Gil- 
liam counties, report average crops. In Uma- 
tilla and Union counties, reports indicate a 
yield of from 30 to 50 bushels per acre. Wal- 
lowa, Biker, Crook, Grant and interior coun- 
ties bid fair to make average or more than 
average yields. The present outlook is moit 
encouraging for a fine harvest throughout. 

Land for farming purposes can be had in 
the Grande Ronde at from $20 to $40 per acre. 
Within ten miles of Salem, Marion Co., Or., 
land is meeting ready sale at from $30 to $50 
per acre, 


Indian Reservations. — The House Com- 
mittee on Indian Atfdirs has favorably reported 
on Wilson's bill creating a commission of three 
persons to visit the Puyallnp Indian Reserva- 
tion in the State of Washington, ascertain 
certain facts connected therewith and 
negotiate for the purchase of surplus acres. 
The Commission is also to determine the north- 
ern boundary of the Warm Springs Indian Res- 
ervation, Oregon. 

The oat crop in the Falouie country this 
season is estimated at 18,000,000 bushels, being 
an increase of 50 per cent over last year's crop. 
The value of the barley yield for 1890 in the 
same district will be $1,000,000. 

The hop crop in the vicinity of Puyallup is 
in excellent condition and resembles that of 
1888, It Is estimated that the crop for Wash- 
ington will exceed that of last year by fully 
10,000 bales. 


f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

[July 12, 1890 

My Little Hero. 

Eirth's bravest and truest heroes 

Fight wilh an unseen foe, 
And win a victory grander 

Thwn you or I can know. 
Wi- little dream of the corflict 

Fought in each human ^oul, 
And Eirth knows not of her heroes 

Upon God's honor roll. 

One of earth's little heroes 

R ght proud am I to know; 
His name for me is Mother, 

My name for him is Joe. 
At thought of a ten-year-old hero 

Perhaps have many smiled; 
But a bait erteld's a baltlr field 

In the heart of man or child. 

There were plans of mischief brewing, 

I saw. but gave no sign, 
For I wanted to test the mettle 

Ol this little knight of mine. 
' O' course you must come and help us, 

For we all dep'-nd on Joe," 
The boys said; and I wail«d 

For his answer — yes or no. 

He stood and>thoughl for a moment. 

I read his heart like a book. 
For the haitle that he was fighting 

Was told in his earnest look. 
Then to his waiting playmates 

Outspoke my loyal knight; 
' No, boys; I cannot go with you. 

For I know it wouldn't be right." 

How proud wan I of my hero. 

As I knelt by his little bed 
And gave him the bedtime kisses. 

And the good-night words were said ! 
True to his l.ord an i manhood 

May he stand in the world s fi rce fight. 
And fhun each unworthy action, 

fJecause it "wouldn't be right." 

— E. E. R.. ill The' Chrisluiii Union. 

Juliet Blanchard's Wedding. 

[Written for the Roral Prkss by Katiierina Ervant 


Jaliet Blanchard walked along the narrow 
path under the wide-epreading foliage of the 
old beeches ^nd tbtcngh the saplingB, which 
waved their branches directly in front of her. 
The waning rays of the gloricna S ptember 
sun cast glancing shadows on the tinted brown 
leaves, whispering and rustling fiercely in the 
stiff breeze that penetrated even to the depths 
of the woodf, and the quick whir and rush of a 
pirtridge frequently fell on her ear as the bird 
Inred her away from its young. She took no 
Interest in baby partridges that afternoon, yet 
the mother bird, thinking she must have some 
sinister desigr, continued to Hap on before her 
until the girl left the shadows of the trees be- 
hind and turned up the narrow road which 
stretched through the little village with many 
crooks and turns and windings. 

The houses lining the street on either side of 
the way were mostly of simple conetructioc, 
but occasionally one assumed the airs and 
graces of an ancestral home, with the preten- 
tions drivewajs and flower-beds pertaining 
thereto. Still snch places wore an air of faded 
eeotility, as if the owners had made despairing 
(ffjrtp to be grand and then had died, leaving 
all trifling temporal matters to take care of 

Juliet went along with downcast eyes until 
she came to one of the more modest of these 
abode;, when she turned in, walking up the 
side path to the back door. The children, a 
sancy, noisy group of frowsy, rollicking young- 
sters, heard the gate cliob, and each took a 
pane of glass into their possession to see who 
was peivading the precincts of the Blanchard 
domain like little watch-dogs on the look out 
for whilom intruders. 

"Hallo, Juliet," they yelled in a choruf, 
and then disappeared as meteors cross the 
starry heavens for an instant of time and then 
go out, leaving darkness behind them; but she 
was not cheered by their lively, loving greet- 
ings and made no response whatever. 

Entering a door which opened directly into 
the large room used as a kitchen, dining-room 
and sitting-room, she hung up her hat, put on 
her apron, and helped her mother get supper, 
going about in a d( jected, stubborn way, which 
caused Mrs. Klancbard to look at her anxious- 
ly, and speak caressingly to the girl who was 
her first born. Juliet's hair and eyes were 
black, and the was rather plain appearing, her 
nose being too long for beauty, her mouth too 
large and her lips too thin for the size of her 
face. She was tall and slender, and carried 
herselfjvery straight, in direct contrast to Mrs. 
Blanohard, who was a round-shouldered, Ught- 
haired looking little woman, and gave evi- 
dences of faded youthful beauty. 

The cbildr'^n raced around, playing with the 
oat, but they were eagerly watching lest the 
■upper be ready and they not on hand to de- 

vour it. They helped themselves surreptitious 
ly to the eatables already brought out, but the 
reason of suoh secretiveness was not apparent, 
Mrs. Blanchard did not notice any of their 
pranks, and Juliet never was known to find 
fault unless they scattered crumbs. At these 
evidences of guilt she was wont to indulge in 
harangues gcmewhat uncomplimentary to the 
coses, eyes and hair of the young troop whom 
I be had rocked and lugged around with nnfail 
ing devotion during their babyhood as they ap 
peared one after another in the Blanchard 
household. A perfect ocean of crumbs might 
have surged through the old kitchen this event' 
ful afternoon without any interference from 
Juliet whatever, and they danced about, like 
veritable imps of mischief ; but there was a 
great lull when the gate clicked again, and 
they all rushed to the windows in a body. 

The door opened admitting a man somewhat 
past the prime of life, who proceeded in a si 
[ent, taciturn way to make himself presentable 
for supper at the kitchen sink. He filled a tin 
basin with sparkling water from a wooden pail 
hard by, and hung the long handled dipper up 
carefully with a spat, as if he resented finding 
it rusting in the depths of the water; and when 
his face emerged from the depths of his ca 
pacious hands which held email rivers of water, 
he rubbed it with a towel until it glowed and 
reddened under his shaggy, grizzly looks and 
heavy eyebrows like a fire. 

Every movement betrayed the fact that he 
was a man who did not propose to be trifled 
with, and Juliet carried herself in an impene 
trable way, under the surveillance which bis 
eyea kept up, through the conrse of oombing 
and plastering his thick locks at the glass be- 
tween two windows on the opposite side of the 
room. He bandied the coarse bristle brush 
grimly, and the steely gray eyes were sharply 
reflected in the old-fashioned looking-glase; but 
he never opened his somewhat thick lips until 
he sat down to supper, and then he answered 
the few questions addressed to him in mnno- 
ayllablee, going off down the street immediately 
after the meal was over. 

His goings and comings did not aflact the 
happiness of the IManchards particularly, as be 
did not believe in broils more than in un- 
seemly gayety, so the children improved the 
shining hours of his absence to enj >y them 
selves to the full, and thus demonstrated their 
be ief in a world made for frolic and fun. 
•Juliet washed up the dishes and then sat down 
by the western window with her knitting 
work, which rested idly on her Up, until it 
grew quite dark and the beautiful glowing of 
the soneet sky had faded out, leaving the Starr, 
a boat of twinkling diamonde, to light up the 
lately glorious track. She finally arose with a 
sigb, lit a candle and fell to knitting furiously; 
but when she heard her mother's returning 
footsteps, she snatched the candle and ran cfif 
upstairs. Her room was small and the floor 
uncarpeted, with the exception of a slight strip 
at the bedside. She set the candle down on a 
little (quare stand, which was covered with a 
white cloth trimmed with lace, and walked 
restlessly around the room awhile as if it wae 
too snnall for the perturbed sonl within her. 
At length she perched herself upon the bed, on 
the old fashioned counterpane made of patch- 
work Kjuares, and as she fingered it with one 
hand, holding her chin in the other, she sat in 
a profound reverie quite a long time. The 
patchwork was her own handiwork and was 
the result of long hours spent with that small 
dagger which pierces so many tender fingers 
and wrenches tears from so many despairing 
hearts who cannot understand why they were 
born to wield the needle rather than the 
hammer and saw. 

John Blanchard had attended to the smallest 
details of his eldest daughter's bringing up, but 
with each succeeding youngster, he had seemed 
to be more contented to allow her to remain a 
bright example of his good training, without 
sharing any honors, so the younger Blancbards 
profited somewhat through her childish woes. 
When the slid ofl' the b;d, she took up the 
snufi'ere, which rested upon a black-looking tray 
beside the tin candlestick, and pinched the 
wick cflF short, with a decision strongly like 
her J'uritan father's movements with the long- 
handled tin dipper; then she got her best bon- 
net out of its bandbox, which was stowed away 
in primitive fashion under the bed, and tied it 
on before the looking-glass in a mechanical way, 
smoothing out the narrow ties with delibera- 
tion, and gazed spellbound at her reflection in 
the glass as if it were some one else rather than 
herself standing there. Suddenly she took it 
off and ^hung it on a chair, then brought nut a 
thick, warm shawl to keep it company. Gath- 
ering a few articles together, she tied them up 
in a neat package, blew out the candle and laid 
down without undressing herself. The boards 
cracked and creaked as she turned restlessly 
from side to side, the trees brushed and scratched 
vicious'y against her window-paner, and she 
heard the faint ticking of the big clock down 
stairs above the beating of her heart. The 
Blancbards lived in Northern \'ermont, in the 
village of Wrenham, which was noted for its 
rugged climate and the beauty of its winding, 
hilly roads, which stretched ever hill and dale 
in every direction, and the inhabitants were 
true sons of Nature, though in many cases 
they lacked any of the softness she at times 

John Blanchard came home and went to bed, 
and then the honse relapsed once more into 
silence, and at length, during a lull of the 
strong wind which blew fiercely, Juliet heard a 
shower of pebbles strike the windowpanes. 

She got up and lit the candle, put her bonnet 
and shawl or, took up her bundle, and then, 
after extirguishiog the light, she crept cau- 
tiously downstairs. It seemed an age until she 
reached the outside door, and she tried in vain 
to still the beatings of her heart; the boards 
creaked so loudly under her uncertain tread 
she expected to hear her father call out, but 
she undid the faetenings, went out and closed 
it after her, standing for a moment under the 
starry heavens before starting swiftly and 
softly on her way. She turned into the path 
under the old beeches, and here she found a 
strappirg young giant awaiting her. 

"0 John!" she cried gently, "I was so 
frightened, but I cannot give you up. I had 
to come. Oh ! I don't see what makes my 
father so hard, John; other girls have their 
lovers, and you are so good, John." 

He soothed her in rough and manly fashion, 
hurrying along the path, holding the branches 
aside, with his big, awkward hands, until they 
were out upon another road and here a team 
stood at the bars, which were let down for con- 
venience. He helped her into the carriage, un- 
fastened the grey mare, who whinnied in her 
delight at his return, took the reins in his 
strong grasp and they were off up the road, 
talking in subdued voices, until they came in 
sight of a little cluster of houses which were in 
a neighboring township. John explained that 
a superannuated minister lived at this place, and 
as he had obtained a license at the last moment 
that afternoon, the clerk having agreed to keep 
his secret, he thought the old gent would marry 
them without any demur. This was quite the 
case, and proved that John Rntledge had a 
clear head, for the minister had nothing to lose 
and everything to gain, so be got out of bed 
with alacrity, married them hastily, and 
blessed them heartily, according to the size of 
tbe greenback which made his heart glad. They 
turned the grey mare toward home and she 
stretched her long legs and made very good 
time, so that almost before they knew it she 
stood at the gate of the little cottag'', where 
they were to begin their married life. They 
were very happy as they realized thfit the deed 
was done and well done, and no hard-hearted 
parent could part them. 

In the morning when John Blanohard found 
that Jaliet had not slept in her bed, that Juliet's 
best bounet was gone, and his eldest daughter, 
the shining example of his parental training, 
gone too, he set his lips firmly, and drew his 
mouth into a straight line that meant mischief 
fir John Kutledge, Juliet's husband, Mrs. 
Blanchard was too busy to fret herself very 
much, but obe was heartily gUd when Juliet 
walked in about 11 o'clock to recapitulate with 
her stern parent and get seme of her clothes. 
Her mother cried a littie as she embraced her 
and s^iid : 

" Your father is very angry, but perhaps yon 
can talk it out with him. At any rate I wish 
you and .John happiness and I don't know why 
your father does not like him I am sure." 

Juliet was all ready with her bundle when 
her father ca-ne home to dinner, and she at once 
charged upon the enemy, while he endeavored 
to distract her and show that he did not intend 
to have anything more to do with her. .Inliet 
grasped the back of a chair firmly as she looked 
at him with a white, set face and she concluded 
by saying : 

" As you would not allow John to come to 
the bouse, and I had no opportunity to meet 
him with your permission, we thought it best 
to get married, but we don't want any hard 

" You've suited yoursel'," said her father 
shortly, as he plastered his hair with all bis 
accustomed precision and vigor. 

" Won't you stay to dinner, Juliet?" her 
mother asked, as she turned to the door to go 
out. She shook her head, lifted the latch and 
was gone, the children being spellbound listen- 
ers of the collcquy,and the hot tears scorched her 
eyelids as she thought of them and her mother, 
but she was not dleappninted as she never ex- 
pected her father to forgive her or voluntarily 
speak to her again, and he revenged himself 
upon his son-in-law in a crushing way. In a 
very short time his disagreeable looks were re- 
flected in tbe faces of the simple village people 
in a surly, unjust way extremely galling to a 
person of his independence, Juliet was made 
to feel she had committed an unpardonable sin 
in contracting a marriage under romantic and 
unbidden auspices, and found no pleasure in 
going anywhere without Johr, so he sold bis 
farm and they set out, two brave spirits, to 
conquer a somewhat hard fate. John Kutledge 
opined that city folks would not trouble them- 
selves as to whether they had been married at 
midnight or morn, in season or out of season, 
with a father's malediction or a father's bless- 
ing, and they settled in one of the most thriv- 
ing manufacturing little cities of Massachuaettp, 
and .John soon found work. He was a shoe- 
aker by trade and they lived happily in their 
cosy home until at the end of ten years John 
was taken in as a partner in the msnufact- 1 
nring firm where he had begun work 
at the bench, and three beautiful children 
had come to grace their pleasant home, so 
they were on the good road to fortune. At 
that time Mrs. Blanchard succeeded in per- 
fecting her plans to visit her daughter, and 
came down from the mountains, bringing the 
two youngest children with her. She bloomed 
and flourished into gayety under the genial in- 
fluence of a happy, prosperous home life, and 
every one was at the bight of enjoyment when 
Juliet's baby, a fair-haired, blue-eyed darling, 

fell Ul, He was feverish and very weak, and 
his grandmother nursed him tenderly, while 
Juliet hovered round, like a distracted guar- 
dian angel. The doctor looked grave, pro- 
nounced the dread word, diphtheria, prescribed 
his medicines, and tbe very way he put on his 
hat and walked out, struck alarm to these 
motherly souls. In two days the little spark 
of life died out, as the blue eyes rolled upward, 
and the small hands clinched in a convulsive 
struggle wilh the poison in his veins. Juliet 
knelt at her mother's side with clasped hands 
and tearless eyes, while strangers performed 
the duties her nerveless fingers were unable to 

The physician prescribed disinfectants, and 
precautions were taken for the spread of the 
disease. It was useless, for Charlie Blanchard, 
tbe youngest boy, fell ill, and a telegram was 
sent to his father, with tbe intelligence of the 
baby's death and the illness of his own child. 
This summons was a most unwelcome one, but 
it was not to be disregarded, and his sense of 
justice must have awakened him somewhat to 
ois deficiences and littleness in tbe eyes of tbe 
great world, as the cars shook and rattled and 
bounded on after tbe mad engine, which 
screeched and snorted and rushed on over tbe 
iron track, In defiance of all control, excepting 
the firm hand of the engineer, who stood at his 
post and kept his eyes on tbe straight lines of 
steel stretched before him, for he returned John 
Rutledge's greeting with a hearty grasp of his 
big, brown hand, kissed his wife and Juliet 
awkwardly, and took up his station at Charlie's 
bedside, where he watched night and day until 
the child was out of immediate danger. 

When the boy was able to be dressed be sig- 
nified his intention of returning home and sug- 
gested that all of them follow him on a visit to 
the old homestead as soon as possible. He went 
to tbe grave of the grandchild he had never 
seen, and Juliet knew that tbe hardness had all 
gone out of his heart when he placed a bouquet 
of sweet white roses on the little grave. So 
they all parted on the very best of terms, and 
John went to tbe station to see his father-in- 
law off'. In due time they followed him to 
Wrenham, and the villagers had gossip for 
many a day. They retailed the story with 
many variations as to what the two Johns said, 
what Juliet said, and the pathetic death of the 
child received graphic notice under the eff'orts 
of these long-tongued dames. 

John Blanchard was always a taoiturn man, 
but there was a touch of gentleness which the 
children of tender years received the benefit of 
whenever he was brought in contact with them. 
To see them running after him, clinging to 
him, it would never have been mistrusted he 
had treated bis own child with harshness for so 
many yeare ; thus the child in heaven healed 
the breach as no earthly source ever could have 
done, and Juliet Blanchard's wedding refuted 
for once at least that marrying in haste brings 
repentance with time, as those fond of repeat- 
ing oage proverbs sometimes avar. 

Lo» Angele$. 

The Training of Our Children, 

(By Mite. M. Oiok, McJIInnviilc, Or. -J 

When I look upon the different lines of work 
in our Order, and the mmy others waiting for 
our attention, I am impelled to speak of just 
one, that is, the education of the children. I 
regard this as the most important issue before 
the American people. If we raise our children 
properly, the future of this country will be a 
success — it cannot be otherwise. 

The mind is easily influenced in youth. If 
good thoughts and examples are kept constant- 
ly before them, children will grow up good. 
It is our duty, therefore, as parents and guard- 
ians, to live almost exclusively for this pur> 
pose, and it is a small sacrifice on our part, if 
thereby we increase the happiness of future 
generations. We can inculcate a spirit of pur- 
ity and patriotism by providing plenty of good 
books upon these subjects. J>9t ua see that oar 
children do not read the trashy literature of 
the day, and that their minds are not poisoned 
by outward iLfljences. It is easier to teach a 
child the right way than to unlearn the wrong. 
We should constantly set good examples be- 
fore them. Teach them that they have cer- 
tain duties to perform, and while so doing, 
show them the moral attached to every duty, 
explain to them that they must be prompt in 
all thinge, for by so doing they will form a 
character unreproachable. 

It is also our duty to be interested in our 
neighbor's children, for we shall find it much 
easier to train our own aright if their play- 
mates are pure and noble. Let us be ever 
ready to give a kind word, and encourage the 
taking and keeping of such pledges as the tem- 
perance, white cross and anti-tobacco, for it 
makes them feel the responsibility renting upon 
them. If woman's work embraced but this one 
line — that of teaching the young — we should feel 
richly repaid for its having been started; for 
through this line we can make it so desirable to 
be pure and noble, as to banish evils from the 

We should also cultivate a taste for flowerr, 
music, and tbe fine arts, for whatever refines 
and purifies the mind will also improve the 
heart, ' 

While I do not believe in hiring our children, 
yet I would grant them certain privileges, for 
instance, give them a portion of the garden and 
products for their own. This will encourage 
as well as teach them how to work. You will 
be aurpriaed to note the pleasure with wbiob 

Jdly 12, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS. 

they display their flowers, and many a play- 
mate and teacher will receive bouquets from 
their liberality, thereby learning to be unsel- 

You can understand why it is necessary to 
be constantly studying to improve our children, 
for, dear cisters, this life is the field, our chil- 
dren the fl >wers, and the impure thoughts and 
deeds the weeds. Shall not we, as good agri- 
culturists, root out the weeds ? For one, I 
will do my best. 

•This paper was originally prepared for the Oregon 
State GraDiie. Owing to press of business, iU reading 
was not called tor, buf so beauflful and suggastive an 
essa.v should mt tail of its mission, and w e are pleased to 
1,6 able to lay it belore RhraIj readers. 


Used to Riding a Thoroughbred. 

A wealthy rancher of Wyoming Territory 
lately told a story of a rich young Eagli'bman 
who while looking about the West for good in- 
vostmentp, visited his ranch. He stayed there 
a few days, and one afternoon as the cowboys 
were about to round up a bunch of cow ponies 
the young man said he wonld enjoy a good ride 
in the saddle. He said he was used to riding 
only thoroughbreds, and he didn't think they 
had a horse good enough for him. 

The boys convinced him that they had one of 
the finest horses on the plainf, and if he kn«>w 
how to ride he was welcome to the animal. He 
was apparently insulted when questioned about 
his ability to ride, and answered that he could 
ride any kind of a horse, A sleepy-looking 
bronco was brought out from the corrals and 
saddled. Though be appeared half dead he was 
the wont bucker in the herd. "E's lifeless," 
said the foreigner, when the pony was brought 
to him. The boys said the "nag" would wake 
up after the first mile, and the visitor got into 
the saddle. He didn't linger long. The first 
buck jump placed him on the horse's neck, and 
after a second he was in the atmosphere. He 
turned a double somersault and landed on the 
sharp end of a cactus plant. When he picked him ■ 
self Up one of the boys asked what he thought 
of the thoroughbred now. The question made 
the Eoglishman turn pale. "E's a good 'osp,'' 
he answered, "but 'e lopes too bloomln' 'igh." 
— Canyon City, Or., Naofi. 


"CoDNT Herbert Bismarck thinks that if 
America would protect German copyrights on 
books, that country might admit American 
pork," said Squildig. " Well, that's only re- 
ciprocity in products of the pen," replied Mo- 
Swilligen.— Pi«86ur(/ Chronicle. 

" What a wonderful age of invention it is," 
said Mrs. Peterson. " I see they are now mak- 
ing wire cloth, and I'll have some this very 
week to put a seat in Johnny's everyday 
pants." — Merchant Traveler. 

Few men sow their wild oats without'get- 
ting more or less rye mixed in with them. — 
Atchison Olobe. 

Karlchen, in a crowded tram car, is sitting 
on his father's knee. A young lady steps in, 
and the little fellow at once jumps down, 
politely takes off his hat, and says: "May I 
offer you my seat ? " 

Lady: Where's the lobster ? Biddy: Sure, 
mam, I put him in the pot, and when I went 
out somebody changed him (or another. Mine 
was green, and the one I found was red. I 
thought yez molahtbe pizened, so chucked him 
in the strate. — Pitttburg Bulletin, 

Minister: Well, Bobby, do you think you 
will be a batter little boy this year than you 
were last? Bobby (hopefully): I think so, 
sir. I began by taking cod-liver oil last week. 
— Epoch. 

Settling a plumber's bill is " oaying the 
piper " with a vengeance. — Botton Budget. 

A Texas debating society recently had for a 
subject: "Is it proper to sound the 'r' in 
dorg ? "Si/lings. 

"Oh, dear," said an old man who was fish- 
ing for his dinner and lost a large pickerel 
from his hook, "how desp'retbad it makes you 
feel to lose what you never 've had." 

One of our exchanges tells the story of a 
young minister lately returned from the Ger- 
man univereities, and his first sermon to a 
country coDgregation on " The Subjective In- 
flaence of Christian Consciousness." One of 
the deacons said that " the more be unfolded 
it, the more he covered it up." 

The bight of fashion and the hight of folly 
are so much alike. — Atchiion Qlobe, 

Book Agent: I should like to show you our 
new ch"ap edition of the Encyclopedia Britan- 
nica. Vermont Farmer: Mister, you needn't 
show me any cyclopedias. My boy graduated 
from college this week. — Burlington Free Prest. 

While the infiuprza was at its hight, a child 
was born in New York. The family were all 
down with the disease. The new arrival was a 
boy, and by unanimous consent he was named 

Justice: I dislike to interrupt counsel, Mr. 
McCady, but it seems useless to hear further 
argument from you. Mr. MoOady: I beg that 
your honor will hear me through. This alibi 
is not the only one my client can >>stablisb. 
He has another much stronger yet. — Epoch. 

Feofle who eat onions should immediately 
nit down and peruse some astonishing work of 
fiction that is calculated to take their breath 
»w»j,—Bochester Po$t Exprtts. 

The Day After the Fourth. 

We put him to bed in his little nightgown, 
The worst battered youngster there was in the 

Yet he said, as he opened his only well eye: 

" 'Rah, 'rah, for the jolly old Fourth of July I " 

Two thumbs and eight fingers with lint were tied 

On his head was a bump like an upside-down cup, 
And his smile was distorted, his nose all awry. 
From the joys of the glorious Fourth ol July. 

We were glad I He bad started abroad with the 

And all day had lived in the powder and fun; 
While the boom of the cannon roared up to the 

To salute young America's Fourth of July. 

I faid, we were glad all the piecs were there, 
As we plastered and bound them with tenderest 

But out of the wreck came the words, with a sigh; 
" If to-morrow was only the Fourth ol July ! " 

He will grow all together again, never fear, 
And be ready to celebrate freedom next year; 
Meanwhile all his friends are most thankful there 

A crackerless twelve-month 'twixt Fourth of Julys. 

We kissed him good-night on his powder-specked 

We laid his bruised hands softly down in their place, 
And he murmured, as sleep closed his one open 

" I wish every day was the Fourth of July I " 

— M. Phelps Dawson. 


Enigmatic Snarls, Both Hard and Kaey, for 
YouDK People or all Ages lo Uataatsle. 

203. — A PKOVERI! 

234.— ENIGMA. 

A kind of wound that may be made 
With a keen or sharp-pointed blade. 
Or a " tly mischief" if you choose- 
No matter which of these you use. 
They both dffine a certain word 
In kind of way that's not absurd. 
Nor hard to guess; but now when we 
Reverse the reading, what we see 
Is mammals, such as cannot run. 
And such as never see the sun. 


205. — anagrams of cities. 
I. Sim Dion. 2. AH sad. 3 Gal on vest. 
4. Lave the worn. 5. L-na N. swore. 6. Franc 
is Sanco. 7. N. V. Reed. 8. Labor time. 

Gas Bag. 

206. — decapitation. 

I'm used for strings and various things. 

And proud to be of use; 
And so I blame— it brings me shame — 

Those who would me abuse. 

And I must say, he who in play 

Beheads me is a donkey; 
He does traduce my honest use 

To make of me a monkey. 

Bitter Sweet. 

207. — n alf-squ A R E. 

I. A little nucleus. 2. Raised. 3. Formed 
out of nothing. 4. (Arch.) Ornaments of carved 
work introduced into festoons, 5. That which 
corrodes. 6. Metals. 7. Conducted. 8. Two 
letters; one a symbol in ctiemistry, the other a Ro- 
man numeral. 9. A sibilant. 

Arthur Kaines. 

208. — A CHARADE. 

Some fine one-two I fain would do 

To give the solvers worry; 
Although I fear my whole's not clear, 

For this I'm really sorry. 
Such hvo as this comes not amiss 

In way of recreation; 
It seems like play, and I should say 

Bears to it some relation. 
But when one's one is bent upon 

Some two to bring him glory. 
The two may fail, or be as stale 

As any thrice told story. 



197. — Locke's Kssay on the Human Understand- 

198. — Utopia. 

199. — Neb-neb. 

200. — Horsemanship. 

201. — Revocation. 

202. — Diary, dairy. 

streets of the French capital. His last achieve- 
ment was to stop a runaway team attached to 
a hack full of passengers which was dashing 
through one of the principal thoroughfares. As 
soon as the dog caught up with the runaways 
he seized one of the horses' bridles, but was 
shaken 1 ff. He then made another leap, seized 
one of the runaways by the nostrils and held 
on until the team stopped. He has a record of 
stopping a hundred runaways in like manner. 

The Lesson Bessie Taught. 

Bessie must have wakened in the morning 
with a plan in ber busy little head for teaching 
certain members of the Newton family a lesson. 
The first thing she did was to go into the li- 
brary, and, finding on a chair a new magazine 
that Harry had left there, she pulled off a 
cover. "There!" thought she, "I'll teach 
Harry not to leave so valuable a thing as a 
book where it doesn't belong." 

Then she went into the boys' room, and, find- 
ing a borrowed book out of place, she remarked 
to herself: " This will never do. A borrowed 
book should always be carefully put away; 
and, besides, I do not believe in borrowing, 
especially when a boy has as many books of his 
own as Willie has. I'll just destroy this one to 
teach Mister Willie a lesson." So she soon 
defaced its pretty, bright cover badly. 

Next she visited Marjory's room, and, find- 
ing more dust on the floor than should have 
been there, she evidently thought of the say- 
ing, "Dirt Is misplaced matter," and gave 
Marjory a gentle hint by tipping the contents 
of the scrap-basket out upon the floor. 

Then she went into the sitting-room, and, 
finding Alice's bat on a little workstand, she 
thought, "Another thing out of place, another 
lesson to be taught." So she pulled out the 
fefther, leaving hat and trimmings on the floor. 

When all was done, she cuddled up on the 
lounge, well satisfied with her morning's work. 
At the dinner-table, four members of the family 
looked as though each wished some one else 
would speak first. Finally mamma said: 

" I see Bessie has been trying to teach us 

Four voices answered faintly, " Yes." 

" She certainly has taught us once more that 
there should be a place for everything, and 
everything should be in its place," said papa, 

"Including Bessie herself," added mamma. 

And Bessie? Well, Bessie was a six-months- 
old puppy with innocent, soft brown eyes. — 
Lucy Southworlh Hunt. 


HoNOR.s TO A lJo(i. — A big dog in Paris has 
been twarded a collar of honor by the Society 
for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals for 
bit courage in stopping runaway boraea in the 

Salad Dressing — Will aome of the lady 
readers or correspondents of the Rural 
give through its columns the best method ol 
making salad dressing with olive oil 1—S., 
Santa Cruz. 

Cream Cookies. — One cup of maple sugar, 
one cup sour cream, one tea!>poonful of soda, a 
little nutmeg, one teaspoonfnl caraway, and 
flour to make a stiff batter; roll thin and cut; 
bake in a quick oven. 

Potato Soup. — Four large potatoes, one 
onion; boil in two quarts of water until soft. 
Press through a sitve, and add one pint of 
sweet milk, one tablespoonful of butter, a little 
salt and pepper. Let it boil up and serve. 

Currant .Telly, — Stem ripe currants, scald 
them in a porcelain kettle, do not let boil. 
Strain through a coarse jelly-bag and then 
through a flannel bag. Allow three quarters of 
a pound of sugar to a pint of juice. When the 
juice has boiled ten minutes, add the sugar and 
let cook ten minutes longer. Take from the 
fire, let cool slightly, pour in glasses and set 
aside to form. 

Rice Pudding With Berries. — Gold boiled 
rice may be made into a vary nice pudding with 
the addition of berries. Soften the cold boiled 
rice with milk, using two cupfuls of milk to one of 
riop, and stir until all the lumps are dissolved; 
add three well beaten egge, a teaspoonful ol 
b'ltter, a small cupful of sugar and two cupfuls 
cf blackberries, raspberries, strawberries or 
stoned cherries. Bike slowly for one hour in a 
buttered pudding dish. 

Snow Pudding. — One-half box gelatine, one 
pint boiling water, one coffee cup sugar, two 
eggs, peel of two lemons. Pour the boiling 
water over the gelatine; add the lemons and 
sugar, and strain; whip the whites to a stiff 
froth, and when the jelly is cool, but not cold 
enough to stiffen, pour it slowly over the 
whites, and beat half an hour, or till so stiff 
one can beat it no longer. Serve with it a 
boiled custard made of the yolks, and a pint of 
milk, one-half cup sugar, flavored with vanilla. 
Pour round the sides of the snow, not on the 

Fruit Cu.stard. — To one quart of milk that 
has bnen brought to a boiling point, but not 
boiled, add slowly four eggs, well beaten with 
three tablespoonfula of sugar and a pinch of 
salt. To prevent burning, prepare this in a 
kettle or boiler set inside of another in which 
is boiling water. Stir the custard until it 
thickens, taking care it does not boil, and 
when done remove from the fire. Have ready 
custard cups into which thinly sliced peaches 
or bananas have been put, sprinkled with a 
little sugar and water, turn the custard over 
the fruit, filling the onpr, and set away until 
wanted for use. This is a dainty and delicious 
deiaert if properly mads. 

00013 ]EiE/tLTH. 

Old and Young Should not Sleep To- 
oether. — A pioninent medical writer says 
that no intelligent person who loves his chil- 
dren will allow them to sleep with persons 
greatly older than themeelves. The nervous 
vitality of a child should not be absorbed by 
any diseased or aged relative or friend. Chil- 
dren, compared with adultB, are eclectrically in 
a positive condition. The rapid changes which 
are going on In their little bodies abundantly 
generate and as extensively work up vital 
nervo-electric fluids. Bat when, by contact 
for long nights with elder and negative persons, 
the vitalizing electricity of their tender or- 
ganizitions is absorbed, they soon pine, grow 
pale, languid and dull, while their bed com- 
panions feel a corresponding invigoration. It 
is undeniable that healthful influences are lost, 
and to a fatal extent sometimes by this ill- 
advised custom, A woman was prostrated with 
incurable consumption. Her infant occupied 
the same bed with her almost constantly day 
and night. The mother lingered for months 
on the verge of the grave, her demise being 
hourly expected. Still she lingered on, daily 
disproving the predictions of her medical at- 
tendants. The child, meanwhile, pined with- 
out any apparent disease. Its once fat little 
cheeks fell away with singular rapidity till 
every bone in its face was visible. Finally it 
had imparted to the mother its last spark of 
vitality and simultanenusly both died. 

Mistakes, — It is a mistake to labor when 
you are not in a fit condition to do so; to think 
that the more a person eats the healthier and 
stronger he will become; to go to bed at mid- 
night and rise at daybreak, and imagine that 
every hour taken from sleep is an hour gained; 
to imagine that, if a little work or exercise ia 
good, a violent or prolonged exercise is better; to 
conclude that the smallest room in the house is 
large enough to sleep In; to eat as If you had 
only a minute to finish the meal in, or to eat 
without an appetite, or to continue after it has 
been satiefiad, merely to please the taste; to be- 
lieve that children can do as much work as 
grown people, and that the more hours they 
study the more they learn; to imagine that 
whatever remedy causes one to feel immediately 
better (ts alcoholic stimulants) is good for the 
system, without regard to the after effects; to 
take off proper clothing out of season because 
you have become heated; to sleep exposed to a 
direct draft; to think any nostrum or patent 
medicine is a specific for all diseases. 

Surgery of the Lung.s — Iq recent months 
surgeons have given astonishing proofs of the 
possibility of saving life and restoring health, 
in many cases, by removing portions of such 
vital organs as the brain and the liver. Prof, 
Tillmanns, of Leipsic, has found that surgical 
treatment may be extended even to the lungs, 
and to the arrest of consumption. In a case of 
tuberculosis of the left lung, an opening was 
made and the diseased part of the lung ex- 
posed, when that portion shriveled and was 
carefully removed. The patient recovered, and 
is now able to work. Prof. Tillmanns believes 
that this may prove a desirable treatment when 
the disease is localized, and states that two 
operations would doubtless he necessary- — one 
to expose the affected part of the lung and 
bring about atrophy and shriveling, and a 
second to remove the parts after being func- 
tionally disabled. 

The Office of Iron in the Blood, — Iron 
exists in the blood in the red corpuscles, and 
gives them color and the power of absorbing 
gases. The fact that peroxide of iron is one of 
the readiest absorbents of gases, and parts 
with them as readily on exposure in thin lay- 
era to the air, so that it can be used over and 
over again for that work, gives a clew to its 
special function in the red corpuscles of the 
blood. It enables them readily to absorb oxygen 
as they pass along the minute blood-vessels of 
the lungs and to carry it to all parts of the 
body, where they part with it as it is demand- 
ed. It is supposed, also, to take up carbonic 
acid in exchange for the oxygen it yields up, 
and to convey to the lungs that portion of this 
substance which is expired. 

Colored Spectacles — Dr. Konigatein, while 
giving directions in his class of the uses and 
prescribing of spectacles, said that green glass 
as a protection against strong rays was worse 
than useless, and did more harm to a sensitive 
eye than good, as they allowed the yellow rays 
to be transmitted and unnecessarily irritate the 
eye. As a protection against strong rays, the 
blue or smoked glasses were the only protection. 

Something New in Skin-Grafting. — A 
schoolboy recently scalded his leg badly from 
knee to toe. As there were no signs of heal- 
ing, the attending surgeon chloroformed a grey- 
hound puppy to death, shaved its body, skinned 
it, and grafted the skin on the boy's leg. The 
healing was rapid, and the color of the grafted 
skin was uniform and very similar to that of 
the normal skin. 

For Toothache. — A Russian practitioner 
recommends the use of hyoscyamus seeds for 
toothache. His plan is to burn the seedp, and 
to oonvey the smoke through a little paper tube 
to the hole in the tooth. He declares that in 
nearly nil cases one applioation, or at most two, 
will sufiSoe to cure the toothaobe. — Lancet, 


f AClFie F^URAlo f RESS. 

[Jolt 12, 1890 

*. T. IIKWKV. W. II. K.WKH. 

PubliHhed by DEWEY & CO. 

OJice, 220 Market Hi., N. IC. cor. Front 81., S. F. 
M- Takf, the. Klevator. No. It l^ronl Af.'Vt 

Our HubHcrlptlon Hates. 
Our Akriiii. HrrnH<;Kimoa Kati ih Timai ikii.i.ami a 
vear. Wlilln thin iintlns apiwarn, all •uliacrlbgrn pay- 
biK $lt In ivlvaiirr will rucolvn IS iciorithii' (one y<iar ariil 
m wniiku) crr."llt. Krjr IV.OO In a<l v»nn!, 10 intiiitlin. Knr 
11.00 In uilvaiion, IW« niontlm. Trial i«ilii«!rl|itloiiii tor 
thriie iiioiitliii, iiaitt In atlvaiim, iwili (Kl raiita. All 
atfonU Mill ulnrkM aroraqiilrixl U> a<lhore t<> thaw torriin. 
Nil naw naiiim nnti'rail on the lid without paymant In 
a<lvanu*. Oar proinluni odnrlnKa ara aiihjaiit to thuaa 

Advnrtlslns Rat«a. 

1 Wrek. I Month. $ JTrmCAj. I Faar. 

tar Una (ayala) I .l!6 I .M I 1.2a 11.00 

H»lllnah(l Kiuara)... 1.00 2.M r.O Vi.OO 

Onalnch I.M t.OU 18.00 43.00 

IjUfti ailvertlaaiiidnln at lavoraliln rat«a. HpmHal or 
faadlNK nntluiifi, loKal advcrtlmmiiinta, notlnna ap|>«arlnK 
'd nitraonllnary tvp'i, or In iiartlmilar paria ol thn paixr, 
at apodal ratna. Koiir InaartlonH aru ratml In a inontn. 

Our laUDt form go to prt$i Wr.dnuday evening. 

Bcflftarad all. P. Poat OIBm aa Moonil-olaaa mall mattar. 

DKWKY h CO., r«TrNT Moi.iciiTomi. 



Saturday, July 12, 1890. 


BUITOKIA I.H. HonK>tiira frnni K'aMinrlanil: Hllk 
INilinri' llvlori' <;oiiKraMH; A Hi-i no on l.akn X.iirlch, 'J.b. 
Tim Wi'iik; Kipcriniant Htationa; I'mll. Noloa (r'ini 
Vai'uvlllii; IVaniit OH In Onllt'onlu: lni|>rovlnK IIh< 
Klvora: ilonoy In oil <;an«; Ml Ilanoona, WA. 

IIjIjOM I KATIONM. A H. .inn on l*lio /urii h, a5. 

PATRONH OK HUBBANUrtV.- H«l..«t<.pol i>n.l 
Hanta llnnu tJrnnK' Htoi klon <Jtnn|[n Hp anil l> ilng; 
Tha MiKliti a Miiak: A to Hitll aH, What Han Ml 
Kuiil t'lirpomii; drarni" Knporloil; Kin itlon \n Ai> 

tirnai'lilnic 'I'hu Aiiatrallan I'lan nt VoIIiik; Hlaiifonra 
,nan llill; I.nttor Notua; Croim anil (IrnnK" In Umii- 
lllla: Wiiai o anil Khorinan lliialnpaii < iiiiniMl; Ixullia- 
tlon o( Mono Mall; I'oiirth of .Inly rii niii: Miami 
lani nlia, 'AH 21). 

OOKH MihI-'ONDKNOB.- Napa Valli'y Not<m; Arl- 

loim .Null.., 
THW AHIAKY H.nii. Itn Talk HO 

VINHIYAKI). Tallin (Jrapiia on tha Knothllla, 


H./iiTIOUIiTUItK.- How to hry Aptli'ota; Minaan 
of 11.11 Waliiiil: olivi.a In tha Foothllla; Tlio I'l'ai'h Ap- 
ril >.t, l.utii orati;; a, ^7. 

TyU ifXKlAi. Whiiat Hown too Mimp; May Itakoa.aV. 

I'OULTKY YAKIJ (irnwlnu Monunllun riiraa 
ant III (iri'u'oii. How I (lliittml thu Kkk llarki't; iUialott 
(■l.lrl>rni. 27. 

THW HOIlHi CIROI-Hl. U\ l-llllo lloro; .hillat 

MUm liaril a Wi'.liling; Till. TralnliiK of Our iTiililrnn, 
llai'il to III.IIiiK i> I iiori.iiiililiri'il, ChalT. 31. 
YOUN(J KOI.KH' OOMJMn. IIh' l>»y Aft«r 

till- Kii.irlli Tin. tliM. Till. I.f.««iii ll.aali- TiitiKlil, HI. 
DOMlllHTUJ Hj.IONOMY Hiio.lry U." I|» a, ai . 
U(M>I) HHlAI/rU. (Mil anil Voin KHhoiilil Not Hli iip 

ToKi'tliir. Ml.tAkia; Hiiri;nrv of tlir Liinna; 'Ilia Illi'o 

iif Iron III II." I' ooii; Mia. rlium oiia, Ml . 
FL.ORIHT AN" OAHUBNWU. - < 'w o-'la-Mor: 

K,(vptlri'. I.oloa. 'S.i. 
'J'HMl IjI J M IO'IkM AN Thci Tiui-llark Iniliialrv In 

Mi li.|..(lllio. Id Tiiolii.r, .^3 
TKA(!K AND KAKM. Matnh Itaoca; Niitoa nt 

Kill. I. .III. W.i. 

AOKlOUl.TUH AIj Ml )THIH. — Fiom tho varloiia 

<:iiiiiitli.a of Cikllloriila, :<<!. 
THKnTAHMi;. Thn i :.irin'>n < 'i»<'h llorao, 35. 
rum. II! ACfAIRH. A .Natlonallatin VUw of Anil- 

Tl.iat IIi'1'ImI..iih. j\f>. 

KORKHTKY. Ihi. ili'ilwoml, 3B. 

HTaTK A"1) UOUNTY Foalhiir Klvi.r I mil 

Lamia. Hi»m lliinianllno <)oil"ly, 30. ftii.ilral.lo Now 

<■ .ra to Mi.r. . .1 Ciiiinty, 37. 

HNTtJMOl/XMOAL. Ani.tlior Hourna of lianKorto 

rallloiiiln Kr.ilt lirownra; rri>||roaa In Loa AnKoh.a 

• oiintv, 37. 

HWINk VARI). (fonilonaoil HtaUmonl on IIOK- 
llulalnti, :3B. 

BiiHliieHH AnnouiioomentH. 

|naw Tnia laana.) 
WInilinllla anil riiniiia rui.inu Maniifai tiirlnK <In. 
WInilinlMa, I'unipa, Ktu. U. H. Winil KhkIu* ami 1' y 

<:o., Ilituvia, III. 
Kriill tliu Inr (I U. Wh'kaon At Do. 
MliTol.i. Kllli r llailain'a Mli'roha KlUrr <)o 
Haniiiiil hi.tloiia I'. II. <lrlLi"l>y, Monlli'rilo, <^l. 
Moral. Wanli'.l " W. I.., ' Ilox •.!8I7. H. I'. 

HfSea Adverluinfl dolumn*. 

The Wmik. 

Thn fruit harveit la nuwr thA >b«orl)inf{ toplo 
Id kll r<iKi»i» whnro troiia and vinni arc In linur- 
\n\^, ntid th« Intiirnat nnil uiinHilnndS of thn 
ffrowura la K'vln(( alron^th and aplrit to itll othor 
liraniilina of induatry und Invoalmnnt. Though 
wn havs watiihnd tho fruit Intnrnit uf thn .S'.ato 
aliMoly for it anurn of yaara, wn navnr law a hot- 
tor forliiiK (jiirvadlnK thn whnin loduitry than 
now )>r«viini. It ii trim that aoinn 
friilta urn only bnarlnf( inoilnratnly thli ynar, 
hut thn prion oomponaatoa for inuiih 
loM In wolKht and tho oafinrnina of huyora anil 
tho unhroUnn amiord whioh oharBcturi/.n Kait- 
nrn vinwa of thn dnalrablllty and a*all«hlllty of 
tho Calif ornU fruit prodnot for ICiiUrn uini 
oaDDot but make the ownor ol frnit landi and 

fruit tree* firm in hli graip upon a proiperoai 

futore. If we am not aeriouily rniitaken, 
there will be a planting thii winter which 
will oall for all available nnraery atock, and 
though there will be another great run on French 
prunei, there will bo a wider demand for Other 
fruiti than haa been experienced In recent 
yeara. We expect to aee a much larger plant- 
ing of peari for exainplo, and It ii gratifying to 
note that othor variotioii than tho lUrtlett arc 
going well. We beliovi-, too, that thia year'a 
aelling of (/'alifornia fruit, which li now boing 
better diatrlbuti-d than ever eaat of the Kooky 
mountalna, will Induce a largo Immigration 
aeeklng frnit landi tbia f»ll and winter. 

Exp«riin(>nt Stations. 

Tho R'ignnta of tho Htale Uoiveralty at their 
mooting on Tunaday of thia week decided to 
locate the outlying atation for Houthern (/ali- 
fornia at I'omons, altuated on the eaatern edge 
of Loi Angole* county. Ai atated in our iiaue 
of .1 uno 'Jl at, Hiveraido wan alao an applicant 
for thn location of tne atation and mjdo very 
gonoroua ofT.ira of landa and buildlnga. After a 
careful re-ex aminatlon of the fiold, I'rof. illl- 
gard waa but atronger in hia belief that the 
I'omona aituatlon waa repreaontatlve in aoila 
and climate of a much largor area of .Southern 
(California than liiveraide and bocauae tho 
cholcu of i'omona would allow of a wider range 
of culturoa, and thna prove valuable to a much 
larger proportion of tho people of California. 
I'rof, ililgard, In hia report to the Riigonta, 
gave preforonou to the I'omona alte, although 
he alao rooognl/nd and oommondod tho olTer of 
the Kiveraido puoplo. Tho docialon, of oourae, 
reate<l with tho It lard of iCngonta, and i' imona 
waa aoloutiid aa atated above. The I'omona 
poopln will givi) a dend of a auitablo tract of 
land, with water, and fnrniih $;iO()0 for the 
erection of atation Imildinga. It ia propoaed to 
aeloct the land at once and prouood with the 
nroctlon of bulldinga, ao that actual operationa 
will begin aa aoon aa the planting aeaaon 

Thnro haa juat boon iaaund from the Mtate 
printing ollioe a douumnnt of 'JOO pager, which 
will intnroat all who dnaire to k»ep informed 
of thn progroaa of agricultural oxpnrimontation 
In thia Htate. It ia entitled: " K-port on the 
Agricultural ICiporiment Htationa of the Uni- 
vnraity of (/alifornia, with Doaoriptiona of the 
li.i'giona It'^preaontod," by I'). W. Ililgird, I'ro- 
foaaor of AgriiMilturo and Uirnotorof the Hta- 
tlon, and ia a pirt of thn combinnd reporta for 
IHHH and lhH!l. Tho document cootaina do- 
tailod atatomonta of the facllitlna and acoom- 
pllahinonta of the (/'ontral .S .atlon at llerkeley, 
with ongravinga of the atation building and a 
diagram of the grounda employed. It containa 
alao dntailod dvaoriptioni and diagrama of thn 
" outlying atationa " aa toUowa: 

Thn I'Viothlll Station, near .laokaon, Amador 
county; thn .Southnrn (Joaat Ktngn Station, near 
i'aaodo IC iblea, S>n I. ula Oliiapo county, and San 
Jna<|uin Valley .Station, mar Tularn (Jity, Tulare 
county. There arn alao thrnn vitloultural ata 
tiona unilnr private auapicoa, located at Cuper- 
tino, .Santa l.'lara county; Mlaaion .San .Tiao, 
Alameda noiinty, and Kroano, Kreano county, 
and, including the now atation nt I'omona, 
ahowa that there arn now night atationa under 
the dirirction of I'rof. Ililgard, aovon being 
iiiaintninod out of the Sl.'i.UOO fund from the 
U. iS. Crivnrnment and the Cmtral .Station in 
part from that fund and in part from tho gen- 
eral funda of the Unlvnralty. Thn report juat 
laaiiod by I'rof. Ililgard la a moat important 
contribution to the deacriptive literature of the 
.State aa wi'll aa a record of experimental work 
acDompliahod and in prngroaa. It ahould be 
road by all and can bo had free by application 
to I'rof. ililgard at Korkeley. At another time 
we expect to allude more apecifically to the 
contenta of the document. 

ildiiHK TiiiKvvH ATTiiK N0HTI1.--A diapatoh 
from Spokane Kalla aaya that borae thievea, 
working in uniaon in Ktatern Waahington and 
Idaho, rendn>;vouaed near .Spokajie on tho laat 
Haturilay ami Sunday in .luno, and haatenod 
away with ADU head of horaoa toward the 
lUltlah (Ciilnrribia line, through thn Flathead 
Indian rnanrviition. A largo number i f ranch- 
era waa organl/.nd for tho puranitof the thievea, 
but with little hope of auoueaa, aa they had a 
good atart. Thia lathe largoat operation (if the 
kind we evnr heard of. 

Fruit Notes From Vacaville. 

A week'a outing in the Vacaville diatrict haa 
enabled one of tho I'hkh.s attfT to j it down a 
few notea of fruit afTaira wlilch came to hia no- 
tice. The weather, with the exception of two 
or three daya, haa remained cool for the icaaon 
and the fruit ia coming on but not too rapidly 
for convenience in handling. Moat of the grow- 
ora who have not engaged their cropa to the can- 
nerieaareahippingKaat. Sofar.all thecara which 
have arrived in good condition have broughtgood 
price*, and almoat Invariably the apricota have 
led the peaohei lomething unuaual. 

Up to about a week ago there had been 40 
cara ahipped from Wintera, yielding an income 
of aboot |(jO,000, which aa the aeaaon haa only 
juat oommenoed, will inanre the bringing in of 
ijuite a large amount of money for circulation 
in thia part of the country after paying all ex- 

The new Ooodell refrigerator oar la proving 
•fuite a ancceaa. One hundred cara are building 
and will be put in uae aa aoon aa they can bo 

Aa a rule the apricot crop ia fair and the 
peach crop rather abort. A II the amaller apri- 
cota are boing dried, and aome growera are dry- 
ing all their cropa, thinking that the dried 
fruit will bring more than than the equivalent 
of pricea obtainable for freah frnit. 

Mr. .luhn Dickaon now haa the largeat and 
heat appointed drying Moor in operation in thia 
locality, lie driea hia whole crop of fruit, 
with the exception of peara. The drying floor 
proper conaiata of a pieoe of ground floored over 
with red wood boarda, laid on acantlingr, and 
Burrounded by a fence about eight feet high. 
Near the middle of thia floor are two anlphnr- 
ing houaer, and at one end cutting aheda and a 
■torebouao, the latter being a building .'<4xfiO 
fnet, aheathed up on the inaide with matched 
brjarda. All the windowa are covered with 
wi>e netting to keep uut all motha and inaeota 
whioh might get into the fruit and injure it, 

Kunniog from tho cutting ahoda to a turn- 
table located between the two aulphuring- 
houaea ia an iron railroad track over which are 
run cara for hauling the traya from the cutting 
ahoda to the aulphurlng-houaea. The traya are 
packed on the c-ara with narrow atripa of board 
between tho enda of the traya ao that they can 
be run into the aulphuring-honaea car and all. 
The drying floor will hold lt> tona of green 
fruit when apread out for drying. We did not 
tike accurate meaaureinenta, but think it ia 
about I2.'>i'2.')0 foot in area. 

Mr. Dickaon haa no partlonlar time for aul- 
phuring hia fruit, but leavea It in the houie 
until the juice appoara in the cnp'llke cavity of 
tho fruit. In tho aulphnring honaea are two 
caat-iron pota, one at each end, and into theae 
hn dropa piecoa of red hot iron and then throwa 
the aulphur on top. Thia makea a much atrong- 
er vapor than by burning the aulphur gradually. 

Mr. Dickaon doea not dry hia fruit in the aun 
to a degree auitable for packing, but when It 
roachea the right point it ia hauled into the 
atorehouie and apread out upon tho 11 oor and 
ahovnied over every three or four daya until it 
ia auitable for packing. 

Aa baa been previoualy atated in the Ui'uai,, 
tho loaaoa of fruit treea reaulting from the unu- 
aual winter were large, Nearly all the ordera 
for roplaoing dead treea ao far aa given have 
been for French prunea. 

TiiK (/'kn.siim WdUK. — The oenana enumer- 
atora have now about completed their farm-to- 
farm vlait, and all the many figuroa concerning 
tho farm, Ita live-atook and the products of ita 
liolda and orcharda are being concentrated at 
central (.llloe in Waahington, I). (;. Now 
come the groat auma in addition by which the 
product of each farm will be added to that of 
all the reat in the county, and then of the 
State, and finally of the entire nation. Then 
compariaona will be made with the Hgnrea on 
the aame aubject aa taken ton yeara ago, and 
we ahall know what progreas haa been made 
and how well thia important induatry haa kept 
pace with otherr. The final count will bo 
looked for with intcreet. The figurea for each 
county and State will be accnrate juat in the 
proportion that farmera themielvea have helped 
to make it. 

"TiiK Okaniik W(is." — W. M , H. K. 
liayea conaidera that the late conteat in (Jr- 
egon for the ttlioe of Oovernor waa capital 
agalnat labor, and that the Orange won. 

Peanut Oil in Calit'omia. 

Well, we declare I After all our warefare 
against peanut oil aa a base aubatitnte for olive 
oil, and after our peraiatent berating of ICuro- 
pean olive oil ahippera, who 611 their bottlea 
with peanut juice, and Koatern grooera who do 
the aame thing in their celUra, and cover the 
product with French labela; in apite, alao, of 
our eir^rta to oruah the falaiher with dntiea and 
laws againat adulteration, the peanut oil man 
propoaea to " carry the war into Africa," and 
install his peanut bogus right along aide of our 
olive oroharda; for we read in a dispatch aent 
out this very week from Chicago, aa followt: 

M, Morrez of France, is In this city on hia 
way to Southern Cililornia to establiah the 
peannt oil industry. "I am aurpriaed," aaid 
Morm?, " ao little importance is given to pea- 
nnt growing in thia country. .Something like 
000, 000 worth of peanota ia imported into 
Maraoillea annually, to be naed in the manufac- 
ture of aoap. It is valuable for burning, but ia 
naed mostly in the composition of soap. In the 
Uoited Statea about ;{ 000,000 bushels of pea- 
nuts are raised yearly, which are used for food 
alone. That is but little part of the industry. 
I'eannt oil is equal to olive or sweet oil, and 
may be employed wherever the latter oan be. 
A bushel of peanuts subjected to hydraulic 
prestnre will yield a gallou of oil equal to the 
beat oil of olives. I learn peanut oil was used 
extenaivcly in the South during your late war. 
In the machine shops, and that its lubricating 
qualities are as good aa whale oil. If the oon- 
uitiona are favorable, I shall eatabliih an indna- 
try in Sonthern (/tlifornia. " 

There ia no doubt room for a great peanut 
induatry in regions of California where soil and 
climate aulta the groveling fruit, and it ia poa- 
sible, too, that peannt growing may yield 
bandy money to those who are now doubtful 
how to get money from their lands or to others 
who are waiting for treea to reach bearing 
age. There is also a field, no doubt, for large 
quantities of peanut oil. It is a pare and 
wholesome article, and if people want to put it 
on their aalad or in their frying pana instead 
of lard, it is all right enough. There will be, 
of course, an issue however againat putting up 
and selling peanut oil as olive oil, even If Cali- 
ornia produces them both. We are laboring 
toward supplying the whole country with a 
sure-enough pure olive oil, and trees enough 
are now being planted to do that. It will not 
be right nor politic to urge peanut oil as a sab- 
stance to be sold for olive oil. Still it is quite 
posaible that there may be plenty money in 
growing peanuta for oil, and if ao California 
will be glad to gather it in. 

Honey in Oil-Cans. 

.Some dealer who ia aiming at depressing the 
price of California honey until he can load him- 
self up with it ia telegraphing from New York 
that California honey is snITsring because it ia 
reported that our beemen put up their product 
in old keroaene-oana. California baa always 
put up the bulk of the product in flve gailoo 
cans, two to thn caap, and It ia an excellent 
package for wholesale shipment. There ia no 
earthly objection which can be fairly urged 
against it. The cans are absoluteljr clear of 
taste or aroma, or the honey would quickly 
show it, for it is very quick to take on flavors. 
If some careless man has tilled unclean cans 
and apoiled hia honey, that should not count 
against the practice in general. Some produc- 
ers are lilthy and careless about everything 
they do, but there is less of such work among 
the beokeepera than among any other claaa of 
producers. They are by the very nature of 
their Industry forced to be cleanly, and it is a 
slander for any one to make current rumors 
that oil cans are •polling tho market for Cali- 
fornia honey. 

There are, however, -good reasons perhaps 
why California produoera ahould adopt dlO'er- 
ent and more oharaoteriatic packagea and have 
them contain leaa bulk. Thia State doea not 
obtain a fraction of the credit ahe deaerves 
for honey marketed at the Kast. Eastern re- 
tailers buy our honey in bulk and repack it in 
small receptacles of their own with aome 
fancy ICaatern label on it. If our honey ahonid 
be better known as auch to the consumer, and 
if Kiatern frauda would atop putting up 
glucoae and branding it California honey, our 
bee-keepera would aecure far better retarna 
for their labor. ' 

A MAKKi.K MONiTMKNT to Padre Juuipero 
Serra, the founder of the California Missions, 
la to be erected on the beach at Monterey, 
throngh the liberality of Mrs. LsUnd Stanford, 

Jdlt 12, 1890.] 

fAciFie f^uraid press. 


A reoeot Bamber of ttaa MoOmkm jirynt 
givei an intereiticg aooomit of **«m of the 

wcrlc'i wonders,' u followe: 

In • wcladed raTine or glen, in a 
that Uei is the Indian Ooean, away 
highway of oemmeroe, of tnval ami mt filf ■ 
ore, and therefore ively riiited, Vbeere gcvmt, 
and has f^ovn theae m&ny agar, 
palm tree that may be BCtiiixTy ranked 
the few II iiniluB olttevorld. It ic diSoult to 
fix the time «haM tke innt of the Coco-de-Mer 
palm fint hrgiB to tttrmnf fehe »ttwtiinii ctf 
traTelan. MtartiiB f p mn to lns« bem fint 
made of It by the FaitngaeM hijiiimii anai 
the Cape of G-ood Hope toward India. 

At oomparatirelj rare interraia tbe CcNso-de- 
Jfer nut wai waabed aafaore vftm the oMt aoaat 
af Maaapwrar Ike oMt cMat af Airiim aad 
neeanoaally aa tar nortSi a* tbe Maldrve Idaada. 
Ever still, it waa fonnd fiostang at aea. AH 
searchea for the tree that bore the atraiife 
looking thing harii^ fcvrad uuarai&qg, mA aa 
it had nerer beea aam to aay «tter part flf Ike 
world, it ii DO w< 

qneer legend* 
beliered in. The 
moBt natnral one, 
Ooco-de Mer to tbe 
beUered to be tiw 

ftiiiirtogrt tog battom 

fntbiipiV the 
" It of the 
i«f tta ana. It wac 
•f a ■Bbmarine 
• ^ 

of tbe In£aii Oaeaii, 

Sscrctary of State inr ooiioiasi ti EttT siit 
hand of tbe dessroj'eir. T ■smxin.'s^j . Litt 
pvater pnrtaac of sne r&Tine it Grc^wx .wbd. uid 
mnaanret vsre •Btkimt tc pr«ierve sne bid vnta 
! and foster tbe growtt of tiit Tatiif j uia 
The tree above referred if omnniai-.'y L-t^td 
the double oosoanrt. lis tiotuaiak; lii-mt u 
ic/ioicta !;fieiian;TO It i* ite oi_t F;«ui»)i 
oi ita gemnE. Tne trtnk u nei^-T ri 
aoaroely one foot ix dujueusr uii Lssi-hii i 
bight of nevly cute nsndred ieei. Ii nac a 

1. ISll 

toto ObftoB 

tisB, Under i 

by «hi 

&FBt one. Tim aeoonS m^iks inm : 

•van "A" 

= 2 vrr-i. 

I to the repior of tt t ■ ; i-wrT Ti t 
Coeo-de-llcr bad ikever boei. aeer, rr: :>r 
tbe land, it had a liaj a c— >e fron. -jt r.^iti - f. 
with at aea, an^, ttonton. It wm . i m l i-i'i 
to aoBctode that it waa a Bar 
:S |t I ilaJirfripnt 
aUanoe to an wwigiOH i i . ' ' - 
I it wai called in Freneh, Couo-ae-Mer — 
Ab^Bop, aea ooeoannt. 

Tbe aiytoary of afioa wm aalvai. hamt-^ ■ 
when Mahe 4e la 'Ryaeimmmlm, the 6smb>: - 

eflefchdlaa AiiiiipiliM. bAt tnt 
«f that myaUgy ably gave nee tt 
aMtfaer. Here waa a gronp •( aparard 
af 3D ialanda, elerea of wWah ban a 

Tqgetattoa, aad yet ^ate^^Oaap.^ 

-ii^AaM a ^ 

> ^'VM mML liEdOr 




[Jdly 12, 1890 



Light Grain. — Gridley Herald, July .S : 
HarvestiDK '« <»irly under way tbroaghout thi» 
BeotioD. The yield U not what waa expected, 
being from one-third to one-half less than the 
appearance of the grain justified ranchers in 
anticipating. The largest so far reported is 
only 6 ] sacks per acre, and it ia being cut upon 
land that has never heretofore yielded less than 
II sacks when summer-fallowed, aa it waa this 

Contra Costa. 
Good Wheat. — Mattint z Z)<TOOcra<, Jaly2: 
We have on oar table acme htads of club 
wheat from the ranch of Mis. R c , near Wal- 
nut creek, which are fine samples of that grain. 
The heads average about 11') kernels each, and 
•re large and well developed. Mr. C. Sharp, 
who brought them in and who owns the crop, 
feels highly gratified that the grain is doing so 

El Dorado. 

Panther Poi.sonki> —Henry's Diggings cor. 
Democrat: I-.aat Monday night, the 2.3d, a 
mjuntaia lion came within 50 yards of Hank 
Ribert'a honae, and killed aud carried off two 
full grown goata. Oa hia way to the mine next 
morning he found one of the goata partly eaten. . 
GMng home and gettine some strychnine, he 
poisoned the carcass. Wednesday morning he 
found one of the largest monntain lions ever 
killed in this part of the county, lying within 
ten feet of the poisoned meat, cold and stiff. 

Gbttino a Horse Out ok a Shait.— I saw 
in the Democrat, in a letter from Diamond 
Springs, that the Lsrkin brother! lost a colt by 
its falling into a shaft, and not belne able to 
get the horse out, they killed him. Never kill 
an animal for falling in a shaft, unless its bones 
are broken. Go down in the tshaft with a rope 
and making a halter, fasten it around the head 
and nosp, then go np and turn in a head of wa- 
ter and gradually till the ahaft, pulling on the 
rope so as to keep the head abovn water and 
the horse will come to the top 0. K , 

The 76 Canal.— Fresno, July 2.— The sale 
of the 76 Lind and Water Co. to ine Alta Irri- 
gation district was consummated last night at 
Dinuba. The price paid waa $410,000 in bonds 
of the district, which was recently organized 
under the Wright Irrigation law. All the wa- 
ter rights heretofore sold by the 76 Co. are to 
be paid back in full at $5 per acre. 

Grain Pnosi'txTS. — To a Fresno RepuhVuan 
reporter, C. W. Callahan, Secretary ol the 
Grangers' Business Association, lately said: 
The county's grain prospect was never better. 
The rains were late, the weather has kept cool 
and the result is that the grain iaiaree and full. 
Fresno will probably harvest 1.50,000 tons of 
wheat alone. There is comparatively but little 
oats in the country, and there is little reason 
for it^, for the soil is rich and the climate excep- 
tionally fine. Of barley there will be about 
20,000 tons raised, nearly all of which will be 
consumed at heme. Fresno barley is perfection 

itself Mr. Cillahan spoke of E^ytian corn, 

saying that a larger acreage waa being planted 
every year, and that it was rapidly becoming 
the favorite grain for poultry, although it waa 
excellent for liva-atook. There were from 5000 
to 10,000 tons planted, and it brought from a 
few centa to $1.15 per 100 ponndi, 

Nomadic Flocks. — Eureka Times, June 25: 
Herbert R.ohirdson, who has been to Oregon 
with W. T. Olmstead after a band of sheep for 
Olmstead's range, returned to the city laet 
evening, having left the band at Big Lagoon in 
charge of Meears. Olmatead, Gaoyard and 
B^hall. He reporta having utarted from VA- 
lensburg, Oregon, on May 26 ,b, with 2000 
sheep, and arriving at Big Lagoon Wednesday 
with 1755. With the exception of 60 sheep, 
which can be recovered, the balance were lost. 
No accidents occurred on the trip, and all are 
enjoying good health. 


TuBKEVs. — Delano Courier: H. A. Lubkin, 
one of the big ranchers living about 14 miles 
northeast of Delano, is not only a grain farmer, 
bot in years past, Vk'hen the wheat crop waa 
abort, he has always realized handsome profits 
from bis bands of poultry. Last year he raised 
a band of several hundred turkeys, and aside 
from the care of herding them, there was but 
little expense attached to the business. In the 
winter be disposed of bia stock, realizing on an 
average $1.35 per turkey. This was after all 
expenses were paid. This season Mr. L. has a 
band of .500 turkeys, now about half-grown, 
from which be expects to receive handsome 
profits this fall. 

All From Artesian Water. — On the Mor- 
gan ranch, a few miles below the Miramonte 
postoffice, one of the most beantifnl homes is 
to be seen. Last summer, after crossing several 
miles of unimproved lands, we were pleased to 
halt at this cosy homp, surrounded by orchard, 
vineyard and beds of blooming flswers. The 
artesian well in the dooryard was bubbling over 
with crystal water, which flowed through the 
channels about the ranch. Oo every hand was 
to be found strong, healthy vegetable growth, 
and the trees ladi n with ripening fruit pre- 
sented a contrast with the arid plains we had 
just croosed. Water was the whole secret, and 
a good flawing well can be obtained at 500 feet. 
This leotion ia noted for its fine, early (ruite 

and for a sample of the same we are indebted 
to John I. Morgan, who yesterday presented na 
with a basketful of peaches, pears, figs and 
applea. The fruit waa all fully matured, espe- 
cially the figs. They were in a good condition, 
and would bring a handsome price in a olty 

A Mongolian Spud-Shipper. — Bakerefield 
Californian, June 2S : Last Saturday a China- 
man sent a carload of potatoes to S. F. The 
coat of the car was $55, making the freight about 
25 cents per 100 ttj . At that time potatoes 
were quoted in that market at $1.60 to $2,25. 
This lu the first venture of the kind that baa 
come under our notice, and how it resulted we 
have not learned, but the potatoes that grow 
here, if the right varieties are planted, are not 
excelled in quality and yield. Moreover, our 
first crop 01 potatoes is ready for the market 
months before that of the coast connties, and 
our second crop is ready to come into competi- 
tion with it three months later. The Chinaman 
referred to will plant his second crop about the 
first of August. He stated that when he can 
raaliza tbree-fourtbs of a cent per pound he ia 


County Items. — A number of plaoea have 
been found in toe neighborhood of Kelseyville 
where gaa is flowing freely through the soil to 

the surface Blackberries are growing on 

red mesa land about two miles from here with- 
out irrigation and bearing good ripe fruit 

The Like county climate ia excessively dry in 
summer, bat people think a little irrigation is 
all that is wanted to make everything grow 
well and produce large crops. Fruit trees do 
not suffdr even on high mesa land, but small 
fruits could be greatly helped by the applica- 
tion of water to the soil. It seema now that 
by boring water for irrigating can bn had 
anywhere in the county, — W. C. C, Kelity 


Editors Press : — Oo my way to B'eber I 
saw many fine meadows and some fine fields of 
wheat. I have 70 acres of wheat; 40 acres waa 
sown from the 5 h to the 7tb of April and the 
balance later. It is of the White Sonora va- 
riety. Itia now headed out, and I don't .think 
it could be beat in any country with the same 
cultivation. All the country wants is men to 
take hold and cultivate the soil pioperly 
and there will be no trouble in raising grain 
here. Tnere are a few small fields of summer- 
fallow, sown last fall, which look well, Mr. 
Bieber has over 500 acres of the best kind of 
land in this valley which he will sell at .30 per 
cent less than the value of the land to settlers. 
. . . .The town of Bieber waa lively to-day and 
iverybodyi enjoyed the Fourth of July. Any 
one wonld hardly think there could be so many 
people in Big Valley. The Rural baa miny 
frlenda hereabout. All they \iici ia money 
to ahow their good-will. — H. Kelly, Adin, 
July 4lh 

Alfalfa. — Snsanville Advocate, July 3: Oa 
the place of G. W. Wright, about seven miles 
below Susan ville, may be seen a sample of what 
can bn done on our sage-brnab land with alfalfa. 
Mr. Wright has 2^ aorea, which he put into 
alfalfa last year, i.a an experiment, and last 
week he took rff bis first crop for this year, 
amounting to S}. tons — and two more crops this 
year to bear from This land was lightly irri- 
gated the first year, and thia year received only 
the seepage from a ditch run through it. 
Hutobinaon !c Leavitt have 20,000 acrea of 
land adjoining thia piece, of the aame character, 
ander toeir irrigating system. Mr. Wright is 
not an expert on alfalfa; he is simply a clear- 
beaded, hard-working farmer, and any man 
with the aame attributea can produce like re- 


Volunteer Barley, — Saisun Republican, 
Jaly 4 : Raed & Frisbie are in the midst of 
harveatine their large grain crop in the Salinas 
valley. Thev will have about 40,000 sacks of 
barley, 30,000 of which had already been thrash- 
ed the middle of last week, and Mr. Frisbie 
estimates that at least 10,000 more aacka will 
be gathered. This is not so bad when one 
takes into consideration that the entire yield 
was volunteer. The combined harvester cut 
and thrashed in one day 658 bags of barley. 

The Grain Harvest,— Salinaa cor. Bulletin, 
July 4: While thrashing ia in progreas up the 
valley, it will be several weeks before we get 
through or begin around Salinas. The wheat 
and barley is late. The prospect of wheat 
sown aa late as the 5th of April was never bet- 
ter; barley sown the 15th of April promises a 
fine yield. Cool weather has added to our yield 
immensely, and the prediction of your corres- 
pondent several weeks ago, aa to there being 
three timea the quantity of grain raised aroand 
Salinas as last year, is verified. The bean and 
potato crop, too, promises a yield ahead of 
former years. Added to thia is the superior 
quality of our grain all over the county. I saw 
a grain field of 100 acres sown to wheat the 
5th of April, that the farmer tells me will yield 
20 sacks to the acre, or at least 40 buabela. 


Gra.sshoppebs — Oraaa Valley Tidingi, July 
4: Farmer Nettleahip of Limekiln district 
mourns the loaa of bis early grapea, a clond of 
grasshoppers having settled on the vineyard 
some days ago, destroying the buds and every- 
thing green as completely aa a band of cattle 
would have done. Toe late wine grapea were 
not injured; the buds, etema and embryo grapes 
being too " tart " for the fastidious hoppers, 
Mr. Nettleahip eatimatea bia loaa at $200. The 

high wind of Tuesday afternoon took along 
with it the majority of the pests. Down at 
Iron mountain it is reported that the grass- 
hoppers mowed down all the green grass and 
stripped oaks and other trees of their leaves. 


A Thriving Nurseryman. — L, A. Herat'/, 
July 5 : Tim Carroll ot Anaheim has soldSUO,- 
000 oran;;e trees and 100,000 walnut trees this 
season. All these have been set in orchard 
near Anaheim. Tim ia a rustler. He baa now 
360 acres of land, of which more than 100 
acres are devoted to nursery. He has of or- 
ange and walnut stock 1,000,000 young trees. 
Of all sorts he has a multitude of young trees 
in nursery. Mr. Carroll has 10,000 orange and 
walnut trees set in orchard of bia own. West 
of Anaheim he has 60 acrea all set with treea. 
There is a fine artesian well on this tract. 

San Bernardino. 
Pink Beans — Chino Champion, July 4: 
Bettler & Dunlop are planting pink beans. 
They will plant 28 acres. Their experience 
last year waa enooaraging, in that they ob- 
tained two tone to the acre. This year they 
will be prepared for the early rainp, and will 
not lose any thereby as they did last year. The 
farmers gain each year from the previous year's 
experience, both in growing and saving their 

Citrus Planting.— The /ffcord of July 2d 
pnbliahea a carefully compiled list of the acre, 
age set to citrus fruita In Oatario this year, 
footicg up 629^ acres. The list includes ten 
acres in SectiLU 16, Cucamons't, virtually a 
part of Oatario; 25 acres on the Mountain View 
tract, and 1.50 acres estimated under the 
Pomona water system, bat in the Ontario vot 
ing preoinot. Abont 45 acres repUce grapes 
and apricotf; the rest is newly broken ground. 
Oae gratifying feature is that the lots are most- 
ly amall; there is very little improvement for 
speculation. The varieties, in acres, stand 
about aa follows in round numbers: N tvels, 
465; late varieties (Mediterraneans, Tardiffd, 
etc.), 100; lemone, .50. 

San Diego. 

Traction Engine. — San Jacinto Regintcr, 
July 3: Charlie Chambers baa lately pnrchaaed 
a traction engine to be uaed in connection with 
bis threshing outfit. No bsrses are uaed with 
this machine, as the engine pulls separator, 
dprrick-wagon, cook-house and water-wagon. 
We hope the engine can be used in hauling 
gang-plows for plowing purposes, for they are 
nsed extensively in the northern part of the 

San Luis Obispo. 

Sample Sheaves — Sinta Maria Oraphir, 
July 3: Col. Kelohnir, of NIpomo, showed uh 
a bunch of wild oats measuring eight feet in its 
stocking feet — that is, it waa cut. The colonel 
had a collection, among which are tame oats 
six feet three inches long, rye seven feet, and 
various other kinds of grain all of great length. 
This collection will h^i exhibited at the Santa 
Maria and San Luis Obispo Fairs this fall, also 
at the Mechanics' Fair in S. P. 

Santa Olara. 

Peach, Cherry AND Prune Prices — Jfer- 
cur(/, JalyS: Pres. Cushing of the W.Uows 
Fruit-Groweis' Association, last evening atated 
that many of the fruit-growera would dry their 
fruit, in fact more than In any previous year. 
" Tne msj "•rity of them know that if the driers 
can pay 2^ cents for prunes there must be 
something 10 it. Every grower has to keep a 
force of men, and instead of laying them off 
for part of the week they can dry the fruit as 
fast as it falls from the tree. Taking the haul- 
ing into consideration, there is not much dif 
ference. and thev think they may as well have 
theprcfira." "How did you succeed in the 
cherry shipments'?" "We realized in the 
Chicago markets $2 where we would bav« got 
but $1 here. The lowest price abont $1 45 
a box, and it ran as high as $2 55. The dif 
ference in the cost ia only about 40 cents a box, 
and I guess the highest price in .S F. was 
about 75 cents. This year's ahipmenta of 
cherries were entirely aatisfactory, but then 
we are fortunate in pricea all around thia year. 
Peachea have failed in other seotionr, and as a 
result we get two cents a pound. That ia not 
bad, considering that the crop is very good 
throughout the valley." 

A Lost! Beet.— Sin Jose Times, July 2: S. 
Holmes ol .356 South Tenth street is proud of 
" a beet that beats all other beets " beard from 
this season. It was grown in hia garden in this 
city, was dug np top and all, and measured 1 1 
feet and one inch from the nethermost root to 
the top of the seed-stalk. Mr. Holmes baa it 
banging in a shed, and will be pleased to 
exhibit it as a product of Santa Clara county's 

Santa Cruz. 
Fruit-Packing Co. Disincorporates. — 
Pajaronian, July 3 : Oo Monday last, in the 
Superior Court of thia county, the application 
of the atookholdera of the Wataonville Fruit- 
packing Co. fordiainoorporation waa beard, and 
aa no objection thereto waa made by any per- 
Bon, the application was granted. Pending 
this action the property bad been sold to the 
Pajaro Valley R. R. Co. The money on hand 
and derived from the sale of the property has 
been divided among the stockholders, at the 
rate of $26.70 per share, the paid-up value of 
which was $50. 


Good Hay Crop.— Anderson Ealtrpriu, 
July 3: Tne hay crop is all harvested, the ' 
largest and beat ever cat In thia valley, and the 

balera are fast putting it in abape for shipment 
to points along the California and Oregon road. 
We have not to chronicle the loss of a single 
ton of hay in this neighborhood, from unpro- 
pitious harvesting weather, the season having 
been all that could be expec :ed, with no thought 
of craving a better. The growing ■e'kson 
opened up late in the spring, but proved ex- 
cellent when it did come, with just enough 
light showers at exactly the right time to do 
the most good. 


At the Cannery, — Yuba City Farmer, July 
4: The apricot crop in this locality is nearing 
the close of the aeaaon on moat varietiea ex- 
cept the Moorpark. The cannery here will re- 
ceive large conaignments of thia variety from 
Ranoho Cbico thia week and will run full hand- 
ed. The roll-book now shows 145 names, 
which will be Increased when the peach season 
begins. The pick in peaches will commence in 
about two weeks. Plums and pears will be 
ready for canning about the first of August 
and are reported to be pleutiful. The new 
grader ia giving entire satisfaction and is a 
great labor-saving machine. In the canning 
department, there have been erected three new 
capping machines which are filling a long-felt 
want. Eich machine is aupplied with 12 re- 
volving platea on which the same nambar of 
cans are placed. A perpendicular rod ia low- 
ered on each can to hold the cap in position, 
and as the can revolves, the soldering iron 
quickly solders the cap firmly and smoothly to 
the can. Eich machine is operated by two 
men, and baa a capacity of over 6000 cans per 

New Farming-Machine. — Sutter City En- 
terprite: J. M. Heriog baa received his patent 
from Washington for an improved farming ma- 
chior, which combines digging, sabsoiling, puU 
veriziag, planting rnd harrowing. The machine 
includes hampers and chesta for carrying seed, 
tools, cooking utensils and provisions, with a 
suitable frame sustaining a canopy or cover by 
which it can be converted into a tent, or living 
bouse, in which are suspended hammocks for 
sleeping purposer, the object being to provide 
a complete farming-machine adapted to large 
farms where accomodationa are distant from 
the ground to be worked. 


.Milk for the Cheese Factory, — Visalia 
Time*, July 3: S. M. G.lliam, Sjc'y of the 
Visalia Creameiy Association, aud Gao. A. 
Parker, a director, were visiting cattle owners 
last weak in an endeavor to secure milk enough 
to warrant the opening of the creamery. It is 
estimated that it will require 400O pounds of 
milk per day *o warrant the commencement of 
operations. Three-fourths of this amount has 
been secured, and probably by Saturday next 
enough will have b en pledged. The proposi- 
tion of the association is to manufacture the 
milk into cheese at t<>0 cents per pound, those 
fnrni^hing the milk to take the remainder of 
the money received for the cheese; tb«t is, the 
association will manufacture the cheeee and 
sell it, and for their labor and trouble will 
charge two cents per pound, the remainder go- 
ing to those who furnish the milk. Those who 
have been manufacturing cheese in this vicin- 
ity on a amall scale hive been enabled to dis- 
pose of all they had at ten cents per pound, 
and it Is reasonable to snppose the aaaociation 
can do as well. A^ this rate, those who sup- 
ply the creamery with milk will receive about 
eight cents per gal'OD. 

A Runaway HARVfSTER. — Tulare Rrgisler: 
The te^m oi 24 horses attached to thecLmbtned 
harvester of Dibney Henry ran away the 
other day, and damaged the machine quite 
seriously. The outfit was working in Mr. Dib- 
ney's field in the Artesia neighborhood, when a 
cog from the main pinion broke out, which 
caused others to be knocked off. The noise of 
the breaking cogs f lightened the horses and 
they ran a quarter of a mile. The driver kept 
his seat, holding himself on with both feet and 
one hand, while with the other hand be kept 
the animals straight through the stLbble until 
they were tired out, the wheels sinking into 
the soft ground and making the pull a hard 
one. Cogs were broken out of several of the 
wheels and some other parts of the machine 
were broken. A runaway team with a com- 
bined harvester taatened to them are in a posi- 
tion to do some bad work. 


AHordeokHoppers — Woodland Mail, Joly 
5: Geo. J. Lucas informs us of the descent of 
a ccbny of grasshoppers on his alfalfa patch, 
about three miles west of thia city. There ari< 
millions of them in the fiald, and on shaking a 
bunch of clover, a cloud of the insects rise, and 
after bopping around, settle down again and 
proceed to devour the leaves of the plant. 
From present indications, the grasshoppers will 
be more numerous than ever, and our farmers 
fear for the alfalfa-fields and vineyards. 

A Great Hay Barn. — Chas. Coil has erect- 
ed one of the largest h krni in Yolo county, on 
bis farm near town. Upward of 60,000 feet 
nf lumber was uaed, and the roof alone cost 
§1400, The foundation Is of brick, and the 
cost of the building will be about $1500. Mr. 
Coil will use the birn for the storage of his im- 
mense crop of hay. 


Rye — Reno Oazelle and Sloelman: Uncle 
Geo. Crnm has sent the Board of Trade a fine 
sample of rye raised on the plains about Battle 
Mountain without irrigation, which proves 

JoLY 12, 1890.] 

f ACIFie (^URAb f RESS. 


that that oereal will flourish without water. It 
stands fully six feet high, and the heads are 
from four to six inches long and well filled with 

Locusts, which old settlers believe to be the 
gennine 17-year kind, are said to have appeared 
in millions on the east side of Washoe Like 
and on the sandy plain* near Pyramid Lake. 

After THE Spring Roond Up — Salt Lake 
Tribune: John Tinnin of Wells, Nev., was in 
the citv recently. Regarding the cattle inter- 
est in Eastern Nevada, he said that the spring 
round-up wns just over, and they now are able 
to foot up their losses. These run all the way 
from 50 to 90 per cent, he not knowing of a 
single oase of less than 50 per cent. Some of 
the cattlemen lost heavily outside of losing the 
cattle, through a vain attempt to save them by 
shipping in hay. He named oue lot where the 
cattle bad eaten from four to five dollars' worth 
each of such hay brfore dying. California bay 
cost, shipped into Eastern Nevada, about $15 
per ton, making the cost of feeding very 
heavy. Regarding the cattle interest gener- 
ally, Mr. Tinnin expressed the opinion that 
prices would remain low because the great 
grazing countries of Texas and some other 
States and Territories are being settled up and 
the lands fenced so as to deprive range cattle 
of grazing lands, and this is throwing cattle on 
the market in large quantities. 


Improving Their Cattle. — Prineville Re 
vitw: The cattle-raisers of E istern Oregon say 
that the past winter killed off the greater por- 
tion of their poor stock — "scrubs" — and that 
they now have the best stock of their herds left 
to breed from, and with the introduction of 
well-bred males they expect to improve their 
stock and within a few years have a desirable 
class of stock on the range. Already several 
of them have bought grades of Herefords, 
Shorthorns and Angus, and will make further 
purchases as they are needed. This is certain- 
ly a move in the right direction, for it is more 
profitable to raise good than poor stock, and 
the cattlemen of the country have learned it is as 
advantageous to them to breed fine cattle as it 
is for the sheep or horse-raiser to improve bis 

Introducing the Comiuned Harvester. — 
Ashland Tidingt, June 27 : Sylvester Patter- 
son will soon introduce in this valley the latest 
improved harvester — one of the machines that 
cut the ripened grain and run it into saoks, all 
ready to haul to the granary or mill. This 
machine is in common use on the big ranches 
in California, but it is something new for South- 
ern Oregon. It is made by Houser & Shippee, 
at Stockton, Cil., and its cost laid down here 
is about $1800. Mr. Patterson ordered the 
machine some months ago, and expects it to 
arrive in Ashland to-day or to-morrow. 

Hops. — Eugene City Register: In an inter- 
view with George W. Hubbard, the hop buyer, 
we learned that there is quite an increase in 
the acreage of hops in Oregon and Washington 
this year. He thinks Oregon will produce 
about 2000 bales more this year than last. The 
O'ltlook for a good price is favorable at present. 
He says growers should take great pains in dry- 
ing their hops if they want to get the highest 
price, Oregon now has the reputation of ship- 
ping to market the best cured hops of any 
State in the Union, Mr. Hubbard sent several 
samples to Earope last year, and they were re- 
ported the best from America. At the price 
offered now there is a good profit in hop-raising, 
and it will pay ail to take good care of their 

Umatilla Codnty Sheep. — E. Oregonian: 
It is learned from Stock Insp'ctor E Gilliam 
that the number of sheep in Umatilla county 
at present is about 114,000, not counting lambs, 
mvking 62,000 less than last fall. About R4,- 
000 were sold, most of which have been taken 
out of the county. From this estimat'^ it will 
be seen that the total loss of sheep in Umatilla 
county during the winter was in the neighbor- 
hood of 28,000. 

A Market foe Our Agricultural Imple 
ments. — Spain presents an excellent market for 
the introduction of American f »rm implements, 
so says our Oonaul at Cadiz. Rsferrire; to the 
statistics of exports from the United S at^s to 
Spain for the year ending June 30, 18S9, we 
observe that the value of agricultural imple- 
ments exported amounted to only $7316, of 
which about one-half applied to mowers and 
reapers. This was but a fraction of the total 
exports to all countries. This does not repre- 
sent the extent to which American implements 
are used in Spain, for it appears that many of 
them are obtained through German, French 
and English sources, which present more favor- 
able conditions of purchase, in which the sys- 
tem of long credits acts an important part in 

Tree-Felling uy Dynamite. — Some inter- 
esting experiments were made the other day in 
the vicinity of Copenhagen, with tree-felling 
for military purposer, by dynamite. The ob- 
ject was to ascertain the saving in time and 
labor effected by this method and the results 
were exceedingly satisfactory, far more so than 
is understood to have been the case elsewhere. 
Trees of as much as three feet in diameter 
were brought down in some 20 to 25 minutep, 
whereas the time occupied by ordinarv foiling 
woald havfl been 10 times as much. — Engineer' 
ing, London. 

The German Coacli Horse. 

Editors Press : — It is well known and 
understood that all the modern breeds of horses 
trace their origin to the same source, and that 
the horse was indigenous in not a few countries, 
and that; his progenitor was the little pre- 
historic " Hippns " seems to be as generally 

Hence we must accept, in attempting to 
write up the German coach horse, that originally 
he was an evolution from the same common 
source, and that his present degree of excellence 
is largely due to natural and arbitrary selec- 

This breed of horses, in their Faderland, is 
claimed to have been greatly improved by the 
insertion into bis system of importations of the 
larg'^st specimens of the English thoroughbred, 
the fljet-footed charger of the desert, the Arab, 
and the freer and more quality-like Yorkshire 

Thus we find they have been founded and 
built upon a rock, and not upon the sand, and 
this foundation has given them speed for long 
distances, and, together with care at the hands 
of their owners and selection under the arbi- 
trary rule of the Government, has established 
them with a before unprecedented amonnt of 
beauty, spirit, finish, action and size. And ac- 
cording to history we must admit that he has, 
since the sixteenth century, been a distinct and 
much-favor»d breed. Under the reign of Anton 
Guenther, 1620, the Hanoverian flourished and 
stood high as a coacher and war horse. In 
1660 the Dake of Newcastle, in his work on 
" The Horse," mentions with much fa-'or the 
German horse, and before and since this time 
they have stood in very high favor among the 
royalty, as from this time tliey have been much 
used a* princely presents, etc. 

All German coaching horses are, whether 
bred in Oldenburg, Hanover, or any other part 
of Germany, necessarily one and the same 
breed. No horse can serve mares in Germany 
unless he either belongs to the Government or 
has a certificate of breeding soundness and in- 
dividual appearance, and this certificate is 
issued by a Government examining committee, 
and when a horse has nucb a certificate he may 
go anywhere in the Empire and serve. And 
not only is this so, but it is well known that 
the G')vernment sends horses out of Oldenburg 
and Hanover into the Hamburg Marsh coun- 
tries and other sections, and vice versa, all over 
the Empire at their will, and always with an 
object in view, sometimes to carry more bone 
and substance, and again more quality and 
spirit. Hence we must infer they are in breed- 
ing the same, although their individal appear- 
ance from different sections is often quite dif- 
ferent, for the same reason that in our own 
country some climates and soils are adapted to 
raising coach and road horeep, while in others 
they would be a feeble success, but rearing 
the draft horse would be their best forte. 
In some sections in Germany we find these 
coachers becoming so coarse and d:afty as to 
be really undesirable as coachers in America, 
while in other sections they furnish as fine and 
blood-like, strong and active as does the Arab 
in his native desert, and reared in a land of 
plenty, and his master a bountiful and 
judicious feeder, as the Germans notoriously 
are, he always grows large enough. 

The color is mostly bays, browns and blacks. 
Some few have wbit^e in face and white feet, 
They et^nd from 160 to 173 centimeterp, or 
from 152 to 16^ hands high, and weigh from 
1250 to 1600 pounds a*: maturity. They mature 
at a young age, being fit for work at two years, 
and for breeding purposes when three years 
old. They trot fast with perfect angles, very 
regular with high action. They are very 
stylish and handsome, with sweet, pretty 
headp, long neckp, short backs, with good quar- 
tern, the best of feet and finest of hocks. 

They have been so carefully bred by the Gov- 
ernment that an unsound one is seldom seen. 
In hardiness no breed can surpass them, and in 
fertility and prepotency we believe none can 
equal them. 

They are the horse in general use throughout 
Germany. They are the great plow horse, and 
the same team goes to the commodious carriage 
and carries its owner safely and swiftly to mar- 
ket, or over the country, at a cheerful, easy, 
ten-miles-an-hour gait, and again he goes to the 
ponderous four-wheeled German sugar-beet 
wagon, and draws to the factories, going away 
in a slashing walk, with 5000 kilo— 10,000 
pounds — on paved roads. 

While he is a great domestic, like his master, 
he is a prodigy in war. Thete are the cavalry 
horses of wbioh history tells in the Franco- 
Prnssian war. They were so intelligent, cour- 
ageous and fleet of foo*^, that on meeting a 
French troop of horse, they could charge them, 
recharge and charge again before the French 
could turn to action. 

The demand for these horses will be best un- 
derstood when we know the great number ot 
them that are sold every year to F"i-anoe, Italy, 
Switzerland, Belgium, England, Kassia, Aus- 
tria and South America, running far into the 
thousands. No horse stands so high in the 
opinion of the South American as a prepotent 
sire as the German ooach horse, and their his- 
tory juRt fies the assumption that in North 
America they will very soon rank with quite as 
mnob favor. 

Some one may ask, why have we not known 

of this splendid brred of horses, here in our 
own country, before? In reply I can but say: 
Well, we have known of the German coacher, 
but heretofore there has been no stud-bck for 
them, outside of the Government certificate, 
and when a horse belonged to the Government 
stud, he was so high priced that he could not 
safely be purchased with the thought of a 
profit to the importer, and we all know that 
the American people will accept no horse for 
breeding purposes unless he has a certificate of 
authority of breeding; hence they, like the 
Irish hunter, have heretofore been compelled 
to seek their market in other lands, 

Ore ley, /nwn A. B Holbert. 

A Nationalistic View of Anti-Trust 

Editors Press : — In your article headed 
"The Anti-Trust War," issue June 28th, you 
refer to the decisions of the New York Supreme 
Court as being almost a " ringing declaration " 
that the creatnre — the corporation or trust — is 
not greater than Its creator, the State. 

You also say that " the decision is diametric 
ally opposed to the policy and aims of a trust," 
For myself I certainly cannot see what in the 
decision will prevent a new corporation being 
formed that will buy up all the sugar refineries 
in the U. S., resulting in a single huge cor- 
Doration Instead of several smaller corporations 
joined together in a trust controlling the sugar 
industry of the country. 

The decision certainly may prevent monopoly 
assuming the peculiar form of a trust, but what 
difference does it make to the people whether 
corporation or a trust constitutes the 
monopoly ? 

The sugar refineries of this conntry, if run 
to their fullest capacity, can make almost as 
much sugar in one week as can be consumed 
in two weeks, hence is it not perfectly evident 
that the owners of the sugar refineries must 
agree to restrict production — that they must 
form some sort of a combination to effect this 
result. If not, a trust, then some other com- 
bine. Laws to prevent them performing a 
simple act of self-preservation will always be 
futile, and it is most exasperating to see editors 
of a paper so widely read as yours urging farm- 
ers to pin their faith to absu'd anti-trust laws 
which will have no more effect than the Pope's 
famous bull against the comet. 

There is but one remedy for trusts and mo- 
nopolies, and tha*- is let the Government nation- 
alize them — let Uncle Sam run the sugar busi- 
ness instead of Clans Spreckels, 

Until we resolve on this course, we may rest 
assured that a sugar ring will always dictate 
to us how much sugar we shall consume and 
how much we shall pay for the privilege. The 
Russians will be under a political despotism as 
long as they give their political destinies into 
the hands of a political despot — the Czar. The 
Americans will remain un'^er an industrial des- 
potism as long as they leave their industries to 
be managed by the modern American Czars of 
Industry — the Armour" Spreckels, Rockefel- 
lers and Vanderbilts. We wonder at the Rus- 
sians cringing under their political despot, yet 
we ourselves fawn at the feet of denpots who 
are riveting a chain of industrial shvery more 
galling than history has yet recorded. 

Oar forefathers were most cautions in fram- 
ing our constitution to balance political power 
so that no one branch of the Government 
should be able to preponderate. Little did 
they dream that a power outside of any that 
they were creating would arise that would 
dwarf all their political constitutione — the 
money power. The almighty dollar is king— 
who dare his power gainsay? 

The creatnre is greater than the creator — de- 
cision or no decision. 

Two corporations were formed in New York 
last week of fifty millions capital each. Cer- 
tainly the decision does not prevent the for- 
mation of corporations of such immense cap- 
itals, and every Californian knows that a tifty- 
million dollar oornoration can vote pretty often, 
law or no law. We have but one course open 
to us. We must nationalize industry. We 
must come to this decision sooner or later and 
all this fighting trusts is so much wasted time, 
H. G. Wilshire, 
Pres. Farmers' National Ciub of Anaheim. 
Fullerlon, Cal. 

Mineral Matters in Cotton. — Dr. Bow- 
man states that the mineral matters in cotton 
amount to from 1 to 1.5 per cent of the weight 
of the fiber. Carbonate of potassium is the 
chief constituent. There are other salts and 
phosphates of magnesia and lime, and an 
amount of peroxide of iron, varying from three 
to six per cent of the quantity of inorganic mat- 
ter. The iron is highest in Egyptian cot- 
ton. Alumina is also reported as constituting 
7.9 per cent in rough Peruvian cotton. This 
mineral matter is regarded as an integral part 
of the fiber. If, as Dr. Bowman says, "It is 
impossible by any means at our command to 
separate or remove these mineral constituents 
from the fiber," dyers and printers would bo 
in difficulties; but surely they are nearly all 
removed in ordinary bleaching operations. — 
Textile Recorder, Eng. 

The Redwood Forest. 

In size of individual specimens, the redwood 
(Sequoia lempervirens) ranks next to its rela- 
tive, the big tree of the Sierra JNevada [Se- 
quoia giganiea) and the eucalyptus of Aas- 
cralia; Out if we take the average size of the 
trees and the density and extent of the forest 
into consideration, the redwood is the grandest 
of the world's forr st trees. It belongs to the 
Coast Range of Northern California, A few 
straggling groves only are to be found below 
Monterey bay, and it does not extend far into 
Oregon. The largest body commences at the 
mouth of Russian river and extends into Oregon. 
Another large forest lies south of S»n Fran- 
cisco, in Santa Cruz county. The widest por- 
tion of the great or northern body of redwood 
timber lies in Mendocino county, between 
Ukiah and the ocean. Here it is by air-line 25 
miles wide — a vast, unbroken forest with 
branches extending inward up the canyons. 
The peculiarity of the redwood is its love of 
moisture, which means here fog. The fog 
banks rise from the Pacific and flow inland like 
a great level sea of vapor. The lower mount- 
ains next the coast are enveloped, and farther 
on it fills the canyons, leaving the high mount- 
ains to rise like islands out of it. Scill farther 
inland only the lower portions of the canyons 
are filled with fog. At times the sea of fog 
will rise so high that it engulfs nearly the 
whole section back to the high dividing range 
of mountains which is the watershed between 
the streams running directly into the ocean and 
those which flow into the Russian and Eel 
rivers, which extend for a longdistance parallel 
to the coast line. Then the fog goes pouring 
through the passes in actual rivers of vapor, 
which run down the canyons toward the in- 
terior. Strangely enough, it always returns as 
it goes. 

Now, with this sea of fog in mind one can lo- 
cate the redwood belt most accurately. Near 
the coast on the lower mountains, and every- 
where, the denneet forest is almost exclusively 
of redwood. Farther inward sweeps the same 
dense forest on the lower mountains and in the 
cinyons at the same bight. Redwood forest 
is still on all the mountains, but of smaller 
trees, and the greater the elevation the more 
largely it is mixed with Douglas spruce (Pseu- 
dotsuga taxifolia) and the tan bark oak (Qaer- 
ens densiflora). Still farther inland near the 
watershed spoken of before, redwood only 
grows in canyonp, and the mountains are either 
open grazing land, covered with oak and fir, 
or with that dense low growth known as chem- 
isal (Adenostoma fascicalarie). Over the wa- 
tershed, down those canyons where the fog 
pours over, there still are groves of redwood, 
well confined to the moist banks close to the 
courses ''f the streams; while up the broad can- 
yons of P]el and Russian rivers the fogs roll and 
nourish the life of the grandest of all of the 
redwoods till they are held back by the heat 
of the interior. 

The redwood is not only a lover of moisture, 
but, to an extent hardly to be believed unless 
peen, a condenser and conserver ot moisture. 
The tops reach high into the sea of vapor, and 
a constant precipitation from them like rain 
takes place. List summer I was on the coast 
during a foggy time, and I remember that while 
the roads were dry and dusty, in the clearings 
under the redwoods the water had been pre- 
cipitated till it stood in puddles and formed 
mud botes. This abundance of moistnre 
causes the densest of undergrowth, which 
only continual fires make passable. Hazels, 
huckleberries, various oeanothuses, ferns of 
large size in the greatest profusion, with large 
bushes of Rhododendrons and numerous other 
plants, make the forest floor a perfect tangle in 
the moister portions. The list ot herbaceous 
plants here Is not large, bnt they are delicate 
and beautiful. The glossy leaves of Vancou- 
veria hexandra form dense masses; an Orchid, 
Goodyera Menzieger, is commor, and in the 
spring Trillium ovatum and the Erythroniums 
are plentiful, and so is the lovely Clintonia. 

Of small fernp, only the beautiful Adiantum 
pedatum, the Maiden-hair, is common; but 
there are several snecies of Aepidium and the 
Woodwardia, and Brake is everywherr, making 
In the cleared forest a solid mass Four or five 
feet high. I have seen acres of the Brake seven 
or eight feet high, where a man could only 
crawl through the tunnel-like paths. Every 
year or two forest tires sweep through this for- 
est tangle, bnt it springs up again with re- 
newed vigor. The redwood, unless very 
young, is not injured by tire. Its thick bark 
protects it, and often trees will be seen which 
had every limb stripped by the fire, putting 
out a mass of foliage from top to bottom. No 
name could be more appropriate than semper- 
virenp, for it possesses wonderful vitality, A 
tree cut throws up hundreds of strong sprouts, 
^nd a stump is only killed by repeated burning. 
Fallen trees will often grow along the whole 
length of the stems, and throw up sprouts from 
the upturned roots, and I have seen sprouts six 
or eight feet high from logs. The commonett 
care would ensure the perpetuity of these 
grandest of forefts. — Carl Purdy, Ukiah, Cal., 
in Garden and Forest. 

Well Worth Reading. — An essay on the 
training of the young,by Sister C )ok of MoMinn- 
ville, may be found in our " Home Circle," and 
will repay you for perusal. 



[JoLY 12, 1890 

^T/cTE /cND QoUNTY. 
Feather River Frait Lands. 

[Written tor the RCRib Prb88 by J. C. H ] 
A Rural representative visited the new frnit 
belt lying adj loent to the Feather river, that 
has attracted more than ordinary interest dar- 
ing the last year, from the fact that a number 
of onr leading orohardiets and narserymen had 
purchased large tracts cf land in this section 
and planted extensive orchards and vineyards, 
among whom were A. T. Hatch, J jhn Kaok, 
C. W. Reed and Robt. Williamson of the W. 
R. Strong Co. of Sacramento. In company 
with C. W. Ried, the writer made an extended 
and thorough examination of this rich and pro- 
ductive portion of our State last week. 

Arriving at Gridley at 6 o'clock p. m , a team 
was awaiting to convey the company to the 
Rio Bjnitc, three miles distant. The land In 
and about Gridley is very fertile, and baa 
gained fame as a productive wheat district. It 
is rolling tableland dotted with large oaks from 
Gridley to the Rio Bonito, lying along the west 
side of the Feather river. Daring this short 
ride there were two combined harvesters manu- 
factured by the Stockton Combined Harvester 
and Agricultural Worke, seen at work in fields 
of whent that were yielding a fair crop, as per 
our estimate equal to 12 sacks to the acre. 

The Rio Bjnito lands along the Feather 
river extend from one-half a mile to two miles 
wide, a distance of ten miles or more. For 
30 yuare it baa been devoted to raising grain 
principally, with small orchards and vineyards 
planted for family nee. Tne first and original 
settlers bad a full realization of the productive- 
ness of this land, of the exuberant growth of 
fruits, cereals and vegetables, and also of the fa- 
vorable climatic influences that made this local- 
ity so desirable as a place to live, and seemed 
contented in their Silurian existence. 

During the years 1S88 and 1889 a number of 
our sagacious and experienced fruit-growers 
had their attention called to this locality, and 
alter a full and careful investigation came to 
the conclusicn that this section was especially 
adapted for growing fruits of the best quality, 
and that the heavy precipitation of water and 
sheltered location would make this section one 
of the earliest in the State to ripen fruit and no 
need for Irrigttion. A succinct description of 
a few farms and colonies may enable onr readers 
to form a just conception of a locality and sec 
tion that will contain perhaps the largest body 
of continuous orchard and vineyard, in con- 
nection with citrus fruits, of any place on the 
Pacific Coast or in the world. 

The Farm of O. W. Reed, 
Of the well-known firm of R:ed & Vac Gslder, 
nurserymen, is located on the Rio Bonito, 
about one mile west of the Feather river, and 
contains 676 acrer, 450 acres of which is a ileep, 
black, sandy loam or river-bottom land and the 
bilance a reddish clayey soil and upland with 
a gradual slope toward the river. This whole 
tract, except 50 acres, has been planted this 
year to orchard and vineyard in proportion as 
follows: .3000 apricots, 11,500 peaches, 3500 
pears, 3000 almonds, 4000 French prunes, 1000 
plum ttoef, two acres of orange trees, rows of 
Adriatic fi^s, .S'2.000 rooted grape vines of the 
table varietier, a few palms and ornamental 
trees. The growth in young trees has been far 
beyond the usual advancement, and a large 
number of these budded yearling trees are now 
over five feet high, with large dark leaves and 
a most vigorous appearance. 

Tois tract was covered with great oak trees 
which have been dog oat except one lone gigan- 
tic sentinel standing at the head of the main 
avenue and a few giacti standing near the out 
buildiogs, one of which was measo<-ed two feet 
from the ground and found to ba 27 feet in cir- 
cumference. Tcree hundred acres of this or- 
chard was planted with canteloupes this season 
and active preparations were being made to 
ship the first carload to New York on the 15th 
of July. Four acres of alfalfa sowed in March 
had yielded 14 loads of hay and was now over 
30 inches in bight. A small patch of popcorn 
planted by Master Reed was well stocked with 
ears of corn and stalks eight feet high. The 
residence, out baildin((8 and piles of grain-raising 
machinery are forcible reminders of a con- 
demned system of agriculture for this section, 
while the disc harrows and implements for de- 
stroying foul vegetation are the chief factors in 
oontendiog with the weeds which grow in im- 
mense prop3rtion8 and prodigions height. Mr. 
Ried looks upon this locality as an especially 
lavored section for growing fruit and has an 
ambition to make this farm a model fruit or- 

The Hatch and Rock Orchards. 
The county road, wbich is to be widened, Is 
the dividing line between this farm and the 
great orchard belon(;ing to A. T. Hatch, ex 
president of the State Board of Trade, and 
John Rock, the veteran nurseryman and man- 
jkHet of the California Nursery Co. at Niles, 
Feather river is its eastern boundary, and it 
extends along the valley about two miles, con- 
taining 2200 acres of land, ISOO of which are la 
orchard, the largest nortiou being planted in 
1889. There are 40 acres of orange trees 
planted and the baUnoe divided in about equal 

proportions in almond, peach, French prune, 
pear and apple trees. The trees that were 
planted in 1889 have made a remarkable 
growth, some that we measured being over 
eight ftet high and a stretch across the top of 
over six feet. The trees that were planted this 
season in some portions of thio rich bottom 
land look like young saplings. Daring the last 
two months Mr. Rook has had from one to two 
men going through this orchard heading it 
back, as the growth was so rapid that the 
woody fiber would hardly sustain the weight 
and consequently the end of the limbs become 
bent and unsymmetrical. This orchard is ar- 
ranged in an artistic manner with palms and 
ornamental trees skirting the avennes, while 
the great oak trees along the bink of the 
Feather river make a contrast that is pictnr- 
etqne and attractive. We measured the stump 
of one of these giant oaks and found it to be 
over ten feet in diameter. 

The character of this soil is such that it can 
be worked dry or soon after a heavy fall of 
rain. It certainly shows thorough cultiva- 
tion, and these great enterprises from center to 
circumference have been commended as the re- 
sult of skilled hands, sagacious management 
and superior resources. 

Mr. Rock and Mr. Hatch are of the opinion 
that in soil, climate and rainfall, in a harmoni- 
ous combination and environments, this is one 
of the most favored localities for growing fruit 
in quality and commercial value on the Pacific 

W. B. StroDK Co.'a Orchards. 

Directly opposite, on the east side of the 
Feather the well-known "Oayett ranch," 
four miles west from Palermo, containing 677 
acres, which was purchased on the first day of 
February, 1890, by the W. R. Strong Co. of Sac- 
ramento. Mr. Robt. Williamson, the experi- 
enced nurseryman of this firm, is the present 
manager, and under whose direction it has been 
transformed from a grain-growing and stock 
ranch to what promises to be one of the great 
fruit orchards of California. In the character 
of land, it may be classed as follows, viz : 360 
acres of sediment bottom land lying alocg the 
Feather river; 140 acres of table or slightly 
elevated bottom land, and 177 acres of reddish 
clay and adobe soil. Work of reclamation was 
commenced on the 5th day of March, and, ow- 
ing to the heavy rains, the planting of trees 
was continued until the 12th day of May. 
A cooTjbination of circumitancer, of which 
an unexpired lease was one, there have 
been only 140 acres set in deciduous fruits and 
60 acres in table grapes. As showing the pro- 
lific character of the soil, one of the workmen 
was cultivating a fine patch of corn that had 
been planted after the lessee had cut a crop of 
hay, and adjacent thereto was a block nf pota- 
toes that yielded, so far as dug, over 100 sacks 
to the acre, Tne stupendous oaks that are 
standing are indisputable evidence of the qual 
ity of production of this lacality. It was mid- 
day when we measured the shadow of one of 
these giants and found its approximate breadth 
126 feet in diameter one way and 102 feet at 
right angles across. F.-om Mr. Williamson we 
learned that three raiLs above there were cherry 
and peach trees 38 years old, in a healthy con- 
dition, apricot trees 2h feet in diameter two 
feet from the ground and over 40 feet acroes 
the top of spreading branches. In the front 
yard of this farm, near the quaint dwelling, 
stand two large apricot trees from which ripe 
fruit was picked on the 12 ;h day of June this 

Other Improvements. 
The promise of these embryo orchards has 
stimulated investments and turned the atten- 
tion of capitalists to pnrohase land with a view 
to grow fruit for the Etstern market. Several 
dilapidated ranches have been bonded, acd it 
is currently reported that Mr. H. W. Meek of 
Alameda has purchased 1000 acres adjioentto 
the orchard of Messrs. Rock & Hatch. 


The citms and deciduous frnit trees in and 
about Palermo are in a very flDurishing condi- 
tion. The irrigation system has been enlarged, 
mains and ditches extended, and an abundance 
of water for all purposes secured. Additional 
storage dams have been built on the adjicent 
hillr, and a pressure obtained that makes it 
possible to throw water 150 feet high in the 
town of Pilerrao. We rode out among the or- 
ange groves and frnit orchards in the colony 
proper, and found by personal examination and 
learned from expert fruit growers that the 
orange trees had made an extraordinary 
growth and far beyond their expectations. This 
being a dry red soil, it was thought incapable 
of growing deciduous fruits without irrigation. 
In the immediate vicinity there are several 
peaoh, apricot and olive orchards two years old 
with large, fine, vigorous treer, some of which, 
by actual measurement, were over six feet 
high, and these trees have been raised without 
one drop of water by irrigation. The weather 
has been quite cool and pleasant in Palermo 
this season, caused no doubt by the snow on 
the mountains, which can be distinctly seen. 
The ithermometer marked 92 degrees in the 
shade on the day we visited Palermo. 

A fine Congregational church and one fine 
residence has just been completed, and it is ex- 
pected that Hearst k Taylor's $12,000 house 
would be fiai«hed by August 1st of this year. 
The Pacific Improvement Co. has set out orna- 
mental trees on a number of the main avenues 
(1 large proportion of which are the Texas um- 
tirella tree) presenting a very attractive ap- 
pearance. Preparations are being made by 

residents and property holders to plant largely 
in oitrus fruits the coming winter and spring. 
Thermal! to. 
This thriving and pioneer colony is situated 
on the north side of Feather river, on the first 
bench of foothills opposite Oroville. It was se- 
lected for its beauty of location, its fertility of 
soil and its especial adaptation for citrus cult- 
ure, as its name indicates it- being in the 
thermal belt at an elevation that avoids sev- 
eral degrees of frost in comparison with the 
climate of Oroville and the bottom lands along 
the Feather river. Of the 8000 acres set apart 
for colony purposes, 2000 acres have been sold 
in tracts from 2 to 20 acres, 1000 acres of 
which has been p. anted chiefly in orange trees. 
Twelve miles of avenues and streets bordered 
with palms and ornamental trees have been laid 
out and mostly graded. Water mains and open 
ditches have been placed and a full supply of 
waler from the Feather river and aqueducts is 
assured for 50 years. Tae Thermalito Colony 
Co. have granted a subsidy to the Batte Coun- 
>y Street Railway Company to secure a street 
railway through this colony from Oroville. 

The premiums secured by Thermalito fruit 
of the northern citrus fairs of the last two 
years show the adaptation of the locality to 
such growths, and It is established that 
the experimental stage has paised in growing 
citrus fruits in this section and the patient 
and persistent efi'urts of the promoters of this 
great enterprise will reap a rich reward. 

Colmena Colony. 
This thriving colony, a map of which with 
a full description was published in the 
RnKAL in 1888, is advanced in material pros 
pericy beyond the most sanguine expectation 
of the promoters. It is situated on the railroad, 
four miles below Marysville, and promises 
to become one of the favored citrus belts of 
this State. It has been demonstrated that 
the facilities for irrigation by raising water by 
pumping will not be a burdensome expense. 
Two pomps were in operation and the orange 
trees appeared to be in a very thriving and 
vigorous condition. We were informed by 
Mr. Abbott, one of the principal owners, that 
they expected a number of settlers from the 
Bist this season, who had purchased 20-aore 

San Bernardino County. 

IWiitteii tor the Pkiss by Jambs H. Crossuan.) 
San Birnardino is the banner county of our 
State in area, if not in population and taxable 
property. It has within its boundaries all the 
elements of prosperity in great abundance. Its 
mineral and agricultural resources are probably 
unsurpassed by any county in our State. The 
division line is boldly and distinctly defined by 
that mountain chain known as the Sin Ber- 
nardino racge. Tnat portion best adapted to 
agricultural pursuits lies to the south, which is 
not void of mineral wealth, but the mineral re- 
gion proper that forms the metallic domain of 
this county lies to the north of this mountain 
range. Toe northerly boundary of Ban Bir- 
oarrlino county is loyu county, with the Ssate 
of Nevada on the northeast, while the Colorado 
river which divides the Slate from the Terri- 
tory of Arizona, forms its K istern boundary 
It is bounded on the south by San Diego 
county, while Lis Angeles and Kern lie to the 
west. It contains within these boundary lines 
23,476 iquare miles. Much of the largest por 
tion of iiiis area lies north and east of the San 
Bernardino range, of which there are of mount- 
ains and agricultural lands 6000 equare miles, 
and of the so called " desert land" we find 17, 
476 square miles, a large portion of which is 
busceptible of cultivation, providing storage 
reservoirs, and artesian water can be obtained 

The Valley of San Bernardino, 
Upon which Dime N»ture has with such a lib- 
eral hand bestowed her bounteous gifts and 
blandest smiles. Is already noted far and wide 
for its fertility cf soil and picturesque land 
scape. It is situated directly east 01 the city 
of Los Aogeles and about 50 miles south of 
west from the nearest point to the Pacific sea 
board. The valley proper has a length east 
and nest of about 60 miles, with an average 
width of 15 miles. We find here a varied com- 
bination ot both soil and climate. It is here 
that the orange attains a greater degree of per 
fection than in any other locality on the Pacifio 
Coast, as can also be said of all the varieties of 
deciduous and oitrus fruits that are adapted to 
a semi-tropical clime. Clover, alfalfa, barley, 
wheat, oats, as well as every vegetable known 
to man, yield abundant crops of a superior 
quality. Walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, filbertr, 
peanuts and pecans are also products of this 
favored soil, while the raisins grown beneath 
the benificent rays of the semi-tropical sun 
have a national reputation. It is the home of 
the grape. The wine manufactured in this 
oounly is highly esteemed and commands a 
good price both at home and abroad. 

Cities and Towns. 
Outside of the city of San Barnardino are 
many beautiful and attractive suburban towns 
The most prominent are Redlands, Lugoola 
Riverside, Gladysta, Crafton. Banning, Men- 
cone, Highland, Harlem, Old Sm Bernardino, 
Sunny Slope, Colton, Etiwanda, Rialto, Uibita, 
Onaamooga, Baaumont, Oatario, Terracina, 
Mound City, Chino, Rmcon, South Riverside, 
E»«t Riverside and Hermosa. 
The climate in the valley is mild and eqaa> 

ble.l'the thermometer seldom reaching the 
freizing point. About 17 inches of rain is the 

Artesian Water 
Can be obtained in many places both north and 
south of the San Bjrnardino range in both des- 
est and valley. In the latter, 121 artesian wells 
alone furnish 13,000,000 gallons every 24 hours, 
while the combined annual fljwis several bil- 
lions. In San Bernardino and the adj )lning 
valley over 400 of these streams are unceitsingly 
contributing their qaota of living water pure 
and orystalline. Toe pipes are from 2 to 12 
inches in diameter; .300 wells are within the 
city limits. The principal source of supply to 
the Gage canal and irrigation system is drawn 
from this source. In addition to the supply 
from creeks and wells, reeeivoirs for the pur- 
pose of storiog water have been built in the 
monntains. The lake formed by the Bear Val- 
ley dam makes the largest storing reservoir in 
State for irrigation purposes. We have taken 
the liberty of publiahing th« following descrip- 
tion of this dam written by E Iscn D H >II for 
the San Bernardino B)ard ol Trade and pab> 
lished by that deserving Institution Illustrative 
of the resources of the county, at the same time 
acknowledging our obligations to Mr, J. C. 
Scott, secretary of that Institution, for infor- 
mation and favors extended. 

The Bear Valley Dam 
Is located at the outlet of the Bear Valley into 
Bear creek, which empties into the Santa Ana 
about five miles below, and is one of the most 
favorable locations that could have been select- 
ed. The valley is surrounded by mountains, 
and has no other outlet but this, which here ia 
very narrow with precipitous rocky sides. Into 
the solid rocks of this gorge the dam ia 
abutted, and is built on a cuivp, arching in- 
ward, forming the arc of a circle, with a di- 
ameter of 345 feet. Its dimensions are : On 
top, 300 feet from abutments, GO feet high from 
the bedrock of the creek in the highest point, 
and it conforms to the mountain slope on either 
side. Its base is 20 feet wide, and from this 
it slopes to three feet wide ut the top. Its 
average oo-etiioient of safety is 25, and it would 
stand twenty times its present pressure. The 
whole is built of vast granite blocks which 
were quarried near the margin of the lake and 
fliatedto the wall on scows, while a derrick 
built on a floating raft took them and placed 
them in position. The rocks were laid In Port- 
land cement and all the interstices were filled 
with bston. The oement had to be hauled in 
wagons from Colton by way of the Cajon Pass 
and Mc jave Desert, and thence down the valley 
to the dam, a distance of 100 miles. A four- 
horae team hauled eight barrels and It took ten 
days to make a round trip. Sixteen hundred 
barrels of cement were put Into the dam at a 
cost ol $13 per barrel, including the freightage. 

The engineer was F. E. Brown of R;dlands. 
The State Eagineer of California has pronounced 
the work not only efiBoient but a remarkable 
piece of engineering. 

The lake formed by the dam extends baok 
into Bear valley over five miles, with an aver- 
age width of nearly a mile, and a depth of 12 
feet, and contains the enormous amount of 
S. 000,000, 000 gallons. To supply this the val- 
ley furnishes over 60 square miles of drainage 
area, on which falls three times the amount of 
water which the lower valleys receive. The 
dam stands 6400 feet above sea level. The 
quantity of water held in reserve now Is suffi- 
cient to irrigate .50,000 acrea of land, and to 
snpply a population of 500,000 with water for 
domestic purposes. Much water still goes to 
waste In Bear valley and elsewhere In the 
mountains. The capacity of this reservoir will 
be enlarged. 0;her dams will be built. No- 
where eUe in Southern California does so much 
rain and snow fall as on the San Bernardino 
mountains. The unfailing creek and rivers, 
the large numper of flowing artesian wells, and 
the limitless supply of water In the lofty 
mountain valleys, which may be had for the 
expense of storage reservoirs, unite to make 
San Bernardino the best watered county In 
Southern California, we might almost say in 
the State, 

The waters from B:ar valley and other sup- 
plies in the monntains find their way by nat- 
ural channels to the plains. At the mouth of 
the canyons, stone-lined ditches, flumes, and 
cement pipes convey the supply to the culti- 
vated tracts. The best method of irrigating la 
to have a distributing reservoir into which the 
stream can run continuously, and be drawn 
upon as needed. Fruit lands need Irrigating 
only about once in four to six weeks. After 
the ground is thoroughly soaked, two or three 
days are allowed to elapse before It is gone 
over with a horse cultivator. The surface of 
the ground is thus prevented from baking, and 
the moisture is retained for several weeks. 

Transportation Facilities. 

Two transcontinental railroads pass through 
the county, which, with the advent of the ex- 
tension of the Utah Southern (now in proceM 
of construction at least as far as Pioche In Ne- 
vada) through the heart of the desert mineral 
region to some point on the Atlantic & Pacific 
R. R. or to tide water, would make three roads. 
These, with the Cslifornia Central and the Stn 
Bernardino Valley R. R. now'building, will 
make San Bernardino a railroad center of great 
importance. At date, San Bernardino Is also 
the banner railroad county of the State, at 
least so far as mileage and oonnty assessments 
are concerned. There are 417 miles of stand- 
ard-gauge road and 321 miles of motor and 
Darrow>gange, with 21 mllea of electrio roadi 

July 12, 1890 ] 



within its boundaries. These several companies 
pay aaseaamenta on $4,991,250, the value of the 
available railroad property in the State being 

Tcough the metallic 'lomain proper lies to 
the north of the San B3rDardino range, its 
valley region is not devoid of mineral wealth. 
Tae ores of tin of great value and immense 
quantity occur in the Temescal range of mount- 
ains, on the San Jacinto ranch; there are alao 
mineral paint, gypsum, bituminous rock and 
coal measures. There has also been found a stone 
suitable for macadamizing streets. The manu- 
facture of tiles and brick from a superior 
quality of fire-clay Is an important and a grow- 
ing industry. 

For the following statistical data I am also 
indebted to I. C. Scott, E q., Secretary of the 
Board of Trade of San Bjruardin3, and to Mr. 

The tax levy for the year 1890 is $1 50 on 
the ^100. The county ia free from debt. 

Aureage under cultivation for the year 1889, 
(i4,410. The principal producta were as follows: 


810,000 boxes oranges $744 000 

4 !60 boxes lemons and limes 17,000 

325,000 boxes raisiDs 546,2.'i0 

S.IO tons dried fruit 143,000 

40,000 ca'-es canned giiods 18 ',000 

90,000 lbs. English walnuts and. almonds .. .. 6,7.'iO 

345,000 lbs. comb and extracted honey 23,800 

240,000 gallons wines and brandy 02,000 

2?.'i,000 centals barley 146, /50 

Whtat, oats, hay, and other products 100,000 

Total $1,949. 0.SO 

Minerals 1,360,000 

Oraod total $3,299,050 

Mr, Soott also states in his report to the 
Biard of Trade for the fijcal year ending D-- 
cember, 1889, that the earuinea of the county 
will average more than $100 to each mac, 
woman and child in the county. 

The above statistlcp, which can be relied 
upon as correct, show that San Bernardino 
county, taken from a financial standpoint, is 
now the leading county of the southern portion 
of the State. If she can do this with her pau- 
city of inhabitants and undeveloped resources, 
what can she do with her plana for irrigation 
worka completed, unimproved lands under cul- 
tivation and her desert regions pouring forth 
their treasures of mineral and metallic wealth. 

sterdam, Delft, Baasum, The Hague, Nymegau, 
Araham, Oasterbock and Gouda. 

Irrespectiva of the business merit or lack of 
it in this company's soheme there is no question 
whatever that these Dutch emigrants to Mer- 
ced county, Cilifornia, are physically, materi- 
ally, mentally and morally a atrikingly superior 

Growing out of the movement above re- 
ported and related to it is to be noted also the 
recent organization of the Holland-California 
Trading Company, which now has a depot in 
this city exclusively for the sale in Holland of 
California fruit and wines. 


Desirable New-Comers to Mtrced 
. County. 

Washington, July 7. — United States Consul 
Walter E Gardner at Rotterdam, sends the 
following interesting report to the State Da- 
partment on emigration to this Government. 
It ia important in itself and aignifijant aa indi- 
cating the kind of people California will receive 
from Holland: 

To-day there aailtd from thia port by the 
Netherlands Co.'s steamship Spaarndam a col- 
ony of 65 Hollanders who are to make for 
themselves new homes in California. These 
have been preceded by a smaller colony which 
sailed from Rotterdam in autumn last year. 
They will be followed by another colony, al- 
ready partly made up, to sail in S pteniber 
next, and doubtless, also, by other future 
colonists. Qjite unlike most emigranta from 
Continental porta to America, theae people are 
oomparatively wealthy. They sail for New 
York aa first-claia cabin paasengers. Tney 
travel westward from New York by specially 
chartered Pullman cars. Each adult mile and 
each of several adult females in the colony leav- 
ing to day has already made cash investments 
ranging from $3000 (the lowest) to $10,000 (the 
highest), in parcial payment for lands, houses, 
barns, furniture, agriculture implements, 
horses and cattle, of which the buyers will as- 
sume immediate ownership upon arrival at 
their destioation. Among the variouo house- 
hold effects certified through thia offise are 
pianos, libraries, paintinge, silver'^are and 
other certain evidences of moderate wealth. 

The movement haa ita origin with the Hol- 
land-California Lind Company, incorporated 
under the laws of the State of California, In 
eluded in the official B.)ard of the company are 
some of the strong business men of Rotterdam, 
while its Vioe^ President and California Manag- 
ing Director ia W. A. Nygh of Sin Francisco. 
The company ia the owner of an abundantly 
irrigated area of land in Merced county, Cil., 
which ia divided into 20-acre tracts. Many are 
already under cultivation, the producta being 
alfalfa, grape vinea and fruit orchards. These 
cultivated lands are eold to the Datch immi- 
granta at $175 per acre and prior to arrival of 
new ownerp, each equipped, aa above indicated 
and according to the plans previoualy agreed 
upon, with all the paraphernalia of a complete 
pioaperoua country home. The city and center 
of thia New Holland of the Naw World la to be 
called " Rotterdam," and among other charac- 
teriatio features is a representative Dutch 

Teachers are employed by the company to 
inetrnot the colonists in such modifications of 
Holland agricultural methods as climate and 
other conditions in California render necessary, 
and a company hotel has been or is about to 
be opened for young men colonists without fam- 

The enterprise thus briefly outlined has at- 
tained among the ultra-conservative Dutch, 
considerable and widespread popularity. For 
example, the Netherlands cities and villages 
oontribnting memb«<-8 to the colony sailing to- 
day are Rotterdam, Dordrecht, Giesendam, Am* 

Another Source of Danger to Califor- 
nia Fruit-Growers. 

Editors Press: — I procured from Sresovich & 
Co., 505 and 507 Saoaome St.,1.3 barrels of Tahiti 
rotten oianges for seed, and on opening the bar- 
rels I found the fruit bad been very badly in- 
fected with the purple scale, Mytilaspit Citri 
cola. Is this not a danger which shonld be 
controlled or prohibited by the fruit-growers of 
this State ? Are we to be ruled and ruined by 
the aelfiah gretd of a few importers of fruit and 
fruit trees and stand by and take the disease 
without being able to administer a dose of 
medicine to alleviate our sufferings ? 

The Horticultural Commissioners of Los 
Angeles Co. have endeavored to prohibit the 
importation of Florida trees infected with pur- 
ple and other scale peats, but claim tbey are 
powerleas in the matter aa by doing so tbey 
conflict with the Inter state Commerce law. 
That being the case, why not the fruit-growers 
combine and have a plank embodied in the 
platforms of the political parties that the mem- 
bers of Congress from this State shall use every 
means in their power to have that law repealed, 
or a clause inserted, giving the citizens of each 
State, through the proper officers the right to 
protect themselves against the importation of 
contagious diseases ? Those rotten oranges for 
seed have been sent to different localities and 
no doubt the marketable fruit haa been sent 
all over the Pacific Coast, which in my opinion 
is cause for alarm. True, the climate and local- 
ity may not be suitable for the reproduction of 
the pests in all cases, but I find where the citrus 
family of trets does well, the insect pesta infest- 
ing that class of trees will alao do well; conse- 
quently, I think some steps ought to be taken 
to prevent this wholesale importation of injuri- 
ous pests, and not wait until the whole iruit 
industry is paralyzed. John Borr, 

Hort, Inspector for Sin Fdrnanto,, Los 
Angeles Co. 

Progress in Los Angeles County. 

The Los Angeles County Board of Horticult- 
ural Commiaaioners recently presented the fol- 
lowing report to the Board of gaperviaors: 

In the matter of imported orange atock from 
Florida, Mr. Mitchell, by inatruction of thia 
conimisaion, haa given hia peraonal attention to 
every detail and enforced a strict quarantine 
against every car received, the conteucs in each 
instance being found infected with inaect pesta. 
The quarantine was only raiaed after the trees 
were thoroughly disinfected, remained Intact 
for two weeks, again inspected, and found fre% 
from insect peata. 

With the exception of one car, now -presnm- 
ablv en route, there will be no further receipta 
of Florida atock until next fall. 

With your kind approval, we r( quested Prof. 
Ccquillettf, United States ento nologiat, to 
make a special inspection of Florida trees that 
had been planted out one and two years in Po- 
mona, Riverside and other localities, and re- 
port to us, if, in his opinion, Florida insect 
pesta will flonrish in thia climate. 

As the result of hia observations and inter- 
views with other parties. Prof. Coquillette gives 
it aa hia candid opinion that were any of the 
Florida ecalea to be introduced into a large, 
growing orange tree where they would be in a 
great meaaure protected from the direct raya of 
the auD, that they would then continue to live 
and multiply in any portion of Southern Cali- 
fornia where orange trees can be succeaafully 
groK'n, an opinion concurred in by D.-. Claflin 
of Riveraide, who apent aeveral months in 
Florida laat winter investigating the scale in- 
aecta there. 

It is the sense of this commiaaion that the 
inaeota being introduced into the county on 
Florida treea are dangerous and injurious to 
the fruit interests of the county, and we feel 
justified in the vigorous meaaurea we have 
taken to prevent the spread of the peata; and 
we deem it of the utmost importance that in 
the future the greatest care should be ex- 
ercised to prevent the introduction of the pests 
into the county. 

. We take great pleasure in rendering to you a 
report of our peraonal inspection of the or- 
ange orchards in Alhambra, Sin Gibriel, 
Lamanda Park and Duarte during the past 
month. The condition of the orchards in these 
localities, and all others in the San Gabriel val- 
ley during the last three or four years, has 
been lamentable and alarming on account of 
the presence of the red scale insect, 
Aa the result of our inspection, we oan lepor': 

that throughout this valley the red scale has 
become almost annihilated, probably 95 per 
cent being destroyed by some agency the origin 
of which cannot as yet be determined. As the 
result of this blessing, orange-growing has 
taken a new impetus, and the growers are in a 
happy and hopeful mood. 

We found the larvte of the twice-stabbed 
lady-bird and the lace-wing fly in vast num- 
bers — greater than ever before. 

Both of theae paraaitea are known to prey 
upon the red scale, although not confining 
themselves entirely to this means of sustenance; 
still, appearing in such numbers, we naturally 
conclude that they have very materially aided 
In reducing the red scale inaect. 

The montha of July and Augnat will deter- 
mine aa to the permanency of the disappear- 
ance of this pest, and until such time, on ac- 
count of the dacger of destroying existing par- 
asites of the white and red scale, this commis- 
sion deems it their dutv not to order spraying 
of orchards in the San Gibriel valley. 

Outside this district there are localities 
where disinfection can be pursued by the fruit- 
grower without detriment, aa parasites of the 
prevailing pests are not present in sufficient 
numbers as yet to accomplish desirable results. 

We, however, feel that grave mistakes have 
been made in spraying, and advise in all cases 
where it is possible that the gas treatment of 
infected treea ba used. Thia treatment, when 
intelligently applied, will bring the beat re- 
sults with leaa expenae to the orchardiat. 

We alao desire to report that the vedalia car- 
dinalis ia preaent in auffioient numbera in the 
county to quiet all fears as to the reappearance 
of the whice scale in quantities injurious to 
fruit trees. 

The number of inapectora has been reduced 
to four, each one of whom at present is doing 
necessary and effective work. We have in con- 
templation a still further reduction of thia 
force, with a view of giving more of our per- 
sonal attention to inspections, that we may act 
more Intelligently and promptly. Rispect- 
fully submitted, 

A. F. Kercheval, Presidenf, 
Geokoe J. Mitchell, 
F. Edward Gray. 
C unty Horticultural Commission, 

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Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction Hricu 
$1.50 per bottle. Sold by all rtruggi-ts, or sent by 
express, charges paid, with lull directions tor its use. 
Send for deeciiptive ci oulare. Address LAWttENCK, 
WlL,L,lAniS & CO.. Cleveland, 4>. 

California lnventors»fHrH 

AND FoKEiiiN Patent Solu'T roRs. for obtaiuiug Patents 
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■larklor, II Float Ht 

A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Vinegar and 
Acetiitep, 1 ider and Fruit- Wines; Preservation of Fruits 
and Vegetables by Canning and Evapora'iori; Prepaiation of 
Fruit Butters, Jellies. Ma malade?, Catchups, Pickles, Mus- 
tards, etc. Edited from Varioua sources >iy W m. T. Krauut, 
one of the Edi'ors of "The Techno Chemical UeC;ipt Book " 
JUns rated by 79 engravings. In one volume, 8vo, 4-^9 pag-s. 

Price '^'j.VU, by m%U,Jree of postage to any address in 
the world. 

CONTENTS. -P.\RT I. The Manufacture of Vinegar. 
Chapter I. Introduction. II. Theory of the Formation of 
Viuega-. III. The Vinegar Ferment aLd its O niitions of 
Life. IV. Products of Acetous Fermentation. V. Methods 
of Fabr cation of Vinegar. VI. Quicif Process of Fabrica- 
tion of Vinegar. VII. Arrang>-roent of a Vinegar Factoiy. 
VIII. Attificial Ven'ilation of the Vinegar Geneiators. IX. 
Automatic Viu*^gar Apa'atu.s. X. Ojie atfous in a Vinegdr 
Factoiy. XI. Prepaiation of the Alcoholic Liipiifl . XII. 
Ex cuiiou of the Work in a Viuegar Factory. XIII. Dis- 
turbing Influences in the Fabrication of Vinegar. XIV. 
Meth"d of the Fal)ricat.ion of Vinegar in Apparatus of 
8p cial Constnict on. XV. F rther T.eatment of Freshly 
Prej.ared Vinegar. XVI. Preparation of Vinegar from 
Various .Materials. XVII. Freparatio i of Vinegar Special- 
ties. XVIII. Fabrication of Wine Vinegar. XIX. Obem- 
iial Examination of the Raw Materials and Control of the 
< tperation in a Vinegar Factory. XX, Examination of 
Vinegar as to the Presence of F'-treign Acids and of Metals, 
well as to its DeriVdtioo. XXI. Maniifaaure of Wood 
Vinegar. XXII. Prep iration of Cure Concentrated Acetic 
Acid. XXIII. Ace'ates and their Manulacture. 

Part II. Ma ufactuie of Ciders, Fruit Wines, etc. 
Chapter XXIV. Introduction. XXV. Fruits and their 
Cjmpoaitiou. XXVI. Practice of tee Preparation of Cider 
and Fniit-Wines. XXVII Cider from Apples and Pears. 
X XVllI. Fruit-Wines; a, from Small Fruits; b. fiom Stone 

Part III. Canning and Evaporating of Fruit, Manufact- 
ure of, Fruit-Butters, Marmalades, Jellies, Pickles, 
and Mustards. Chapter XXIX. Prfservatioo of Frui'.; 
XXX. Evaporation of Fruit. XXXI. Preparation of 
I'ickies and Mu tards. Appendix of XVI Tables. Index. 

X&.A" illustrated circular. 6 pages, ^to, giving 
the full Tattle of Contents of this volume, will be sent 
free oj postage to any one in any part of the world 
wlio will apply by letter. 

55^ Our new and Revised Descriptive Catalogue 
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gar, Starch, etc., as well as a circular showing the 
full table of Contents of " The Techno Chemical Re- 
ceipt Book,'" sent free of postage to any one in any 
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f ACIFie f^URAlo f RESS, 

[Jdly 12, 1890 

Condensed Statement on Hog-Raising. 

Thos. Convey, in a WisoonBin Firmers' 
Institute, made the following instructive talk : 

Give the pig a good start. Few feeders rec- 
ognize the necessity of giving the young pig a 
good start. If through want of proper judg- 
ment, or want of care in cbangini; it from the 
milk of the sow to other food, liquid or solid, 
it suffers from impaired digestion or defective 
nutrition, It may get a setback from which it 
will never fully recover. 

Food of Support and Production — The prin- 
cipal part of our hog crop is marketed when 
they are about IS months old. The average 
weight at that age could be easily attained by 
a pig nine months old, the amount of food con- 
sumed by the former being nearly twice as 
Riuoh as that eaten by the latter, the younger 
pig receiving more during the early and the 
older requirmg more during the latter part of 
its existence. A certain amount of food is re- 
qaired to keep an animal in its present condi- 
tion. This is termed the food of support. All 
food given in excess of the food of support is 
termed the food of production, and in feeding 
should go to increase the weight. The food of 
sopport constitutes about seven-tenths of a full 
ration, but the food of support for a restless, 
irritable hog may very nearly approach the food 
of production for a well-fed hog, the cravings 
of the appetite of the former causing him to 
take a needless amount of exercise, and all 
muscular exercise is at the expense of food. 
The poor hog also becomes the prey of internal 
parasites. When placed upon full feed, as he 
must be to prepare him for market, he over- 
eats, there is over distention of the stomach, 
causing comparative inaction of that organ, 
and he can only digest and assimilate a portion 
of the food he consumes. 

Pjints in Favor of Eirly Maturity. — The 
younger bog is converted into a more edible 
product, commands a better price, is generally 
ready for a better market, gives qnicker re- 
turns and requires less attendance. He can be 
fed when on pasture, the droppings are not 
wasted, and food is not expended in keeping up 
animal heat during the entire winter months. 

About the only argument that can be made 
in favor of keeping the older hog is because onr 
daddies did it. Profitable hog feeders for mar- 
ket is not possible after the first year. You 
not only have to provide for additional growth, 
but also for organic waste in the growth, al- 
ready secured, as mutability is one of the in- 
exorable laws of nature. This waste is presum- 
ably greater in a large animal than in a small 

Feeding to Produce Gain. — Repeated experi- 
ments have demonstrated beyond a doubt that 
the most profitable feeding is during the early 
period of an animal's existence. This is espe- 
cially trne of the hog. The modern hog, with 
liberal feeding, will reach maturity in about 
two years. 

Prof. Sanborn of Missouri, in more than 100 
feeding tests, determined that to maka a cer- 
tain amount of gain, piga weighing 2'20 pounds 
F' quired 18 per cent more food, pigs weighing 
27U pounds required 78 percent more food than 
pigs weighing 70 pounds. 

Prof. Hunt of Illinois determined, by actual 
experiment, " that the gain for the amoant of 
food oonsum°d decreased during fattening; also, 
that an insufficient food supply for two weeks 
oaased a considerable loss in feeding there- 

Feed Young Animals: Chemistry Informs 
us that the younger animal utilizes more of the 
elements contained in the food than the older 
animal does. 

Prof. Henry says of feeding cattle: " Yon 
cannot be too careful about putting your feed 
and money into young cattle and avoiding old 
ones." This is more applicable to bogs than 
cattle, as the hog reaches maturity in about 
onO'half the time cattle do. 

Pciss and Oits — Peas and oata sown together 
are a very valuable crop. They can be sown at 
the rate of one bushel of peas and one and one- 
balf bushels of oats per acre. This crop c«n be 
cut with the binder and thrashed as readily as 
oats alone. Care should be taken not to sow 
on gronnd where oats lodge. They should be 
sown early. I raised last year tO bushtln per 
aore, weighing 44 pounds per baehel. When 
ground, they are a good sabstitnte for bran and 
shorts, but may be fed whole to hogs. The 
object of Improved agriculture is to obtain the 
largest amount of nutritious and life-snetuning 
snbatanoes from the smallest possible space. 
Tois, to a considerable extent, Is secured by 
retaining and increasing the fertility of the 
■oil, and by skillful feeding; but the customary 
way of hog feeding is as great a robber of fer- 
tility as the muoh condemned wheat raising. 
Grain and milk are largely fed to hogs in pens, 
without regard to saving manure, for ic is 
leached out and washed away, and only a small 
portion of the least valuable part returned to 
the soil. Added to this is the loss occasioned 
by wanhing away of the surface soil in corn. A 
good clover pistnre will produce more grovrth 
than three bueheli when corn is fed exclusively. 
A 1 foods consist of certain elements. All farm 
aoi nail consist of about the same combination 
of food elements. The right combination of nu- 
triments to promote the most snccesef ul growth 
of an animal is not found in a single article of 
food. The dlff<!rent articles of 'nod are gener- 
ally divided into two olasies: First — Proteine 

foods, also termed flssh-formeri. 8?cond — 
Carbohydrates, also termed fat-formers. 
Clover, oats, peas, beans, bran, short?, skim 
milk and buttermilk belong to the firtt class, 
as they are rich in bone and muscle forming 
elements. Corn, barley, whey, roots and 
acorns belong to the second class as they are 
rich In heat »nd fat-producing elements. 

What and }I3W to Feed. — Corn should never 
be fed as an (xclnsive ration except at the 
close of the fattening period, and then only for 
a limited time. Whey should always be ft d 
sweet, as the small amount of solids it contains 
consists mainly of sngar of milk. In souring 
the milk sngar is converted into an acid, and 
has little or no value as a food. Whey should 
always be supplemented by a nitrogenous food. 
It should be fed aa fresh as possible, and can be 
very pri li ably fed with corn. Skim-milk 
should always be fed sweet. Sonr feed of any 
kind is of questinnabln value; a slight degree of 
acidity may not bs icjarious in soma kinds of 
food, but this does not apply to feeding skim- 
m'lk and whey. 

(!ive a Proteine Rition. — Pigs usually re- 
ceive a ration too rich in carbohydrates and de- 
ficient in proteine. The necessity of giving a 
nitrogenous or proteine food cannot be over- 
estimated, especially to young pigr, as they re- 
quire twice as much nitrogen as old hogs; 
teeding proteine foods alone, as they are con- 
stipating and, except clover, costly. An ex- 
periment has demonstrated that one bushel of 
corn will make as much pork as three bushels 
of oats; yet good oats are an excellent hog 
food, being rich in nitrogen and the ash that is 
necessary for the formation of bone. 

Give a Bklanced Rition. — The advantages of 
giving a properly balnnoed ration, snited to the 
age ot the p<g, are: You seoare greater growth 
with a given amount of food, and you obtain 
also a better quality of meat. There is a more 
perfect growth of bone, and greater auscular 
development, both being promoted by a mod- 
erate amount of exercise. A high degree of 
muscularity indicates a condition of the system 
the least liable to disease, also the most perfect 
condition for breeding animals. Prof. Henry 
Rays that pigs should not be contined to close 
quarters for more than 60 days. This is cer- 
tainly long enough. 

Cooking food: While I am satirfied that the 
tests carried on by onr experiment station 
prove that giving hogs cooked food exclusively 
does not pay, yet I believe for fall feeding, 
where hogs are taken off the pasture, it is very 
advantageous to feed once a day on cooked 
food. For this purpose roots, cooked abont the 
same as for table use, should be mixed with 
ground oats, rye or other nitrogenous food. 
Sugar beets are very valuable for fall feeding, 
but turnips, raw or cooked, are better for win- 
ter feeding as they are better keepers. 

The Right Kind of Food: Another essential 
of successful hog-breeding is to give the right 
kind of food. All the substances that enter 
into the m>ke up of an animal are derived from 
its food. N3 single article of food is capable 
of supporting a healthy hog, except for a limit- 
ed period. Grass, especially clover, is one of 
the best of hog foodr, but it is too bulky for 
the stomach of a hog to produce the best results. 
It should always be supplemented with grain. 
One bushel of corn fed to a hrg when it has ac- 
cess to fields where the land is rolling, this be- 
ing augmented by observing a suitable ro- 
tation with grass. 

Oakland Classical and Military 

Col. W. H. O'Brien, long favorably known in 
Oakland educational circles, has opened a school 
under the above name, ihe object of which is the 
moral, mental, and physical training of boys and 
youths, receiving them as boarders and members of 
the family, and carrying them through systematic 
courses of study, preptratory for business, social 
life, or the universiiy. .Special attention is given to 
physical culture, and to such discipline as will de- 
velop " a sound mind in a sound body." 

The academy is located at 1020 Oik St., between 
Tenth and Twelllh Sts. The grounds are extensive, 
embracmg nearly five acres within 100 yards of 
Lake Merrill, and shade trees are plentiful. 

The buildings are especially adapted to school 
work. The main house is of brick, with all modern 
conveniences. The study halls and recitation rooms 
.ire large, well lighted, and well ventilated. The 
bedrooms are large and well furnished. The school- 
rooms and sleeping apartments are heated with 
steam. There are also two large buildings, 50x80, 
two stories high, which may be used for a gymna- 
sium, drill hall, etc. 

The local trains, broad guage, pass every half 
hour within three blocks of the Tenth St. entrance. 
The narrow gauge terminus is within a third of a 
mile of the prounHs, and the horse-cars to East 
Oakland and Fruit \'ale pass within a block of the 

For terms, tuition, board, etc., address W. H. 
O'Brien, loao Oak street, Oakland, Gal. Fall term 
begins July i6, 1890. 

" The Irma " is a home school for girls, 
founded at Vail- jo two and a half years ago by 
Hsv. and Mrs. John M. Chase. It is named 
for their eldest daughter, who took a lively in- 
terest in the project, but suddenly died before 
the school wa? opened. The aim is '• to nssiet 
in the development of the best types of h ime 
and school life and to prepare the pnpils for 
lifelong usefulness." The "numbnr of boarders 
is nece sarily limited to 20. From a visit to 
the fine bnildirg, which stands in handsome 
grounds on a commanding hi'l, and a oomewbat 
intimate acquaintance with Mr. Chase, the 
principal, we feel justified in recommending 
the "Irma" very highly. 

Our Agents, 

Our Friinds can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge aud solence, oy assisting 
Agents In tbeir labors ot canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
out worthy men. 

J. C. HOAO — San Francisco. 

R. 0. BAibBT— San Francisco. 

Sami'kl Cliff -San Luis Obispo Co. 

C. J. W»DK--San Burnardiiio Co. 

W. W. TiiKOBALDs -Santn Barbara and Kern Cos. 

E. B. TAFr— Central Calif 'rnia. 

John B. Hill— San Uicgo Co. 

E. H. ScuAKKFLii — Calaveras Co. 

Frank S. Chapin— Solano and Lake Cos. 

W. B Frost -Alame<la and Cont a Costa Cos. 

J O. U. LAMi'ADiua— Sinta Cruz Co. 

Oli>. WIL8OM— Sacramento Co 

II Kkllrv — viodoc and Lassen Cos. 

Wm. M. IIlLLSART -Oregon 

H. U. PARiWNrt— Nuitliern California. 
.John Simpson — Or< gon. 
Wm. Holdkr -Oregon. 

To Subscribers and Readers. 

A Handy Paper Binder 
— A. T. Dewey's patent 
elastic binder, for periodi- 
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very cheapest of all econom- 
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Send 3c stamp for Catalogue 0! 


Including list of SF.CI i.VI>.HANU GUNS and other 
articles that have accumulated. 

GEO. W. SHS£7E, 
5SA Kearny Street. San Francisoo. Gal. 



Before Buylns a Sewing Machine. 
It Is the lead In practical progress. Send for price list 
W. BVANS. 39 Post St.. S. F. 

Always Take a Receipt 

Subscribers to this paper a'e earnestly requested to 
take a receipt for every payment made on subjcription, 
no matter how sniill the amount or to wh)m paid. We 
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agents or others. For our mutual interests lake a re- 
ceipt, whether you preserve it or not. 

Bi'uo'ES AND BucKBOARDS. — k Complete asiortment of 
veh cics in every grade and styls. For circulars write 
Frank Brothers. San Francisco. 

InjnriouB Inaecti of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Garden, Conservatory, etc., 


Remedies for their Extermination. 


Late Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of Calitomia. 
IlluBtrated with over 750wood-cutB and 26 pages of claael- 
fled illustrations. This book is designed for the use of 
orchardista, vineyardists, farmers and. others interested 
in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species of in- 
sects injurious to the inaustries of cultivators of the 
soil, and those interested in earth produce generali/. 
Price $4, postpaid. For sale by Diwbt ft Co.. publish 
ers. 320 Market St.. San Francisco. 


' 1 1« Pout Strati 

It is a fact universally con- 
re'led that the Knabi sur 

passes all r)lher instruments 







Best and Strongest Eiplosiyes in the World. I 


The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

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Railroaders and Farmers use no other, 

Aa other makers IMITATE oar Oiant Powder, so do they Jndson, by ManaftictarInK 
a second-grade, inferior to Jndson. 

BANDMANN. NIELSEN & CO. General Agents, San Francitco. 





Warehouse, Nos. 122 to 128 Michigan St., Nos. 4.^ to 53 La Salie Arenne. 

Commissions one cent per pnuml, which iuclude.s all charges after wool is received in store until 
■.old. Sacks furnished free to sliippcrs. Cash advances arranged for wheu desired. Write for cirou- 
T><»r1 nn iTnntl v by mail c.r tclreraph wh."n desired. 

July 12, 1890.] 





Carriages, Buggies, Carts 

THE." HUB . Ki~ 



^a1S!?^ble PEACH, "It Eniis LiiMer Tlian a Sewing Macliine." 


A YouDg L^dy at the Treadles. 

Patented June 10, IS'JO. 
" For thorough, speedy work your large No. 4 


Which is a Sample of th c Mauy we are Receiving: 

" Vac^villk, Cal.. June 26, 1890. 
Assorter cannot be excelled; an"t ihe ia<ly at <he 
treadle says that ' it if f-ir lignter runuing than any tewing machine.' A gentleman in the vaUey ha.s 
one and is as well pleated as I. We believe that no fruit grower can affjrd to be without one. My machine 
will grade perfectly at the rate of 00,000 Ibj. per day. Wishing you the success that you deserve, I am. very 
respectlully, [Signed] W. J. DOBBINS." 

Colton Packing Co., Colton; R. E. Collins, San Jose; Sacramento Packing and Drying Co., Sacramento 
N. P. nhipm n, Rtd Bluff; Southern California Packing to . Los Angeles; A. D. Williams, Santa Paula; San 
JoFB Fruit Packing Co., San Jose; G. W. Hinclay, Winters; Van Allen Packing Co., Healdsburg; R. W. Wing 
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John Bidwell. Chico: Marysville Canning Co.. Marvsville; Smart & Collins, Santa Ana; Capitol Packing Co. 
Sacramento; Page & Morton, Tulare; J. W. Gates, Vacaville; (iilroy Fruit Packing Co., Gilroy; Los Gatos 
Canning Co., Los Gatos; A. Lusk it Co., San Francisco; Santa Rosa Packing Co., Santa Itosa, Cal. 

G. G. WICKSON & CO., General Agents, 

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Can be Easily Operated. Is Fireproof and Durable. 


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\-nx chronic cases, in cornection with the 0. C. LINIMENT, use " COMPOUND SULPHUR 
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COMPOUND SULPHUR POWDER is «1 per bottle, 6 for «5. Small bottles, 25c. 



DEWEY as CO. {^%5?vifo^.YaVri.&'' } PATENT AQENT8. 



12 Bush St.. Junction of Market, - San Francisco, Cal. 




[July 12, 1890 



ComliiDEd Screw aiid 

Toggle Ltver 


— AND — 


The press Is sat -I . t irv in every way »Dd every one 
who has seen It work thinks it ahead of any press yet in 
use.— KATE F. WARFIELD, Glen F.llen, Sonoma county. 

It works moat admirably.— J. H. DRUMMOND, Glen 

The vintage is over; have used your press, to press 
about 800 tons of (trapes, with entire sati- faction. It 
works well and Is easy to operate.— I. Di TuRK, Santa 
Rosa. . 

The wine press was uspd durini; the vintage and gives 
eatisfactlOD.- OEO WEST, El Vlao Vineyard, Stockton. 

The wine press has accomplished »I1 you cUiined lor it 
and, in fact, more — R. J. NORTUAM, President Golden 
Belt Wine Co., Anaheim. 

I find it so fntir.-lv satisfactory that I take pleasure in 
cnmmeoding it to the public —KLI T. SHEPPARK, Glen 

A child can move it from one end of the winery to the 
nther. Has given ine perfect satisfaction.— J. B. 
J. PORTAL, San Jose, Cal. 

Although I have at present only ten acres of vines, 
would not part with the press at any price. —WILLIAM 
PFEFf ER, Gubserville, Cal. 

Is the (luickest, most powerful and easiest to handle of 
anv wine press I ever saw, and undotib'.eiUy the best 
press in the m.irket.— JOSEPH WALKER, Windsor, Cal. 

We regard the wine press as superior to any other 
press we know of; in point of sini|jli';ity, eltinency and 
1 conomv of labor, in our opinion it has no eijual.— P. & 
J. J OOBRI, Healdsburg. 

I am very well satiefied with the toggle lever and screw- 
wine prcs'. It has worked well du'ing the season. — WM. 
ALLEN, Mountain View Wine Co., San Gabiiel, Los 
Angeles Co., Cal. 

The Wine Press gives satisfaction; it works well and is 
easy to operate.— W. METZ9ER, Santa Rcs^i. 

Have much pleasure in stating that the press has given 
every satia'action. - J. LAWRENCE WATs(,)N, Glen 
Ellen, Sonciiin county. 

Petalum% Foundry and Machine Works, P. O. Box 
Pet«ium», PODoma County. <'al. 



J. M. WELSH, President. 

M. D. BAiiKK, Secretary. 


Fire Insurance Company 




Head Office, STOCKTON, OAL. 

Something new. The Smith PateDt Improved 
Combiued Kitcht n I tensil consists of a can for bak- 
ing powder, cream tarlar. spices, etc.; a 
measure for sugar, flour, comsta'ch, 
farina, rice, etc.; a grater tor nutmegs, 
rheese, bread, potatoes, t c iua.«h , lemon or 
orange rind; a dredge fur spice.';, sugar, 
tloiir, pepper and salt; a biscuit, cake 
or cookey cutter; a doughnut cutter; 
a patty or tart cutter; aUo a nutmeg, 
stick cinnamon and mace holder. It is 
the handiest and most practical utensil 
that has ever been seen, ('alculatcd to 
lessen the burden of the practical bouse 
wife. By mail,50cls. SMITH MFG. CQ., 
Alameda, Cal. To any body sending 
us the correct solution to the following problem 
we will send a Utensil free: A liquor merchant 
ha.s a barrel of whisky, but he only iiaa a .l-gallon 
and a Ivgallon mea.sure, and he want£ to measure off 
■1 gallon.s How is he going to do it? We, however, 
limit the amount of Utensils to 4 for each town lor 
the correct solution. Those who are too late will not 
be answered. 




Kitchen and Wakery Oaili'a, Orate Bar«, 
Bake Ovens and Furnace Castings. 
814 & 816 Kearny St.. S. P. 
Prop's Jackson Foundry. 

UluCNTflRQ on the Pacific Coast should secure 
in f tn I vnO their Patents through Dewey fcCo-'s 
UiHiMQ AID SoiiaTiFia Paisa Patent Agcnoy, No. iV 
Harket St. 8. V. 


la the most beautiful tiact of lard in Santa Cruz. It commands charming views of the whole of Monterey bay, of 
the Pacific ocean and of the Santa Ciuz mountains. It lies on a handsome, elevated plateau, fronts on the famous 
Cliff Drive, at the wildest and most picturetque part of the b^y shore, and adjoins Gaifleld Park, where the 
Christian Church of Ca'ifornia is BOW erecting a *16,000 tabernacle and where thousands of people will summer 
annually from this year on. 

LOTS, 50x125, $200 TO $400, 

FrontiLtg wide and beautiful avenues, on easy terms. 
Maps of Santa Cruz and Surfaidc, price lista and descriptive matter mailed free to any address. 


E. A. CRENNAN, Resident Manager. 624 MARKET ST., San Francisco. 

127 Pacific Avenue, Santa Cruz. 



Dsiflg lie Benoit Comgdled Rollers, 


This Mill has been in Use on this Coast for 9 years, 


Four years in succefslon. and has mot with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon. 

It is the most eonomical and durable Feed-Mill in use. I am sole 
manufacturer of tl>e Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all ready to 
mount on wagous. 

Gbainland, Butte Co., Cai-, June 9. 1887. 
Ml M. L. Ml I II— Dr\r Sir: We have used one No. 
2 Holler Barley " rusher now for eight year* and have 
used it steady during that time; have crushe'l If) tons 
a day and the (^rusher is as good to-day as when it 
came out of your shop. larasatisficl that it is thf> 
best mill made. Vou may reconstruct this testi 
monial to the best advantage for \ou and sign our 
names, for you cannot overrate the mer'ts of your 
mill. F. E. REAM, JOH.V P. .SUTTON. 

DURHA.M, May 21, 1887, 
Mi: M I, Afprv— Pear Sir: • In reply to yours of 
the I'.lth. would say that I crushed friiin two to two 
and a half tons per hour but cou'd crush three ard 
a half tons if my elevators were large enough to 
rarr.v the barley t'roin the machine. The No 1 ma- 
chine I used at Grirtle^ was run on a sack a minuie, 
but if we got behind we could run through five tons 
an hour, and do good work. The machine I use here 
is a No. ■!. Yours, WM. M. TAYLOR. 

I thank the public for their kind pratronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico, Cal. 

Sendlfor Catalogue of RAISIN MACHINERY to 


I ^lbs. /'^^;y_.-'-X..' ' " 37 Inches 
A$k your X,, ^i,^^ -^y-^ - . . ^ii M . 
dealer ./>^ / A ^-.^^ ^_ 

it Breech Loader^ _ 

■ £*^" One Gun and (CO /> e\ 

SO Buck Snot, prepaid, oo ruceipt of 9^ ■ v V 
8t«el Barreli and Bprlngi. No Keports. No Eiploston. 
CNCLE SPRING CUN CO., Hazleton. Pa! 

J.F. HouoiiToK, President, J. L. N BiiErARD, Vice-Pros. 
Ob A.I. R. 8TORV, Sec'y, R. H. Maciill, Gten. Ag't. 

Qome Mntnal losnrance Company, 

216 Sansome Street, San ^rancitco. 

l^COHPORATKI> A. D. 18ft4. 

Loeeea Pai'l Since Organizatiun $3,033,420 31 

Assets, .la- uary 1, 18tO 821,517 (19 

Capital, Paid Up in Gold ff>'^ ?" 

NET SURPLUS OTei eTerything, S<4,384 14 

Books for Pleasure and Profit. 

Cushlng's Manual.-Hpvispd Ediiion, 

uilh .\dilllion§ and 4.'orreclloDi. 

No one who wishes to take part in 
the proceedings of any organized 
body can afford to do without the 
• ^ ■ 1 ''^'P. ''"'^ volume ; knowledee 
of its contents alone is a valuable 
lTri»7 education, and the price is so mod- 
erate that no one need deprive 
himself of its teachings. Also con- 
taining the Constitution of the United 
States and Declaration of Independ- 
ence. Containing 200 pages. 

Clotn gilt. Price 50 cts. 

Wilford's Original Dialogues and 
Speeches for Young 

Folks.— Heing by far the most 
complete of its kind ever issued. 
This work supplies that palpable 
need, which has so long l>een evi- 
dent in books of this class, thai of 
Pialo^ues and Spefi hes adapted to 
the natures of children. This work 
contains 19 Orliclnal nialu|«ueii and 
53 Speeches, especially adapted for 
children between the ages of 5 and 
12 years. 160 pages. 
Paper cover. Price 25 cts. 

BrudderCardner'sStump Speech- 
es and Comic Lec- 
tures. -Cimuiming the 

best hits of the leading 
Negro delineators ol the 
"te^/^/CWhk ^ present day. comprising the 
_ t-liC/BBfe inA most amusing and side- 
'♦Jwfcv splitting contribution of 
oratorical effusions which 
have ever been produced 
to the public. The newest 
and best book of Negro 
comicalities published. 160 
pages. Bound in illuminat- 
ed paper covers. Price 2s cts. 

Burdett's New Comic Recitations 
and Humorous Readings. 

- .\ new V'tliiinc cf comic and liuinor- 
ous selections, compiled by the cel- 
ebrated humorist, James S. , Burden 
many of which have never before 
been published in book form. In ad- 
dition to the new and original pieces 
here contained, this book has the ad- 
vantage of hriiif^ing togfthfr itttfl one 
•: niiitiif all of the very best selections of 
a comic nature which have hitherto 
attained a vvide popularity through the 
public reprcsi ntations of the most renowned 
humorists of the day. It is the newest, handsomest 
atul choicest book of its kind. Price 25 cts 

The Candy Maker. 

-A Practical Guide "to the 
Manufacture of the various kinds 
of Plain and Fancy Candy. The 
fullest directions are given f(»r 
getting up the most exquisitely 
Beautiful looking candies, as well 
as the most alluring to the palate ; 
while equal attention is given 
to all the plainer kinds, so uni- 
versally liked by the " little ones." 
Every Direction, every Recipe,, 
every Concoction of which Sugar, 
Spice and Essence are the ingre- 
dients, is given in such a plain way that a child can 
understand them. Large irmo. Price socts. 

Wilson's Bali-Room Guide and 

Call-Book. - I lie most 
complete imblished. containing 
full and re<)uisite information 
for the giving of Receptions, 
Parties, Balls, etc., with clear 
ifliUff l '1^ - ''''■^'^tions for calling out the 
r'vl ftftfff' •• liKurcs of every dance lof,ether 
. «^ •. with thirty eight pages of the 

latest and most fashionable 
cop\ right music, and contain 
ing nearly one hundred figures 
for the "(Jerman." Bound in 
illuminated board cover, with 

Hound in illuminated p.'tpcr cover, Price 50 cts. 


Complete Hand-Book 

of Etiquette. -This work 
presents, in a clear and intellig-. 
ible manner, the whole art and 
philosophy of Etiquette. Among 
the contents are ; Bodily Deport- 
ment, Speak Grammatically, 
Self-respect, Pedantry, Social 
Characters, Traveling, Useful 
Hints on Conversati<)n. Forms 
of Invitation, Letters of Intro- 
duction. Bridal Etiquette, Ball- 
room Etiquette, etc., etc. Bound 
in Boards, cloth back. 
Price 50 CIS. 

Carpenter's Manual. 

— Instructs in the use of 
tools and the various oper- 
ations of the trade, includ- 
ing drawing for carpenlers, 
forms of contracts, speci- 
fications, etc., with plain 
Instructions for beginners, 
and full glossary :>f terms 
used in the trade. Also 
gives plans and specili- 
V cations for building a num- 
''y0 ber of frame houses. lUus- 


50 cts. 

ny June's Practical CookBook. 

j^' — .Vn established favorite iii thou- 

sands of families. The recipes in 
It are all the result of practical 
experience, and there is beside a 
useful chapter of recipes for dishes 
of Hebrew families. Containing 
i,2oo choice and carefully tested 
? receipts, embracing all the popu- 
lar dishes and the best results of 
modern science reduced to a sim- 
ple and practical form. Cloth, 
$1.00. Illustrated. 

Spanish at a Glance. 

A new system arranged for self-ti^ition, beinii; 
the easiest method of acquiring a thorough knowl- 
edge of the Spanish language ever published. 

Bound in paper cover. Price 35 cts. 

A portion of the above works will be sent from our 
ofllec direct, while some will be ordered from other pub. 
lishlDg houses, requiring some two weeks longer lime. 

N. B. The above prices include the prepcymeot ot 
postage by us. 

AddresB, DEWEY & CO., 

320 Market St.. San FranciBCO, OaL 

Jolt 12, 1890.] 



A New Early Yellow Freestone. 

Editors Press:— I send you a new seeding 
peach, it having fruited this year for the first 
time, and as yet I have not given It a name. 
This peaob is a seedling of the Foster. A clean, 
free stone, dry, yellow flesh, a beautiful red 
cbeek on a yellow ground, and ripens two 
weeks ahead of Foster or Early Crawford, and 
in ripening follows close after Parsons' Eirly or 
Hind's Surprise. I consider this the most val- 
uable acquisition to the peach family that we 
have baa for years as its early ripening makes 
It valuable to ship East, and for drying it will 
oome in ahead of Foster, thus prolonging the 
time of drying two weeks. 

Tbe prospect for fruit and raisins in Tulare 
and Fresno counties is fair, and the prices good. 
French prune orchards that have been planted 
around here are yielding far beyond the ex- 
pectations of us all. Plenty of five and six 
year old trees this season will produce 500 lbs. of 
green fruit, and at the present prices two acres 
will net more money than 160 acres in wheat. 
Tbe yonng vineyards and orchards are doing 
well, and no loss of trees on account of heavy 
rainu last winter. J. H. Thomas, 


[This may prove what peach-growers have 
been so long waiting for — a good-sized yellow 
peach coming before Crawford's Early. Mr. 
Thomas's description of the fruit is borne out 
by the sample he sends. Judging by the 
single fruit sent us, we conclude the seedling 
is much inferior to Foster in qaality and 
somewhat smaller — but for a yellow peach two 
weeks ahead of Foster, if it proves to be re- 
liable for that, it certainly has a great future. 
— Eds. Press. 

Cattle from California, — According to the 
Oregonian, Mr. E. May of tbe American 
Dressed Meat Company, who has been buying 
tat cattle in California for some week;, returned 
yesterday, and save there will be no more cat- 
tle brought from CiUfornia this season. The 
company now have 900 head of fine cattle run- 
ning on their meadows at Troutdale, and will 
be able to secure fature supplies from the 
ranges of Oregon and Idaho. Well on toward 
half a million of dollars has been sent from Or- 
egon into California for beef cattle this spring. 
This, says the Oregonian, is too bad, and Or- 
egon farmers should take steps to see that it 
does not occur again. 

J. J. Harshman & Co. are to start a cream- 
ery presently at Downey — so says the Cham- 

Improving the Rivers, 

Uader an Act of the last Legislature C. E, 
Grunsky, J. J. Crawford and C. F. Keed were 
appointed a commission to examine the San 
Joaquin and Sacramento and the bay and re- 
port upon the present conditions. These gen- 
tlemen planned a trip along the river so that 
they could meet and hear statements from in- 
terested parties at different points. They 
started out northward from Sacramento on 
Tuesday of this week. The following itinerary 

may enable some of our river readers to meet 
the oommisaion at tbe following points : 

Friday, July 11th. Marysville to Cbico, 5:10 
P. M ; Saturday, July 12th, Chico to Red 
Blutf, .3:15 A. M ; Sunday, July 13 .h, Rad B aS 
to Orl.iDd and to Sacramento river at Swift's 
Point, 9:.30 A. M ; Monday, July 14tb, down 
Sacramento rivei; Tufsday, July 15th, to 
Stockton; Wednesday, July 16th, up San Joa- 
quin river. 

It would certainly be desirable for river side 
residents and owners to meet the commission 
and give them the results of their long experi- 
ence and observation. 

Oushion Springs for Windmills. 

We illustrate herewith the I. X. L. cushion spring 
for windmill pump rods. By its use a uniform strain 
is produced on the mill and pump, both on the up 
and down strokes (as the spring is double acting) 
thus preventing sudden jar, and adding very ma- 
terially to the life of both mill and pump. It will 
often prevent damage to mill and pump in case of 
pump becoming inoperative by freezing up or from 
any cause. Fig. 3 represents the covered and fig. 4 

open pattern. Figs, i and 2 show the lower portion 
of a w indmill towtr and the application of the spring 
to the pumprod N. The spring can be adjusted to 
any tension desired, and the attachment made to 
the pumprod, by anyone in 30 minutes time. For 
full particulars address the U. S, Wind Engine & 
Pump Co., Batavia, Illinois, who also make the 
Haliaday Standard pumping and geared windmills. 
U, .S. Solid Wheel and Standard vaneless pumpirg 
windmills, pumps, tanks, tank heaters, corn shellers, 
feed grinders, stalk cutters, standard horse haying 
tools, etc. 

List of U. S. 

Patents for Pacific < 

Reported by Dewey & Oo., Pioneer Patau 
Solicitors for Paclflc Coast. 


431,159 —OvRN DooK-P. Ahrahamson, .S. F. 

431,202.— Swinging Window— G. D. Crocker, 
Oakland, Cal. 

431,162. — Damper for Sticam Boiler.s— Geo. 
Cunningham. S. F. 

43r,259 —Railway Spike— S. Enirick, S. F. 

431.164. — Klevatok — F. Guizkow, S. F. 

431.165. — Can Printing Device — Chas. R. 
Hay, S. F. 

431,476.— Clip for Wire Rope Ways — B. 
.Vlclntyre, S. F. 

431,483.— Gang Edger— A. E, Roe, S. F. 

431,198. — Shingle Cutter — H. O. Strand, 
Montisano, Wash. 

431,176 —FKUiT-GRAnEK — Geo. W. Thissell, 
Pleasant Valley, Cal. 

43I.303. --Automatic Air Brake— G. B. Will- 
iams, Portland, Or. 

431,304 — Rklrasing Attachment for Air 
I'KAKE— G. B. Williams, Portland, Or. 

The following brief list by telegraph, for .July 8, will 
appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 

California— Will'am Brosks, Oakland, broiler or 
toaster; Cornelius Butterbaugh, Los Angeles, car track; 
Frank M. Dreibulols, Los Angeles, detractab^e horse- 
foot pad; Frank Koritick, S. F. , comnination tool; Flor- 
ence E. Monteverde, S. F., pump distributor; Samuel S. 
Richardson, Hajipj Camp, damper; Charles T. Stanford, 
S. F., device for oper ting elevator hatchway gates; 
James M. Thorpe, Santa R^sa, adjustable axle nut; 
Frederick B. West, S. F., cable sheava. 

Oregon— George B. Willioiiis, Portland, automatic air- 

Washington— William J. Burke, Seattle, headlight fo 

Arizona— Thomas J. Thorp, assignor of one-half to D. 
J. Brennan, Fljgstaff, horse-collar; Thomas .J. Thorp, 
assignor of one-half to D. S. Brennan, Flagstaff, rUDoing 
gear for wagons. 

NoTB.— Copies of C. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telegraphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacifio Coast 
inventors transacted with perfect security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

The Freeman Feed-Cutter. 

TheS. Freeman & Sons'Mfg. Co. of Racine, Wis., 
have just issued their catalogue for 1890,3 large and 
fine publication. It will be mailed free of charge to 
any address. 

The No. 16 Freeman feed-cutler is claimed to be 
adapted to the use of stock-raisers feeding 80 or 
more head of stock, and is especially adapted for 
cutting ensilage. The Freeman power cutter is also 
made in two larger and four smaller sizes than this 
one. besides a full line of all sizes of band cutters. 

The catilogue referred to is made all the more 
v iluable by having added to it an ensilage treatise, 
containing many very useful suggestions as to the 
location and building of silos and the handling and 
care of ensilage. Send for it. 

1890 THE STATE FAIR-1890 



Showing Progress Made in Agricultural, Mechanical and Industrial Arts. 


Will give a Grand Musical Concert at the Pavillion each evening from September 15th to 20th. 

THE COUNTY EXHIBITS made at these exhibitions have attracted more atten- 
tion to localities represented than any other form of advertising advanced. 

EVERY COUNTY IN THIS STATE should have an exhibit. Begin with harvest 
and secure samples of your products. The money premiums will almost pay the entire 
cost of your exhibit, 

NEW-COMERS ARE AWAITING to view the products of the State before locat- 
ing. Hence it behooves every county to be up and stirring. 

IT IS AT THESE EXHIBITIONS the Manufacturer meets the Merchants of the 

IT IS AT THESE EXHIBITIONS the Merchant views progression made in all 
mechanical and industrial callings. Hence it behooves the Manufacturer to be up and 

AT THESE ANNUAL EXHIBITIONS the visitor may combine bu.siness with 
pleasure, as the Board of Dirrctors provides for all kinds of recreative amusement in the 
varied program of events. 

THE CONTESTS OF SPEED showing advancement made in the breeding o horses, will be a feature. 

THE GRAND PARADES OF LIVE STOCK will embrace the various classes of 
horses, and all the improved breeds of cattle. 

THE EVENING will afford ample entertainment for all who visit the State Fair. 

Every attention will be rendered exhibitors by the Board of Directors. 

Premium lists are now ready, and will be furnished upon application to the Secre- 
tary, who will also furnish other nece.ssary information that may be desired. Apply at 
once for space. 

Remember, the Southern Pacific Company TRANSPORTS ALL EXHIBITS 
FREE OF CHARGE to and from the Fair, and gives EXCURSION RATES TO ALL 


EDWIN F. SMITH, Secretary. 



[July 12, 1890 

firee(ler3' birectory. 

Six llnee or leas In this DInctory at 60c per lln* per month. 


BL BOBLl&R BANOHO, Lob Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Co., Cal., Francis T. Underbill, proprietor, importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infor- 
mation by mail. C F. Swan, manager. 

JERSEY BUr.L No. 463 P. C. J. C. C. for sale 
olieap. A fine foui-; ear-old animal. Address Dellwood 
Poultry Yards, Napa, Cal. 

Horses and Holstcin Frieeiaii Cattle from the most 
noUd ramllies. H. P. Mohr, Ut. Eden, Alameda Co., 
Cal. Visitors welcome. Correspondence solicited. 

J B. BOSE, Likevil'e, Sonoma Co , Cal. , breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Roaditers and Draft Horses. 

CHARLES K HUMBERT, Cloverdalc, C»I., Im- 
porter and Breeder of Ueci.rded IIolstein-Friesian 
Cattle. CatalOKUes on application, 

A. Heilbron & Bro., Props., Sac. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Cruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Uereforda; a fine lot of young bulls in cash herd for gale. 

PEROHBBON HORSES.— Pure bred horseaand 
mares, all afc'es, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at my 
ranch near Likeport, Lake Co., Cal. New catalogue now 
ready. Wni. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILBa, Los Angeles, caL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holstein and Jersey Cattle. None better, 

best tborougbbicd Poultry and Eggs. Address Uibbaid 
S Ellis, Santa Rosa Breeding Assoeiation, Cal. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perking, Sac. Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogg. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn'g Grove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, Englisli Draft Borseg, Spanish 
Merino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petalunia, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Young stock for sale. 

J. H. WHITE, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., OaL, breeder 

of Registered Holstein Cattle. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Red Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

GEO. B. POLHBMUS, Coyote.Cal. Holstein Frles- 
ian cattle, comprising males and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 1889, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTEB 8AXB & SON, Lick House, San Franoisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past 18 years, of 
every variety ut Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

GEO. BEMBNT Si SON, Maple Grove Farm, Oak- 
land P. O., breeders of Ayrshire Cattle & Essex Swine. 

HENRY HAMILTON, Weatley, Cal., breeder of 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hol- 
stein Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for gale. 


OHAS. R. HARKER, Santa Clara, Calif. White 

Plymouth Rocks, exclusively. None better anywhere. 
East or West. If you want the latent and best improve- 
ment in poultry, get gniuiiie White Plj mouth Rocks. 
Write tor prices. Eggs, IS per IS; jiacked to go safely 
any distance. 

JOHN McFARLTNO, 7Cfl Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
for Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

B. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicegt va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
new Catalogue. 

RED CAPS, HDFf OOOHINS, W. & B. Leghorns. 
E. F. Musaon, Filclibourgh, San Leandro, Cal. 

Cal.; send for Ulostrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

Thoroughbred F.iwls and Kggs for Hatching. Light 
Brabmas, Langshans, Plymouth Rocks, Brown, Black 
and Wbite L^u'taorns, ii 00; Houdans and Bufl Cochins, 
(2 60; Minorcas and Spanish, 00 per 13. Genuine 
Imperial Fekin Ducks' Eggs, $1.50 per 11. 

O. J. ALBEB, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 


Ferry, Cal., breeders of Merino Sheep. Rams for lale. 

L. U. SHIPPEE, Stookton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jackg and 
Jennys k Berkshire Swina high graded rams lor sale 

fl. W. WOOLSEY St SON, Fulton, Cal., importerg 
ft breeders Spanish Merino Sheep; ewes & rams for sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Crog»-brcd 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 

B. H. OBANE, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer, 
Sontb Down Sheep from Illinois and England tor sale. 

ANDBB W SMITH, Redwood City, Cal.; see advt. 


JOSEPH MBLVIN, Davlgville, Cal., Breeder of 
Poland-China Hogg. 

WILLIAM NILBS.Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars free. 

XTLBB BEACH, San Joge, Cal., breeder of 

thoroughbred Berkgblre and Essex Ha«:«. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal ; see adv't 


APIARIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D, 
Knag, Napa City, Cal, 


Importer and Breeder of ABKKDKKX AN<;iI.S CATTLE. Proprietor, J. E. CAMP, SBCramentO, CaL 

Little's Chemical Fluid Non-Poisonous 

One gallon, mixed with (>0 gallons of cold water, will dip thoroughly ISO 
sheep, at a cost of one cent each. Easily applied; a nouri&her of wool; a certain 
cure for SCA B. Also 

X^lttle's FAtexxt Fo-C7^der 1^±x>- 


Mixes instantly with water. Prevents the fly from striking. In a two-pound 
package there is sutficicnt to dip 20 sheep, and in a geven-poand package there ig 
BUtlicient to dip 100 sheep. 

o A. rc T o isr . ds u Ij Xj c*? go., 

SuccesHors to FALKNER, BELL & CO.), 


Live Stock Owners' Mutual 
Protective Association, 


HON. B. V. SARGENT, President. 
(J. W. G^LLANAR, Secretary. 
.lAMES Fl PALMER, Business Manager. 

E1)W. INGRAM, Vice-President 
FREli. D. HOWARD, Actuary. 
R. H. WILLEY, Attorney. 


VOLNEY HOWARD, General Manager. 

Ke^'istcred Herd Book Stock of the Aggie, Netherland, Nep- 
tune, Clifden, Artis and other families. None better. 

of the Coomassie, Alphea and other choice strains. 

Poland-Ohina and Berkshire Pigs. 

3E»OTTI.iTI=t."X"— Nearly all Varieties. 

Third Edition POFLTKY & STOCK BOOK, 60 cents 
- ' by mail postpaid. Thirteen years experience on this coast. 

V/V/ H-iX-iI-A-lVt N'XXjXSS. XLaofit .A-xxeeles, OaI. 



One and a half milei northeast of San Leandro, 
Alameda Oouoty, haa every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded ut all times. 


QTiBBRT TOMPKINS, Proprietor, 
p. O. Box 149, San Leandro, Cal 


1616 and 1618 Mission St.. 

Telephone No. 60n;i. SAN FRANCISCO. 

W ATKINS & DUHIG, Proprietors, 


Horses boufrht and sold. Auction Sales every Wednes- 
day and Saturday at II A. M. A full line of Drauglit, 
Driving, Saddle and Business Horses. Particular atten- 
tion paid to country sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale horses. Stock sold od commission 
and boarded at low rates. 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, England. 
Graduatkd Af'ril 22, 1870. 
AdTioe b7 Mail, |a. 


No, 11 SeveiUi St„ near Hartet, San Fmcisco, CaL 

Open Day and Night. Telephone. No. SSAB. 


Veterinary Surgeon, 

Graduate of Ontario Veterinary College, Toronto, Canada. 

831 Qolden Gate Avenue, San Francisco. 
Telephone 3069 

No risk in throwing Horses. Veterinary operating table 
on the premises. 

Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
Station. • San Mateo Oc, OaL 



Los Angeles, Oal, 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Full - Blooded 
Yorkohire Clevel tnd 
Bay, OldeiibHrg Oep- 
iiian Coa<'li and En- 
glish Bhire Draft Stal- 
lions. Tl)c beet Coach am) 
v'''\Mht\V' iif Horses in the world. 

, (.'I stables i.ermanentiy locateri. 
Third Importation. We give Ewtern prices and guar- 
antee our horsrs. Correspondence solicited. Aduress 

1002 Olive St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Our Horses are full registered in Europe and America. 

FRANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal. 




Orders promptly filled and satisfaction guaranteed. 




By F. 8. BURCH. 


sixty-four pages, cloth 
bound, containing chapters 
on Milking, Milk Setting, 
('ream Raising, CImriiing, 
Working, Salting, Packing, 
Shipping and .Marketing. 
A Hand Book for the Be- 
ginner. Full of useful in- 
formation and worth many 
times its cost. Price, by 
mall, 30 cents. Address, 
DEWEY k 00. , 220 Market 
Rt.. San Franolscn. Oal. 

Back Fitss of the PAomo Rural Prsss (unbound) 
oan be had for $2.50 per volume of six months. Per ytar 
two volumes) $4. Inserted In Dewsy's patent binder, 
fiO cents additional per .volume. 

# Dairyman's 
Account Book 

The Dairyman's Account Hook Is the most 
practical thln« of the kind ever neen. It 
Hive.s ruled pages for dally record of nillk 
yield, hutter made, and sales for 12 montliN; 
convenient size, nicely printed and bound. 
Wells, Richardson A Co., ISurlington, VU, 
niaiiufaclurers of the celebrated Improved 
Hiitler Color, the purest, strongeKl, and 
briiihte.-it color made, will send a copy free 
to any butter maker who writes enclosing 
stamp. Also sample of their lUitler Color 
to those who have never used it, and a 
pretty birthday card for the baby, ifyou usfc 

PoJLjiiy, Etc. 


Oor. 17tb Si Oaatro Sta., Oakland, Oal. 

Manufactory of the PACI- 
BROODER. Agency of 
the celebrated sliver finish 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Mill, the Paclfls 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances in great variety. 
Also every variety of land 

and water Fowl, which 

have won first prizes wherever exhibited. Bggs for 
natching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Hand-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send !c stamp for 60-page Illustrated 
drc\ilar to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1817 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

Are Tou using: Wellington's Improved £gK 
Food for Poultry I If Not, Why Not ? 

If not, your poultry Is sickly, and you are getting very 
few eggs. Two substantial reasons for getting it at once: 
This has been the Standard Poultry Preparation for more 
than eleven years. It will positively CIJRE and prevent 
every disease of poultry. And all who use It will tell 
you they have plenty of eggs to sell now that the price is 
bigli, and the price Is going still higher. Use it as soon 
as posfihle. Every merchant keeps it. 

Send for circular and prices. 

B. F. WKLI.INOTON, Proprietor and Dealer n 
Seeds, 425 Washiii{;ton ,St , San Francisco. 

KiisKD BT HIS I^otalixxia.** 


Afford more profit than any other busi- 
ness for the capital invested. The 
most successful machines made; any 
one can manage them. A large 32 
page Illu» rated Catalogue, describing 
Inrnhators, Brooders, etc., sent to any 
address on receipt of 2e stamp. Con- 
tains more information than is given 
m many 2.'ic books. Address, 




■ I ..■■■B B t'uMPANY, 
I I JLlI I'l* Hyrtle Street, Oaklanii. Cul. 

Ul' .Stud SUiup for Circular. 

EGOS FOR HA.TOHING from Prize-Winning 
Black Langshana My birds are first-class. 93 for 13 
eggs. Correspondence cheerfully answered. 

W. E CORNELL. Box 138, Des Moines, Iowa. 


L.-irgest Bee-Hive Factor* ""p wuria 

|#l illu<l.l «.ml n,uDthlyi. 


TIsupPLiES. cro" 

'A B C of Bee Culture 

i,, a, vcl..l„-,liiic.f4«)|.|. «n.i:)<«l.-ul». Pri.-,-fl.2i 

I ihii'paptr. A. I. ROOT, Medlna.O. 

Italian Queens, 92.E0 each; Black Queens, $1 each. 
Swarms from 92.60 each; Smoker, 91. Comb Pounds 
lion, 91.2s per pound; V-groove Sections, H per 1000 
Comb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, etc. W. 
STVAN b SON. The Homestead Apiary. San Mateo, Cal. 






It kills Pain, Irritation and Intlanunation, 
and bleaches the skin white. 

Priee, 85 Cents. 

All Dniggista keep 


" Oreenbank " 98 degrees POWDKRED OADS- 
TIO SODA (tests 99 8-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, eto., for sale by 

Manafaotarere' Asenta, 
1 04 Markat St. and 8 Oallfornla St., S F. 

Jdly 12, 1890.] 

f ACIFie i^URAb f RESS, 




A Select School for ^oung' Ladies. 

Fourteeo'h year. Fifteen Profesaors and Tetchers. 
The next Pension will bealn on Mond->.v, July 28, 18D0. 
For Cata!ogu9 or information address the Principal, 
1036 Valencia Street, San Pranclaco, Cal. 


Classical and Military Academy, 

1020 Oak St., Oakland, Cal. 
Term begins July 16ih. 
COI,. W. H O'BRIEN. Snperlntemlent. 


Unlveratly Avenue, - - - Berkeley, Cal. 


References to parents of pupils who have entered the 
University from this school. Send lor circular. 

T. S. BOWENS, B. A.. 

Head Master. 

the: imvtA. 



Superior advantaj^es in Seminary studies, including 
Enelish, Ancient and Modern Languages, Music, Draw- 
inir and Painting. Locilion beautiful, Imilding modern, 
climate healthful and home influences desirable. 

Next term commences Aug. 4, 1890. Address 
JOHN M. CHASE, VaI!e]o, Ca'. 


Seminary Park, Alameda Coanty, Calirornla. 


For full information, address MRS. C. T. MILLS, Mills 
College P. 0. 


34 POST ST., S. F. 

College Instructs In Shorthand, Typo Writing, Book- 
Keeping, telegraphy. Penmanship, Drawing, all the En- 
glish branches, and everything pertaining to business, 
for six full months- We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Our school ha; 
Its graduates In every part of tba Stale. 


K. P. HEALD, Prealdenl. 

n. 8. BALKY. Secretary. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. 

C. B. MORGAN, Seo'y. 


Crockett, Conira Costa Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


PorlaWe Straw-Bnriiing Boilers & Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notice. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used In 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 


Niles's new 
manual and 
r e f e r e nee 
I book on sub- 
j e c 1 8 con. 
necied with 

Buccessful Poultry and Stook Raising on thePacilic Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, lite-Ilke Illustrations of the dlflerent varletlea 
"fPooltrv and LIve-Stoek. PtIc» poRtpaH 60 fits. Ad. 
drees PACIFIC RURAL PRESS Office, San Francisco, Cal. 

Shell Seminary for Young |_adies, 


Full Seminary Course of Instruction given PupUs fitted to enter the State University 

and Vasaar or Smith College. Send for Circular to 



B. SNBLL, (" 


Occupies two elegant buildings, containing over 70 rooms. Employs the ablest teachers, has the largest 
attendance and is the most highly recommended of any private school on the Pacific Coast. Board, Room and 
Tuition for six months, $128. Board, Room and Tuition for fllty-two weeks, $244. 

CVClrcalarg containing; Rnleg, Rates of Taitlon and Board, and Conrses of Study gent 
free to any address; also, beautiful specimens of Penmanship, .\ddregs, 

TRASK & RAMSEY, Stockton, Cal. 

immm Herchaptg. 



— ABD— 

fieneril Commission Nlercliints, 

810 California St., S. F. 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

iarPersoDal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad. 
vancej made on Consignments at low rates of Interest. 

B-A-XjE ties 


31 Main Street, 





Warehouse and Wharf at Port Costa. 


Money advanced on Qraln In Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wheat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR GRAIN BAGS, Agricnltural Implements, Wagons, Groceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited, 

B. VAN RVBRY, Manasrer. A. M. BBLT. Assistant Manaser 

A. T Uewky 
W. B. EwEft. 
Geo. H. Strono, 

} Dewey & Co.'s Scientific Press Patent Agency {^Teeo''' 

iNVBNTOiis on the Pacific Coast will find it greatly to their advantage to consult this old, experienced, flret-class 
Agency. We have able and trustworthy Associates and Agents in Washington and the capital cities of the principal 
nations of the world. In connection with our ec'itorial, scientific and Patent Law Library, and record of original 
cases in our office, we have other advantages far beyond those which can be offered home inventors by other agencies 
the information accumulated through long and careful practice before the Office, and the freciucnt examination of 
p.-ttent8 already granted, for the purpose of determining the patentability of inventions brougiit before us, enables 
us often to give advloe which will save Inventors the expense of applying for Patents upon Inventions which are not 
f?w. CircuUfg of advloe gent free on receipt of poatage. Addreaa DEWEY * CO., Patent Ageola, 220 Market Sk, 8. F. 


Commission Mercliants 



Green and Dried Fruita, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made on Consignments. 
308 & 310 Davis St., San Francisco 

[P. O. Box 1936.) 
tVConslgnments Solicited. 




601, 60S, 605, 607 and 600 Front Street 
and 800 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Pooltry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 

[K8TABLI8BBD 1864. | 




89 Olay Street and 28 Commercial Street 
San Fbanoisoo, Cal, 

BuQKNB J. Orkookt. (Kstabllshed 1862.) Frakk Orsgort. 


Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

8an Francisco Office, 313 Davis St. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Etc. 
Oonslgnments solicited. 118, 116 417 Washington St., 
San Francisco. 



And Dealers In Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Egga 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, 82S 
226 and 227 Washington St.. San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants. 

All Kind" of Oreen i»t)'i Dried Frnltfl. 

Consignments Solicited. 324 Davls St.. S. F. 




Authorized Oapltal 91,000,000 

Capital paid Hp and Reserve Fnnd 800,000 
Dividends paid to Stookliolders.. 627,000 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE , Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIKR Cashier and Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received. Gold and Sliver. 
Bills of Exchange bought and sold. Loans on Wbest 
and country produce a S{>eclalty. 

July 1, 1889. A. HONTPELLTER, Manager. 

Any one wishing to rent a well-improved farm of 
480 acres in a healthy locality, at very moderate cash 
rent, can learn particulars by applying to " Cash 
Rent," Box 37, Tulare, Cal. 


f ACIFie [^URAId jpress. 

[July 12, 1890 


Market Review.' 
DOMESTIC produce:, bto. 

San Francisco, July 9. 1890. 

Now that the midsummer holidays have passed, 
trade in farm products is expected to be resumed 
with increased vigor. Already there is an apprecia- 
tion in some kinds of fruits and also in wheat and 
barley. The higher prices ruling abroad for wheat 
have favorably afficted our market for the cereal. 
The following is to day's cablegram: 

Liverpool. July 9. —Wheal — Firmer. California 
spot lots. 73 to 7$ 2j^d: off coast, 37s 6d; just ship- 
P'kI, 37s; nearly due, 37? 6d; cargoes off coast, quiet 
but (irm; on passage, demand for cargoes near at 
hand, while there is no inquiry (or more distant per- 
iods of delivery; English and French country mar- 
kets, dearer; wheat and flour in Paris, quiet; weather 
in England, showery. 

Liverpool Wbeat Market. 

The following are the closing prices paid for wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

July. An?. Sept. Oct Nov. Dec. 
Thursday.... Tall 7»'id 782'.d "sSd 7»3d 7831 

Friday '. 

Saturday.... "slid 7s2id TaSJ 7t3id 7B3iJ 7»3Jd 

Monday 7s2il 7s3J 7s3}d 7t4a 784d 7«4il 

Tuesday 7s-.'U 7b:iJ 78»Jd 784d 7s4Jd 784id 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. V D. Market 
Thursday.... 3rn3<I 3589d 36.3d yuiet 


Saturday 36(3(1 SfisSd I Advancing 

Monday SUfOd 3tj 3d 38-fld Stronger. 

Tuesday 37sOcl Sliced 3780d Fiinier. 

Eastern Orain Markete. 

The following shows the closing prices of wheat 
In New York for the past week: 

Day. July. Ausr. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Thursday 9»J f»3} !t3l 91 94^ 94J 



Monday 9.')J !)5i 9i.J H5:[ 

Tuesday 9.ia 95 93 94 98 96J 

The closing prices for wheat have been as follows 
at Chicago lor the past week : 

Day. July. Antr. Sfpt Oct. 

Thursday sij Sif 



Monday 90i 9()} 

Tuesday 89J 90i 

New York, July 9. — Wheat— 98^c for cash, 
95c for July, 94Jic for August. 9tHc lor September, 
95c for October, and 96 Kc for Ui-cember. 

Chicago, July 9. — Wheat- £95^0 lor August and 
90c for September. 

Foreign Grain Review. 

I^ONnON, July 7. —The Mark l.jne Express says: 
Downpours of rains and cold weather have seriously 
lessened the prospects and caused a hardening of 
rates. Foreign wheat is firm. The news from 
India causes depression on the Exchange. A de- 
riciency is expected of 2,000,000 quarters. Official 
estimates place the deficiency at 500,000 quarters. 
Oats are 6d. dearer, especially American. Round 
maize slightly improved and was in request. At to- 
day's market Russian wheat was 3d. dearer. En- 
glish, Cahfornia, Australian and Chilean were id. 
dearer and Indian, Argentine and American Red 6d. 
dearer. Flour was 6d. dearer and maize 3d. cheaper. 

The European Crop Outlook. 

St. I'ETRKsiiURG, July 8.— An ofticial report says: 
At the beginning 01 June the winter and summer 
crops in Western and Southern European Russia 
were very good in some districts, good in others, 
but in the Eastern provinces the crops were less 
satisfactory. It is e.xpected a large quantity will be 
available for CNport. An increased demand is ex- 
pected in view of the bad Indian harvest and un- 
favorable outlook for .Xmerican winter wheat. 

Steamer communication has been opened via Aral 
sea between Charojui, on the Arau Daria, and Kas- 
anlik, on the Sir-Dana. 

Pakls, July 8.— .-\t a meeting of the Cabinet, the 
Minister of .Vgriculture stated that storms had se- 
riously damaged crops around Paris. In the other 
parts of France the crop prospects were favorable. 

The Kansis Wheat Crop. 
Kansa.s City, July 3. — The new wheat crop of 
Kansas is rapidly coming into the local market. 
Dealers pronounce the gram first-class. The weath- 
er has never been more favorable lor harvesting and 

Bastern Wool Markete. 

New York, July 3. — Bradslreet's says: Business 
is very dull m all the wool markets. Stocks on sea- 
board are small and prices would advance if the de- 
nund were at all active. Few manufacturers, if any, 
however, are buying except for their present wants. 

Philadei.I'Hia, July 3. — Wool is nominal and 

Southern Dakota Crops. 

Huron, S. D., July 6. — The crops throughout 
South Dakota have made more rapid growth during 
the past week.lhan ever before known in the .State. 
Reports from all parts of the .State, received at the 
United States Signal office last evening, indicate a 
splendid outlook. 

The Russian' Harvest. 

St. Peter.sburg, |uly 7.— The prospects for the 
harvest throughout Russia are good. In the Baltic 
provinces it is exceptionally good. 

Hops Kast. 

New York, July 2. — Some interesting facts have 
been obtained from various sources concerning the 
outlook of the hop crop. The acreage of this State 
is largely reduced, but the crop is in good condi- 
tion, the early varieties especially. Occasional con- 
tracts have been made at 16 cents. ( One grower in 
Madison county is reported as still holding his en- 
tire crop of 1889 at 25 cents. A few others have un- 
sold crops. Cable reports ' are to the effect that 
there is wet and cold weather in England, with an 
increase of vermin and mold in some sections. The 
California crop of 1889 is quoted at 18 to 20 cents, 

the crop of 1888 at 12 to 15 cents, and the crop of 
Washington about the same. 

New York, July 7. — Hops sparingly offered. 
Good (o choice Stale and Pacific Coast, l8@20C, 
with 21C for strictly fancy; other grades as before. 

Los Angeles Fruit Market. 

Lo.s Angeles, July 4. — There seems to be a gen- 
eral boom in Southern California products at pres- 
ent. A .San Francisco firm has ordered 2000 cases 
of figs of 24 boxes to the case. There is also a 
great demand for California honey at present, owing 
to the failure of the Eastern crop. It is now bring- 
ing i5^c more a pound than Eastern honey. 

There is a representative of a New York firm in 
this ciiy at present to estimate on what the crop of 
French prunes will be. His firm stands ready to take 
the entire crop. The raisin crop in this section will 
be immense this year. While the raisin crop has by 
no means yet .matured, plenty of buyers have al- 
ready offered themselves. 

Growers of soft-shell walnuts in Santa Ana valley 
have made a combinatiun to dispose of the crop. It 
is expected that by the formation of this agricultural 
trust the producers will realize a better figure lor 
their stuff than they would as individuals. In fact, 
it is said that they have already been offered i %c a 
pound more for nuts than was paid last year. Grow- 
ers in the combination are jubilant over the results 
that have thus far been attained. 

The entire Lima bean crop has already been sold. 

Local Markets. 


Buyer Season. 'Buyer 1890. 

H. L. 
Tuursday... 116} 116 



Monday 118) 117 


•After August. 





Saturday . . . 



S. 8. 


1 h 

IL .... 





B. w 




Buyer 1890. 





•Bi'90 S'90. 


13 H 



B.AGS — The market shows signs of easing off, 
owing to the bulk of the demand being met. .Siand- 
ard-sized grain bags are quoted in lots to suit at 7c. 

BARLEY— For sample parcels there has been 
quite an appreciation. In options, trading has 
been light, owing to sellers fearing to short at 
present prices. The following are to-day's reported 
sales on Call: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890 — 200 tons, $1.13^! 
100, $i.i3Ji. Buyer 1890, after August ist — 100, 
tons,$i.i3}^ ; 100, $1.13%; 700, $1.13^. Seller 1890, 
new — 100 tons, $1.06^ ^ ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer 1890— 200 tons, $1,145^ ctl. Buyer season — 
100 tons. $i.i8K; 200, 11.18^4 f ctl. Buyer 1890, 
after August ist — 200 tons, %i.i^'A: 300, $1.14^ 
ctl. Seller 1890, new— 100 tons, $1.08 tl' ctl. 

BUTTER — The market has exhibited a stronger 
tone for gilt-edged. Receipts continue free. West- 
ern creamery continues to flood the northern coast 

CHEESE — The improved tone noted in last 
week's Rural is more pronounced this 
week. Choice to extra choice mild is wanted. 

EGGS--Strictly selected fresh-laid eggs are slight- 
ly higher. Heavy receipts by overland railroad are 
against the market for other kinds. 

FLOUR — The market is strong and fairly active 
at a slight advance. 

WHEAT— Sample wheat fetches more money. 
Holders are somewhat excited, and, as a rule, ask 
quite an advance over buyers' bids. In options, 
trading has been more free. The following are the 
reported sales made on to-day's Call: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890—500 tons, $1.43?^; 
100, $i.43K ctl. Afternoon Session: Buyer 
1890—100 tons, $i.43H: too, $t.43X; 100, $1.43^ 
(J.ctl. Buyer season— 200 tons, $1.49^ ^ ctl. 


Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 

Receipts of produce at this port for the week end- 
ing July 9th, were as follows: 




Flour, qr. sks. 90,3781 Middlings, sks.. 

Wheat, ctls i57,t)49l.'Mfalfa, " .. 

Barley, " 36,271 Chicory, bbls. 

Rye, " Broomcorn, bdls 

OaU«, " 4.849 Hops, bU 

Corn, " 473!Wool, i,iS5 

Butter," 1,125 Hay, tons 1,877 

do bxs 785 Straw, " 30 

do bbls 3 Wine, gals 66,490 

do kegs 50 Brandy, " 

Cheese, ctls 667 Raisins, bxs ... 

do bxs 24 Honey, cs 

Eggs, doz 38,270 Walnuts, sks .. 

do " Eastern. 122,050; Flaxseed, sks .. 

Beans, ctls 1,624 .Mustard, sks .. 

Potatoes, sks 16,601 Almonds, sks . . 

Onions, " 1,274 Peanuts, sks. . . 

Bran, sks 1,417 Popcorn sks. . . 

Buckwheat, sks 

•Overland 126 ctls. 


The wheal market made a substantial advance the 
past week undjr review, fully justifying the strong 
bull position uken by the Rl ral Press in its last 
week's issue. The advance has element of sta- 
bility with every encouragement of still higher 
ranges being reached within the near future. It 
now looks as if the world's shortage will be larger 
than heretofore claimed, while there are indications 
that a speculative bull campaign will be inaugurated 
soon. 1 he many reverses met by the bulls within 
the past eight years made them cowards, but now 
with everytding seemingly in their favor, they are 
justified in believing that a successful upward move 
can be made. 

The wheat crop in the United States 'promises 
to be short from 75,000,000 (to 85,000,000 bushels 
in comparison with last year's crop, while the con- 
sumption will be larger. In this State there are 
conflicting views regarding the total yield, but the 

general opinion is that it will be from 150,000 to 
200,000 tons short of last year's. While the crop 
will be short the grade will be better, consequently 
the price should be proportionately more. It is to 
be regretted that leading farmers do not help the 
writer in securing crop advices. If they would fur- 
nish us with such information it will prove of in- 
estimable advantage. Address all letters regard- 
ing crop and prices to J. R. Farish, Produce Editor 
Rural Press. No names will be used unless by 

From Oregon and Washington our advices in- 
dicate a good crop. The acreage is reported to be 
more, while the yield to the acre will be a lull average. 
Taking the carry-over into consideration and this 
coast will have a surplus this year of fully 1,400,- 
000 tons and it may go as high as 1.500,000 tons. 

The large surplus of wheat on this coast is attract- 
ing more vessels to this port, as well as to Port- 
land and Puget Sound ports. The onlv danger 
now feared by leading exporters of not having a 
large wheat fleet and reasonable charters, is that 
of high tariff (provided there is an increase) driv- 
ing ships from us, for when vessels can bring in- 
ward cargoes they can take outward cargoes for 
less money,' but if they are unable to get the former 
but have to come in ballast then they have to get high 
charters for the latter, and the higher wheat char- 
ters are outward, the worse it is for farmers. 

The barley market has gained in strength at 
steadily advancing prices. The demand is both 
consumptive and speculative. The short crop on 
this coast and light carry-over from the season of 
1889-90 are the chief factors in promoting the im- 
provement. The grade this year is better, both in 
plumpness and in color than for several vears past. 
Samples of brewing which were sent to the Chicago, 
.Milwaukee and New York markets provoked favor- 
able comments, and will doubtless lead to liberal 
orders Irom those points. 

Oits have not shown any material advance, not- 
withstanding continued light receipts. Consumers 
or feeders evidently think that prices are unduly in- 
flated and that with liberal receipts of new the mar- 
ket will shade off. Time alone will prove whether 
or not their opinion is well grounded. The crop on 
this coast does not show any increase over last 
year's, while the stock of old is light. 

Corn ha.< held to steady prices throughout the 
week. With higher markets at the East, under a 
more active European demand, it is reasonable to 
look for still better prices on this coast. 

Rye is steadier, but no higher. 


In ground feed there is a very strong market for 
bran, middlings and ground barley, with a slight 
advance in the latter. The demand is fairly active. 

New h.iy is coming in quite freely, but the market 
cleans up well under an enlarged demand. The 
shipments out of the State are quite heavy. Nevada 
advices report the crop largely in excess of last 
year's but Irom Oregon and Washington our advices 
do not appear favorable to much if any increase over 
that of 1889. 


Cherries and currants are about out of market, 
consequently we drop the quotations from out of 
our list of prices. 

There continues strong competitive buying for 
for peaches, Bartlett pears, prunes and apricots. 
Prices have been forced to still higher figures. The 
excited condition of the market makes it difficult 
to give correct quotations; all that can be said is 
that holders of choice to extra choice fruits can 
about name their own prices. The present condi- 
tion of the market was foreshadowed by the Rural 
Press early in the season, and its fulfillment is a 
source of gratification to all in interest. 

In berries there are no material changes to note 
outside of a shading off in blackberries under freer 
receipts. Canners are putting up a large increased 
quantity of them, which will keep the market from 
going too low, as it went in 1889. The quality 
this year is good. 

For raisins in the sweat better contracts can be 
made now than it was possible to have made in 
last month. The scarcity and consequently high 
prices ruling for other fruits have a favorable influ- 
ence, as has the cholera scare abroad. Eastern 
importers will hardly dare to import many Spanish 
raisins with cholera in that country. 

Dried fruits are higher under an active competi- 
tive buying in sympathy with higher markets at the 
East. Sun-bleached apricots are selling at I2@i4c 
in sacks and I3@i5!4c in boxes. .Nectarines are 
readily sold at Ii@i2}^c and prunes at 7@9Kc 
according to size. F^eaches are quoted at an ad- 
vance on last week's prices. It now looks as if ap- 
ples, plums and pears will command better prices 
than they did in last year. 


In garden truck there is a small decline in string 
beans, summer squash, garlic, peas, tomatoes, etc. 
Cabbages and root vegetables hold steady. Rhu- 
barb and asparagus are about out of market. 

Onions under light receipts and a good demand 
are higher, closing fairly firm at the advance under 
a good local and shipping demand. 

Potatoes have strengthened under moderate re- 
ceipts and a good demand. The quality this year 
shows an improvement over that of 1889. 


Bullocks continue depressed. The depression is 
said to be due to free offerings and light buying ow- 
ing to a lessened consumption. Mutton sheep hold 
strong, as do lambs. Hogs are essentially un- 

The market for dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On loot, light grain fed, 4@4!ic lb; 
dressed, 6@7C if lb.; heavy, 3«@4C lb.; 
dressed. sJ4tg6=J?lb. .Stock hogs, 4«@4y8C tflb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 6"4@— c ^ lb. ; grass feu, extra, 
6@— c ^Vb. \ first quality, 5^®— c^^tb.: second 
quality 5@5>ic Vb.\ third quality, 4}4c@— 
It). ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C ^ lb. 

VEAL— Small, 6@8c Iff lb. ; large, 4@6c. 

MUTTON— Wethers, 75^@8c lb.; ewes, 7® 
7 }^c 4? lb.; lamb, spring, 7}^®8}ic. 


Poultry is moving offfairiy well. I.trge well-con- 
ditioned young hens are wanted, as are large well- 
conditioned young roosters and ducks. 

Beans are moving slowly. Judging from all ob- 

tainable information the crop at the East will prob- 
ably be light, which if true, should cause our market 
to hold strong. 

Honey is steadier at last quoted prices. The de- 
mand is improving. 

Hops for future delivery continue in good demand, 
with as high as 19c reported to have been paid lor 
extra choice. 

Wool is barely steady for fine fleeces, but for 
wools suitable for luster goods the market is firm. 

Exports by sea the past week aggregate as follows; 
Flour bbls, Honolulu, 520; Japan, 1045: Vladivo- 
stock, 125; Manila, 1250. Barley ctls, Honolulu, 
1075; Japan, 1045. Hay bis, Honolulu, 781. Beans 
lbs, Butaviiavi, 850; \'ictoria, 7974; China, 18.124. 
Hops lbs. N'lctoria, 150; Japan, 666. Wine gals, 
Japan, 250. 

From the Commercial News of July 9th the fol- 
lowing summary 01 tonnage movement is compiled: 
1890. 1889. 

On the way to this port 236 481 250,623 

On the way to neighboring ports 21,711 27,726 

In port, disengaged 13.521 9,876 

In port, engaged for wheat.... 44,587 50,636 

Totals 316,300 338,861 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent to 
the registered tons as given above. 

From July i, 1889, to July i, 1890, the following 
are the exports from this port: 189a 1889. 

Wheat, ctls 13,702.191 13.385,095 

Flour, bbls 1,189,629 909,032 

Barley 952,248 1,298,153 

Domestic Produce. 

Extra oholoe In good packages fetch an advaooe on top 
qnotatlouB. wtille Terr poor grades wU lees than the lower 

Quota tioua. 


3 90 @ 

4 20 

2 uo le 

•i 25 


2 -20 « 

2 4U 


2 25 i 

2 75 

2 85 « 

3 CO 

Large White ... 

Smell White .. 

2 20 1 

2 40 


4 (1) 1 

4 50 

Fid Pesr.blkeye 

do grrPD .... 

- @ 

2 00 @ 

2 25 




WKDNtsDAT. July 1890. 

Salted 5(e» 8 


Oregon. 1889 .... U m 20 

Cal li89 Choice 18 W 10 

do Fair to O'd 13 @ 16 


Silver Skiu ... I 25 3 1 50 


Walunta, OaL lb 7 @ 8 

do Oh'oe U C<t U 

Almond*, hd shl. b (g 6i 

Boftahell 9 10 

Paper shell... 13 @ 14 

Brull 1U§ 13 

Choice toEitra80 00 O 93 00 Pecans 9@ 14 

Fair to Good.. 70 00 M 75 00 Peanuts HQ 71 

Poor 50 00 (<t 60 00 Filberts lli@ Ut 

CHIOORY. Hickory 6 9 

Oallfomla 6 @ 61 Chestnuts 14 @ - 

Qerman 6i@ 7 Fine nuts 7@ 8 



l'»L Poor to fair, ttilO 
do good tu choice 13 
do GiltwU'wl... 17 @ 

do pickled — 

do in kegs — @ 

do Creamery in 
rolU 17l@ 


Oal. choice mild 
do f ai r to good 
Y,,uug America 
M. Vork Oream. 


Cal. ranch, doz. 21 @ 
do do Bul cted 23 (0 

do. store 1 

Eat'ru.cldst'rage — W 

do fresh 15 @ 

do selected.. 19 @ 
do to arrive, . . ~ f& 

13 ig 

s @ 

New 1 00 a I 25 

@ 12 do iboicf. . . 1 50 (rt 1 ru 

@ 16 Euiy li,ose,*ks. — <a — 

17i Chile - « - 

Peeriees — % — 

River Reds - « — 

Humboldt - # — 

18 Petalnnia — W — 

iBurbauks 1 50 (0 1 75 

9 iSweft - (3 

91 iHens, doz 6 00 @ 8 OO 

14 Rooaten.old.... 6 00 «« 7 UO 

III do young 6 50 @ 50 

Bruilen. small 2 50 (i« 3 50 
22 do large 4 00 3 1,0 

— I Fryers 6 0- « C 00 

m 19 luuckB. tame 3 50 ^ 4 00 

— do young 4 50 5 .'.J 

17 Oeeae. pair 1 OU tt$ 1 '.15 

2U Ooslinga 1 50 C<i 1 75 

— Tuike>s. Oobl'r. 19 |0 21 
Turkeys, Hen*. . 16 e 18 

Bran, ton 14 00 @15 i3 I'igious 2 50 @ 3 lio 

Feedmeal 20 UO @22 UO 'ttaubits,doz.... 1 50 1 75 

Hare 1 75 

Vmi.s(.n 8 (je 

Dove 75 (ft 

Manhattan, « S> 12 @ 

Qr'd Bariey 24 00 #25 to 

Middlings 21 .^0 (423 Uu 

OU Cake Meal.. 25 00 a - 
Per 100 lbs.... 7 90 a - 

HAY. „ , „ 

Compressed.... 10 OO @H 00 OiJ. Baoon^ 

Wheat. p«r ton. 3 00 i«lu 00 ' Heavy, ti 101® 

do choice.... 12 OJ (*14 00 Medium li IS 

Wheat and OatslU UO ;<tl4 OJ Light......... 13 M 

WUd Oata 7 50 m» ^ ; Ught.. -- ig 

Tame do S UJ (^lu OU Laxd... 9 « 

t«OTer s UO (« 9 51 SmkdBeeJ 11 W 

do ch'ceredtop -m - Hams Cal 12(0 

Barley 7 00 IS 9 00 do EaetCTD.. . 121«9 

Barley and Oats — W - BBKDB. 


Stock Hay — M - 

AlfalfaC'mpr'sd — (« — 

Straw bale 45 (4 S5 

New bay.Wlieat — (S - 
do Oat3. . — (a — 
Extra, CityMiUs 4 10 @ 4 35 
do Oo try Mills 4 l6 « 4 3U iMjl'SrUteraM' 
Superhne 3 1 U (C 3 75 "^/Oom™": 

B«ley,feed.cU. 1 00 @ 1 Ni^T^tZ^Z 
do Choice 1 10 o — I Rape 
do brewing... 1 10 (sj 1 12li;Ky Blue Oraes'. 
do do Choice.. 1 15 (oc 1 10^' o., ,,,..Htv 
do do giltedg d I 18J(ff 1 3U Igweel V Uraii! 

Clover, Red... 




Perennial . 

— ! Orchard 12 « 14 

Cnevailer cuce — 

docouitogood — 

Buckwheat 1 25 @ 2 00 

Oom, White.... 1 00 (g 1 10 

YeUow 1 10 (g 1 25 

Oats, milling.... 1 65 1 75 

Surprise 1 70 (« 1 ,'5 

Choice teed 1 60 ijS 

do good. 1 55 

do lair 1 .50 — 

do Gray 1 45 (d — 

do BInck 1 40 «t I 50 Humboldt and 

Kye 90 (9 93; Mendocino.... 

Wheat, milling. Sac'to valley 

Gilt edged 1 4li@ 1 42i Free MouuuUn. 

do Choice 1 4U <^ - y Joaquin vaUoy 

do fair to good 1 'JAig — do mouutaiu. 
Shipping, cno'oe I 3i((<r 1 36', Oala'v A K'th'il. 

do good. 1 35 (0 — Oregon Eastern. 

do tall 1 3Ui0 1 331 do vaUey 

HIDES. -So'n Coast, de(. . 

Dry Ight to h'vy 8 @ 9 So'n Coast, free. 


4 m 
u m 
» « 
na <0 
* <e 

8 (0 
10 «« 
7 <S 
B (9 

5 m 



14 (9 

13 le 
75 «< 

2 00 














6 <a 

6 l» 


Meaquit. . 


Crude, lb 3 @ 

Retlned 6 da 

SPRINO— 1880. 

19 m 

15 (g 
18 ® 

17 m 
15 (a 
13 (a 

20 o 
10 o 


Baling, Duplex, lb 12 

Manilla, B> 15 

Twine, for liops, t>alls, tarred, Iti, Manilla 16 

'* " grape Vine, balls, lb " 16 

" " " colis, tt) " 16 

" spring, tb " 18 

" binder (liuO ft. to lb), lb 10 

Duplex twine 3c per lb leaa 

Thkrk are about 1000 elk killed in Oregon 
and Washington every year, the antlera trom 
most of which »re tent to England for orna- 

Australian Ballot System, 

With illustration, by Abbot Kinney, a 32-page 
pamphlet giving a brief and concise discripuon of 
the above-named new system of voting. Price 15 
cents, postpaid, hold by Dewey & Co., 330 Mar- 
ket St., Sao Francisco, Cal, 

JoLY 12, 1890.] 

pAClFie F^URAb f RESS. 

California Fruits East. 

New York, July 3.— California canned fruits 
are now held at from 5 to 15c per doz advance on 
the opening prices in this market. 

Southern Pacific car 10,583, containing California 
fruit consigned to agents of the California Frui' 
Union, arrived 40 hours late, and passed through 
very warm weather, consequpntly the condition of 
the fruit was poor. Two hundred and eighty boxes 
of plums sold from $1.95 to $[.40; 183 boxes Alex- 
ander peaches at $3.05 to $1.50; 430 half crates Koy- 
al apricots at $1.55 to $1.35. 

Chicago, July 3.— The Earl Fruit Co. sold a car- 
load of California Iruit to day as follows: Apricots, 
$1.85 per half-crate; peaches, $2.20 per half-crate; 
Royal Hative plums, $2.10 per half-crate. 

The California Fruit Union sold two carloads at 
the following prices: Plums, $1.75 to $3.55; Bart- 
lett pears, $5; peaches, $2 to $2 55; apricots, in poor 
order, $1.55 to $2, and some at $1.40. 

New York, July 3. — The sale of California fruits, 
which has now fairly begun for the yeat, promises 
to be greater than ever before, and the price ob- 
tained for apricots and early peaches augurs well for 
other fruits. This morning 1000 crates and boxes 
were sold for over $2000. 

Chicago, July 6. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold two 
carloads ol fruit yesterday. Peach plums brought 
$4.25 per half-crate, $3.05 per box; Royal Hative 
plums, $2.90 for fancy to $1.75 for choice per half- 
cfate; peaches, $2 to $2.85 per box; apricots, $2 to 
$2.15; figs, $1.60 to $1.75. The fruit is in fine order, 
and prices the highest realized this season. 

New York, July 6. — The first California pfaches 
of the season were sold at auction Saturday for up- 
ward of sc each. 

New York, July 7. — Market here in good shape 
for liberal supplies of prime fruit. Since the with- 
drawal of Coast offerings, new canned truits are stiff- 
er; buyers, however, have considerable start in or- 
ders. Dried fiuit firm, but not promptly lesponding 
to the excited feeling of shippers. 

Chicago, July 7. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold one 
carload of peach plums at $2.80 to $2.90 per half- 
crate; peaches, at $2.35 to $2.70 per box; Royal 
Hative plums at $1.85 to $2.10 per half crate; apri- 
cots, in over-ripe condition, $1.05 to $2 per half- 

Porter Bros, sold five carloads of apricots at $1.25 
to $3 10, except stock by slow freight, which is in 
very bad order, and which went at 80c to $1.25. St. 
Catherine plums fetched $1.25; Bartlett pears, $2.55 
to $S-3S; Clapp's Favorite pears, $3.50; Dearborn 
seedlings, $2. 65; German prunes, $3; cherry plums, 
$1.30; peaches, $2.65 to $3.05; Royal Hative plums, 
$1.50 to $2.45. 

New York, July 7. — The sales of evaporated 
California apricots are reported at 15 ^c, delivered 
here, August and .September shipment. Sales are 
also noted of prunes, 40s and 505, at iic here; 12c 
is now asked. 

New York, July 8. — The local papers are paying 
an unusual amount of attention to California prod- 
ucts, owing to the conditions now obtaining. The 
trade papers have daily accounts of prices at which 
peaches, apricots and canned goods are held in the 
California markets. These papers reach just the 
class where the publication is the most effective — 
the dealers in such goods. The prominence of 
California products is increased by daily compari- 
sons with foreign goods. Statements are reiterated 
persistently that, in the matter of prunes especially, 
foreign growers have been forced by the growing 
popularity of California goods in all the Eastern 
markets, to imitate California's way of packing, the 
purpose evidently being to persuade purchasers 
they are getting the California goods. Florida is 
not getting one-tenth the advertising here in the 
trade papers that California is. The flattering 
feature of all this is that it is unsolicited, and that 
the facts are printed as mere items of news. Even 
the daily metropolitan press, which falls to make a 
speciality of such trade matters, is noticing Califor- 
nia fruit in the regular news column. There is not 
a possibility for doubt, according to the best author- 
ities interviewed, and who call attention to these 
facts as significant, that California goods will be in- 
troduced to twice as many new people this year as 
during any season preceding. The latest pointers 
are that Turkish prunes are now selling at from 5)^0 
to 7'Ac, with a strong staple market. French 
prunes hold their own, with small sales at f Kc to 9c. 

Chicago, July 8. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold Cali- 
fornia fruit to-day as follows: Bartlett pears, $4. 10 
^ box; German prunes, half crate, $2.95; Purple 
Duane plums, small box, $2.40; Royal Hative, half 
crate, $2.35; peach plums, half crate, $2.35@2. 75; 
peaches, half box, $2. 5S@2. 80. 

Porter Bros, sold one carload as follows: Plums, 
$; peaches, $2,70@2,75, except one line 
in bad order, which went at $1.85; prunes, $2.6o@ 
3,75; Bartlett pears, $4 0S@4.35. 

Chicago, July 9. — California green fruits are 
quoted as rather quiet, at the same time steady to 
firm; quotable as below: Apricots, 20-lb boxes, 
according to quality, $i.5o@2.25; peaches, 20-lti 
boxes, $3@3. 50; prunes, 20-llj crates. Black Tragedy 
$3@3.5o; plums, 20-lt) crates. Cherry, $2@2.25; do, 
10- ft, $i@$i.2s; plums, 20 ft crates. Royal Hative, 
$2@2.50. California oranges are about all gone. 
A few Rodi remain and they are of moderate sale. 
Rorti, small sizes, $6.5o@7 ^ box; do, large sizes, 
$5@6.50. In beans no improvement is apparent; 
the demand is light and the weather too warm to 
expect anything different; offerings are only moder- 
ate but the feeling is easy. California Lima beans, 
choice, sKfesKc-^ft; do, common, 2@4C. 

Chicago, July 9. — The'Earl Fruit Co. .sold one 
carload of California fruits as follows: Peaches, 
$2 40@2.5o; Purple Duane plums, $2 40; Tragedy 
prunes, half crate, $2.7S@2.9S; Royal Hative plums, 
$i.85@2.05; apricots in poor order, $1.25®!. 80. 

Po'ter Brothers sold five carloads as follows: 
Peaches $i.7S@3. 15; plums, $i.S0@3.5s; prunes, 
$2.i5@3.7o; Birtlett pears, $3.30@3-7o; apricots, 
$i.25@i.75; figs, 85@90C. 

Sacramento, July 9 — The first special fruit 
train of the season was sent East to-dav by the Earl 
Fruit Co., the W. R. Strong Co., the Gregory Bros, 
and C. W. Reed. The train was made up with 
shipments for Chicago, New York and Boston. 


[FuTDished for publication in this paper by P. T. Jknkins, Ser^eaut Signal Service Corps U. 8. A.l 




Red Blua. 





Los Angeles. 

San Diego. 




Wind ,, 

1 Weather.. 



Wind .... 












1 Weather . 

Temp .... 


1 Weather . 


Temp .... 


1 Weather.. 




I Weather.. 

Wind .... 



Temp .... 




































































96 Nw 























































































































































90 Nw 








































90 Nw 
























Explanation. Ci. for clear; Cy., c loudy; Fr., fair; Cm., calm; — indicates too tn-all to m^a&uie. Ttmpeiature, w nd <ii.d Htalhet tt 5 r. M. (Pacific StaLdard time) with amount 
of rainfall in the preceding 24 hour.s. T indicates trace of rainfall. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Oholce selected. In good packages, fetch an advance on top 
quotations, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 
quotations. Wednesdav, Jnlj 9, 1890. 

B.inanas, bunch I 00 @ 3 50 Cantaloupes crt 1 50 @ 4 00 
Crauherries . . . . — (* - VEGETABLES. 
Limes, Mex .... 4 50 @ 6 00 |Okra, dry. lb.... 6(8 10 

o0alsmlcase3 75 @ 1 50 ' do green 12J@ 15 

emons,CaI.,bi. 1 OP @ 1 50 Parsnips, ctl 1 25 @ 1 50 

do Sicily, bi. . 6 00 (3 6 00 i Peppers, dry, lb 12 @ — 

do Malaga 4 00 O 6 00 I do green, lb. . 5 @i 10 

do do Seedling 1 50 @ 2 50 Turnips, ctl 75 @ 1 00 

Pineapples, doi. 3 00 @ 3 50 I Beets, sk 75 @ 1 00 

Strawberries.... Cabbage, 100 tt)3 75 @ 1 00 

fair, chest... 5 00 @ 8 00 Carrots, sk 60 @ 60 

choice, chest. .10 CO @15 00 Mushrooms, Cul- 

Apricots. lb. ... 2i@ 2\ tivated, lb — @ — 

Raspbeiries do. 6 00 (W 8 00 . Wild, lb — @ — . 3 50 @ 5 UO | Cucumbers box 25 @ 
Figs, box, black. 35 @ 50 !Toinatoe8, bx... 50 @ 

do white 25 @ 50 Rhubarb bx 50 @ 

do Smyrna.. 25 *** 55 .Garden peas, lb 2 @ 
Plums, blue, bx 59 (Si 1 Oo Sweet do do li@ 
Peach plums... 1 00 (re 1 25 String Beans .. . 1 ® 

Pears, bx 50 (d —i Wax, do 2@ 

do Bartlett.. 1 50 (g 2 00 Fountain do 2 (3 

Peache.s bht. . . . 50 (** 75 Squasli. sum- 
do box 40 ('» 95 I mer, bx 15 (g 

Grapes, box.... 60 (o? 1 50 

Apples com box 50 (ft 75 .Green corn doz 

1 00 

do cboi:e 1 00 (S3 1 25 ido do f om sk 

Waterm'I'nsdoz 2 00 (g 3 00 lEgg Plant, lb.. 

4 @ 

I2i& 25 

50 (a 1 00 

5 (S lU 

The World's Fair Big-Tree. 

The PorterviH'' Tidings gives further partic> 
ulars as to Mr. Van D ornum's plan for exhib- 
iting at Chicago in 1803, the section of a big 
redwood from the Mammoth Forest In Tulare 
county, which was mentioned at some length 
in t.he Rural of Jane 14',h. 

For convenience in handling, the section has 
been divided into 16 parts. Fust, there is a 
base section one fooc thick, sawed into semi- 
circles. This is snrmounted by another section 
seven feet high, which is hollow, consisting of 
little more than the bark of the tree. As a 
roof for this cylinder there are two more semi- 
circles similar to those of the base, thus making 
a huge pill-box nine feet in bight an 20 in di- 
ameter. When exhibited the whole will stand 
on a circular platform, supported by nine fine- 
ly-carved legs, eight near the edge and one in 
the center. 

One of the 12 parts of the middle section will 
be on hinges to serve as a door. One stairway 
will allow a>oent to this circular room, and 
another to the top. At the fair it is proposed 
to light up the exhibit, inside and out, with 
250 incandescent lights. The chamber will be 
large enough for 50 persons to move about in. 

This curiosity may be placed on exhibition 
at the Mechanics' Fair in this city, before it is 
sent to Chicago. 

The Fortieth Volume. 

The following unsolicited testimonial to the 
value of the Rural comes from the pen of an 
intelligent and conscientious reader — one of the 
most faithful and respected veteran Patrons : 

EnrroBS Presk : — By persistent will, by energy of brain 
and muscle io battling all obstacles and bearing good- 
will to all men and hatred to none, the Roral Prpsb 
hai won the esteem of the thounands who lead its 

Hiving been a regular subscriber from its first iesae, I 
cin bear witness to the above points, which are to the 
credit of the publishers and editorsof tlii journal, whi *h 
is the friend of the farmer and Granger on the Pac fic 
Coast I's weekly visits reach not only the tillers of the 
soil, but find their way to the commercial and other 
branches of trade and traffic. Its Orange columns, 
headed |by our esteemed editor, including the W. M.'s 
"DtSk,"also departments for Californi», Oregon and 
Washington, bear good news to all and show beaut'fully 
the appli''ation of Orange piiauiples which mskes all 
true members happier and better in life. I hope the 
40th vo'uino will open with many bright auspices May 
its future issues be held in high esteem by the intelli- 
gent and wide awake readers, thus cheering both pub- 
lishers and editors in th^slr ambitious endeavor to bring 
out still a more exrsllent paper. Gso. T. R. 

Fatal Collision on a Race-Track — A 
singular fatality is repotted from the San Luis 
Obispo race-track. A fillv owned by E. W. 
Sneele and the stallion Katerpriie owned by 
John Prioe were being driven in oppositie direc- 
tions, and were so reined that they oame in 
oolHsioD, and both horses were killed outright. 

The commission to examine the Sin Joaquin 
and S koramento riverp, appointed by the last 
Legislature, have started from Sacramento on 
their work, and invite people who wish to con- 
fer with them to meet them at the river towns. 

Hemp Silk. — Mr. Nayemura Sakusaburo, a 
druggist of Hikone, in Omi, .Jipan, has suc- 
ceeded in converting wild hemp (yachyc ) into a 
substance possessing all the essential qualities 
of silk. Nothing is said about the process, bat 
it is asserted that trial of the thread has been 
made at the first silk-weaving establishment in 
Kioto and other factories, with excellent results 
in every case. The plant in question grows on 
moors and hillsides. Its fiber is said to be 
strong and glossy, in no wise inferior to silk 
when properly prepared. Cultivation on an ex- 
tended scale would present no difiBculties. 

The boiler of a thrashing machine, near Los 
Baoos, exploded last- Wednesday week and in- 
jured two men. Fielding A. Hodges had a leg 
oroken and one or both eyes destroyed. 

Thk thermometer registered 101 degrees in 
New York on Tuesday, which is its greatest 
heat f-xperienced since July, 187C. Many of 
the Eastern States have been visited by ex- 
treme heat during the past week. 

Fisn Bros. Wagons of pioneer merit and sold by the 
trade everywhere. Ask (or them or write Frank 
Brothers, San f rancisco. 

Consumptica Surely Cored. 

To the Editor:— 

Please inform yoar readers that I have a positirft 
remedy for the above named disease. By itstimely 
Use thousands of hopeless cases have been perman- 
ently'cured. I shall be glad to send two bottles of 
my remedy FBEE to any of your reader.-^ wiio have 
consumption if the; will send me their Express aud 
f. O. address. Respectfully, 

I. A. 8L0UUJVI, M. a, 181 Pearl St.. New York. 

RoAP Carts in great variety, also our $35 Phaeton Body 
Cart. Write for Circulars, Frank Brothers, San Francisco. 






Lecturer on Horticulture in the College of Agriculture, 
University of California; Horticultural Editor of 
the Pacific Rural Prkss, of San Francisco; 
Secretary of the California State Horticultu- 
ral Society; President of the California 
State Floral Society, Etc. 


PART I: Generat..— The Climate of California and its 
Local Modifications; Why the California Climate .Specially 
Favors the Growth of Fruits; The Fruit Soils of California; 
The Wild Fruits of California; California Mission Fruits; 
Introduction of Improved Fruit Varieties. 

PART II: Cultukal.— Clearing Land for Fruit; The 
Nursery; Budding and Grafting; Preparation for Planting; 
Planting tbe Trees; Pruning Orchard Tr^es; Cultivation; 
Fertilizers for Fruit Trees and Vines; Irrigation of Fruit 
Trees and Vines. 

PART III: Orchard Fruits.- The Apple; Tbe Apri- 
cot; The Cherry; The Peach; The Nectarine; The Pear; 
Plums and Prunes; The Quince. 

PART rV: The Grape.— Rise and Progress of the Grape 
Interest; Propagating and Planting Vines; Prumng and Care 
of the Vine; Grape Varieties in California. 

PART V: Semi-Tropical FRtiT.s — The Date; The Pig; 
The Olive; The Orange; The Lemon, Lime, etc. ; Minor Semi- 
Tropical Fruits. 

PART VI: Small FR' ITS.— Berries and Currants. 

PART VII: Nuts. -Nut-Growing in California. 

PART VIII: Fruit Preservation. -Fruit Canning, 
Cry.-tallizing and Drying. 

PART IX: Fruit Protbotion. -Injurious Insects; 
Suppression of Injurious Animals and Birds; Protection 
from Winds and F-osts. 

PART X: Miscellaneous.— Melon Growing; Fruit 


published bt 


Publish KB8 Paoifio Rural Press, 
220 Market Street. Elevator 12 Front Street, 


Iteal {^tate bpctory. 


GEO. BEEBE & CO., 230 Kearny St. Large tracts 
Timber lands for sale. Government locations mad" 


B. P. VANDERCOOK Sc CO., City and Country 
Real Estate, 468 Ninth St., Oakland, Cal 

ANTHONY & OILLIS, City and Country property. 
Loans negotiated at low rates, 466 Ninth St , Oakland 

O. C. LOG A.N, City and Country Real Estate and Loan 
Agent. Office, 481 Ninth Stree t, Oakland, Cal. 

M. J. LAYMANOE d( CO., Auctioneers and Dealers 
Iq City and Country Real Estate, 46(S Eighth St, Oakland. 

TliLM Threshinn-iii.HliiTic ivc-civCTl tho two hi.-.! ColCJ 
Medals givin by the Niw York State Aiirirultuml 
Sin-icly; nrul lin.-s lii'i-Ti sc-lc( t<-d, over all others, .-inil illii.s. 
trat<-diin(l deserihed in Ih.-it.sreat work. " Al.pli lon'sCvelo 
pe.liiinf Applied .Meehaiiies tliu.s, estahlisliT 1^.' it .Ls t hi- 
Standard innehiiu! of Anic rie.-i. Straw-preserving 
Rye-Threshers, Clover-hullers, Ensilage- 
cutters, Feed-mills. Fanning-mills, and 
Wood Saw-machines; "Hof the best in markei, 

1 Tiie Fearless Horse-powers the nu>i.i 

economical nml best r<i«ei,-i luilil foi- (he nmnin-.; 
of ICnsilaue euttei-s. Culton (jiiis, and general farm aud 
planlatiun use. For free Catalof^ues, address 

niNARD HARDKIi, Cobleskill, N. Y. 



..(iis a.-kDonlcilgcH ihf htundnrd Wind 
'■^ Mill of tho World, iii.d i« made bi IS 
Mz. s s to 60 ft. di;mit;t« r. I niaii to-ll)horso 
Iii.wt r. It is ailapttd to piiini iiiK water for 
Stocll anil Dairy Farms, Oruumeiital ai'. 

Villate Water Supply and Kiie 

Pruteeli Hailnav Water Sla- 

tioii.s Irrigation, UraiiiaRe. Elo. 


made upon honor antl 
(.■iKiialiti-cd TIK' MohI. 
I*o»«-rflil, IHirabU^ 
I and Kfsi K«'e"lato«l 
, Moi-iii-llpOini; WiiHl 
Mill till tbe market. 


^j5,i__ And STANDARD 


Thesp .Milh arc suuruutccd 
tilt' KEST of tli.-ir class. Are 
fint iiKide clieaplv. Imt heavy aod 
stn.iig iu cousuiH-iKin. Tliev are rap* 
i'lly takioi: the lead of all Solid aad 
VaDele«3 Mills OD the market. 

We make a eoiii|il.-te line of J 
■ POWER PUMPS, Iron, / 
Brass and Brass-Lined / i 
Force Pumps have no equal. 

We make the luri;eMt UKHortinent of TnnkH 
on tlie market, coDsi^tini; of Rouiol 
Half Itouiid and S^iunre Slock Ti 
. Milk CoolinsTank.s. .Storage rtd Hou 
Tauks. Special .sizes made w order. 

in part payment (or a new Piano, to be sidectcd 
from the larecst and linoct stock of Standard Pianos 
in aan FrftnciscQ. AuiJress W. L., Box !!517, a. F, 



tacking out in Held 

se uf .1 gouil Hay tapflcr 
u'l Fork a few hours hefure 
save many tiin.-s 

iiake the 

tf HurNe Hay 

Ih on the market , consisting 
ii-Friction. Swivel, Revrr*- 
m<l Kod May Carriers. Har- 
aiui (irapplo Hay Ki 
_ v«. Floor Hook'*, etc. 


in 11 sizes, to 10 horse-jjower. Corn Sliellert*. Ilortte 
Powers and JackH, Stalk C'utteri<, Feed <irliulerii, 
Suw Tables, Tank IleatcrA, Kte. All i:n-«i^ Kuaranieea. 
Uclluble Aieentw Wanted in all iiuaasigned Territory. 
Send for Catatoeuis and Prices to 



BRANCH HOUSKS: Kniisa» Cilv. Mo.: Omaha. Nfb. 
DEPOTS :—B0Bl0D, Mass.; Fort Worlh. Teiu. 




Twenty-two miles by daily sta^c from Winters. Pas- 
sengerii leaving S. F. by mofDinK train reach Springs 
same day. 

Tri'Weekly stage from Najia connects at Monticello. 

Famed fur Stomach Troubles and Impuiitics of tho 
blood. Water sparkles like champagne and is very 
pirasant to taste. 

TERMS— Kooni tor Tent with use of Water, $1 per 
week. Tent with mc of Water, $2 per week, .-ingle 
Koom in Cottage, l}2 i)er week. Double Koom in Cottage, 
J4 per week. Board and Lodginn', S9 pur week. 

Butter, Kggs, Proviilona, Hay, Grain, Wood, etc., for 
sale on grouiidd at low prices. 


Take care of your HORSE. Civilized Uan advances 
rapidly and the Uorso will " Keep up with tho Band " H 
well cared for. Horse Boots, itobes, Blankets, etc. 
Saddles, $B to $7S each. Harness, 88 to |250 per set. 
American and English Saddlery Goods. 

Between Sfmaome and Battery, SAN FRANCISCO. 



[July 12, 1890 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co. 'a Scikntific Pkkss U. S. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention: 

Draft and Land Ga(;e for Fiaavs — Owen 
T, OwenF, aseignor to the Benicia Agricnltoral 
Works. No. 429.2-20. Dated Jane 1S90. 
This draft and land gage for plows consists of 
a draft bar having its rear end swiveled to a 
depending yoke beneath the beams to which 
the plows are attached, a guide through which 
the front end of the draft-bar passes and with- 
in which it is allowed a vertical movement, 
horizontal transverse guide-bars upon which 
this guiding yoke travels from side to side, a 
lever by which it is adjusted, and a holding 
rack and the means for altering the points of 
attachment of the rear end ot the draft-bar. 
By mpaas of these adjustments and the free 
vertical movement allowed to the draft-bar 
within the yoke, the work is very much im- 
proved and the draft upon the horses is made 
very much lighter. 

Axlk Set. — Willard F. Nightingale, L»- 
trobe. El Dorado county. No. 429 245. Dated 
Jane 3, 1890. The object of this invention is 
to provide a simple and readily operated tool 
or implement of this class which will accurate- 
ly determine the set and gather of the axle- 

Api'aratp.s foe Wines.— Luther 
Wagoner, S. F. No. 429,826. Dated June 10, 
1S90. This invention relates to the artificial 
aging of wines and distilled alcoholic liquors; 
and it consists in a means for gradually supply- 
ing a small quantity of air, which is caused to 
flow continuously and steadily into the liquor 
to be treated, and in a means for filtering said 
air before it is introduced into the liquor 
Wines are at present aged by slow absorption 
of the oxygen of the air through the pores rf 
the wood of which the cask is made, about 15 
to 20 per cent, by volume, of air beicg required 
to age the wine in from four to five years. 
Should the air be introduced into the liquor 
too rapidly or directly, the process may be en- 
dangered by giving the wine an undesirable 
flivor, and also by exciting a new fermentation 
either by the introduction of germs to the wine, 
or if the germs are already in the wine, in sup- 
plying oxygen in sutricient quantities to produce 
their growth. The object of this invention is 
to introduce purified air nto the cask in a slow 
and regular manner, and so gradually that the 
oxygen may only react upon the acids in the 
wine, and not be present in sutiicient quantity 
to unduly permit the said reaction or to excite 
the latent germs if they be present. 

Pii-ES.— John P. Culver, Lis Angeles. No. 
429,844. Dited June 10, 1890. This inven- 
tion relates to the class of pipes which are spe- 
cially adapted for water, gas and drain pipes, 
and also for use as conduits for laying electric 
wires anderground, and it especially relates to 
that class of pipes which are formed of a 
volute of sheet metal covered with and rolled 
up in asphaltum. The improved pipe consists 
of a volute of sheet metal covered with and 
rolled up in asphaltum, and its exterior bound 
with wire wrapped side by side several laps 
aroand at places desired, said laps being sold- 
ered together. 

Fruit Pitting Machine. — Cbae. W. Elkins, 
Palermo, and Wm. C. Foreman and Stanton 
Foreman, Bidwell's B»r, B'ltte county. No. 
429,209. Dited June .3, 1890. This is one of 
that class of frait-pitttng machines in which 
the fruit is caught between and cut by oppos- 
ing reciprocating knives, the cut fruit being 
discharged automatically by a swinging or 
tilting bad. The object is to provide a simple 
and efTdOtive machine for stoning fruit which 
does not require any manipulation of the fruit, 
the latter being fed to the knivesautoniatioally, 
out in halves and the pit and halved fruit dis 
charged separately and automatically, the 
whole operation being performed by a single 
orank movement. 


Don't Fail to Write. 

Bh<iuld this imper hti received hy any 8iih«cril>er who 
dooa uot want it, »r heynit the time he intendj* to pau 
/(*r i<, let liiin not fail to write 08 *£irr..£ to ttop it. A 
pusta' card (costing one cent only) wid s llice. We will 
ni)t Bin'wiii^fly Rend the paper to any one wlio d<ie8 not 
winh it. hut if it is continued. tliruUKii the failure of the 
Buhaeriher to notify urt to diacootfnue It, or aonie irre- 
spousihle party reituested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time it ia sent. LuoK caiiefullv 


Hoasewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines lor sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooras if de^ 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran 
Cisco, Cal. 



market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLEk, Room 8. 430 Cali- 
fornia St.. San Franrlsm. •* 



real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL, 508 California St., S. F. • 

Odd Numl>era. 
33 and 35 Main Street, San Francisco. Write to or 
call thereon Frank BROiiiitRS, for Farm Implenients of 
every description and Bu^-gles, Caits or Spring Wagons. 











and Cotton 








Afifords the cheapest and most convenient power for Ranch, 
Vineyard ur Dairy purposes, as well ae for ninninK dynamos 
for electric liK'litH, pumps and every otiier varietj of machinery. 

It i> in tlae same degree the wonderful energy anu 
power that has made the Pelton Wheel famous in all parts of 
the world. 

These motors are made of varying sizes, with capacities 
ranging from the fraction of one up to 16 and 20 H. P., enclosed 
in iron casus, all ready for pipe connections, and are warranted 
to develop a given amount of power with one-half the water 
required hy any other wheel. 

The cost, considering capacity and efficiency. Is fully 60 per 
cent less. 

Circular, giving full Information, sent on application. 

Parties writing for iufurmation should give full particulars 
as to power wanted, source of water, supply, with head or 
pressure. Address 


121 Main Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


I— I 


Has Pateut Springs, Patoul Leather Dash, Red Gear, Black Kody. A Stylish, Conveuient aud Serviceable 



FRUNK BROTHERS. 33 & 35 Main St . San Francisco. 


Lap-Welded Wrought-Iron Water Pipe, 

Coupled with i'nteot lead-lined Coui lirj^'s. Dipped ready for laying. Circularb aud pricea furiiibhcd upon 





We now cfTer our Enti R Stock of 

/ Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons. 4-Spring Wagons, Carts, Harness 

and Lap Robes. 

BRIGGS CARRIAGE CO., 220 & 222 Mission St., 

^« OMIGrO, ^soxxt. r'KH FRANCISCO. CAL 


Kstablished 18S6, 

Largest anil Oldest Piano Honse West ot tlie Rocbrs. 

80L8 A0SMT8 FOR 




Sold on eaay installments when desired. Write (o> 
lUuBtrated C&talo^ae. 

Warerooms. 20 OTarrell St.. Dear Marltel S. F. 


Insect Exterminator 

Mutiu'actured solely from Pyrethrum 
fliiwers, grown in California, in a locality 
1 here the soil and climate are peculiarly 
adapted to the production of flowers rich 
in the e^.-ientiiil oil which mnkea them so 
rimarl<at)ly destriiiMiTc to insect life. 

Avoid the Worthless and Spurious 
Preparations, sold a.i Insect Powders, 

and u -c Buhach from original pat kaf;is, 

.Tiid cl ar yiiiir premises oi all Annoying 
and Destructive Insect Pests. 


None Oenulii« With- 
out ttte Trailm Mark, 

If your dealer doesn't 
keep it, order directly 

Irom the 

Buhach Producing Sl Manufactcring 






Money Drawers, letter 
FreEses, Etc. 

Howe WBKon. Dormant, 
Portable, Counter and 
Kven- tialanced j^calos. 

Railroad Trark Scales. 

411 & 41 3 Market St., San Francisco. 


Comniii'sior) Dealer in 

Shingles, Posts, 

Pickets and Piling, 

Manufacturer and Pacific Coast 
At;eut of the TopuUr 

Byrkit-Hall Sheathing Lath, 

A vahiaMe invention but recently 
used on this Coast. Send for Bam- 
plcs, Circulars, Price Lista, Etc. 

42 Market Street, 

Furnishing Heavy Redwood for 
ground work a Specialty. 


204 California Street, STOCKTON, CAL. 

Harvester and Thresher Teeth Maker. 

All Teetb faced with superior steel imported by myaalf. 
Sat'nfaction guaranteed. Wtllrifer to all persons uaing 
Uouser Machineshavlng teeth with my name on ttacm. 

July 12, 1890.] 



The Yokohama Gardeners' 


Nos. 2] to 28 Nakamura, Yokohama, Japan, 
OSer for sale all varieties of 


Of Japaoeee growth, ia Iota to suit purcliasera, at lower 
rates than ever before offered to the public. Catalo<,'ue 
prices ioclude packing, boxiog aod transportation to the 

Most careful attention paid to packingr and boxing. 

Orders must be accompanied with cish, which can be 
sent by bank diatt, postal money order or re^stered 

Trees, etc., delivered In San Francisco, if cusjomers 
prefer, at a small advance over catalogue prices and 

For catalogues and full particulars, apply at the 

Japanese Garden and Nursery, 

Or to P. O. Box 2170, San Francisco, Cal. 

TABITI ORANGE SEED.— The " Tropic Bird," 
which just arrived for us with choice cargo of 
Tahiti Oranges, in the last cargo of the season from 
which reliable Seed can tie procured. Seed from 
later arrivals now on, as all experienced nursery- 
men know, is too late in the season to cure properly for 
planting and will not produce a strong stock. One 
cargo ia due in the latter part of .July, but too late. 
Thoae who desire Seed from this cargo are rtquented to 
send their orders immediately. L. G. SBESjVlCH & 
CO., Nos. 605 & 607 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Get Trees Cheap! 

I have a surplus of Peach Seedlings now growin^r in 
my nurseries, in splendid condition; will contract to bud, 
in lots of not less than lOUO, to any suitable varieties of 
prune, plum, peach, apricot, nectarine or almond. 
Terms on application. 

Napa Valley Nurseries, Napa City, Cal. 


Offered at very low prices by 


303 to 312 Wayne and Crescent Ave., B. H., 

Wholesale Catalogue free to any part. 

LEONARD COATBS. Proprietor Napa Valley 
Nurseries, founded 1878, solicits correspondence or per- 
sonal calls from any desiring Nursery Stock. Everything 
trictly first-i^lass. shipping facilities excellent. Address 



These Orapea make Bie finest seedless raialns known 
For sale by J. P. ON8TOTT. "S uba Olty, Oal. 

Important to Fruit Growers. 

Protect Your Trees from Sunburn, 
Borers, Habbits, etc., by using 

;Tlie Patent Tree Protector. 

It ia the Best Tree Protector in use, 
and ia now being used extensively as a 
Preventive of Canker Worm in Old 

Waterproof and Adjustable ; Saves 
Time, Trouble and Expense; Costs from 
one to two cents per tree; only for 
young trees. Special sizes made to order. 

We also make a specialty of Fruit 
Paper for packing Fruit for shipment 
East. Send for samples and prices. 

80 St 32 First St., San Francisco. 

Codlin Moth Destroyed. 


New Oodlin Moth Trap 

Will entirely clean an Orchard in two years. 

Satlstaotion Guaranteed. Write to 
O. W. THI88KI.I., 

Winters, Tola Co., Cat. 


When 1 say cure I do not mean merely to stop them 
fforatimeandthen have them r«^turn again. I mnan a 
radical cure. I havn made tim dmease of FITS, EPIL- 
liP.SY or FALLING SICKNESS a life-long study. I 
warrant ray remedy to cure the worst casee. BecauM 
others have failed is no roaaon for not now receiving % 
care. Sondatonc* for a treatise and a Free Bottla 
of my mfalhbleremedy. Give Express and Port OfBeeT 
tLG«&OUT>ai,C..183FearlSt. Mew York. 

Has proved the most rapid working machine for GRADING PRUNES, BOTH GREEN AND DRIED, that has ever 
been introduced. Wherever it was used last season it gave peifcct satisfaction, l)Otli in the quantity c f fruit 
graded and the way it did the work. The capacity Is practically unlimited, as it will grade the fruit perfectly as 
fast as it can be shoveled into the machine. 

I make all sizes of this Grader, from tlie Urge SO.inch cylinder down to a small hand machine for the une of 
growers whose crops are small. I furnish the Grader mounted complete, or the Cylinder alone If, as is often the 
case, the purchaser prefers to mount it to suit himself. 

Send for circulars and prices. 

3D- ly. TT^Tj^SS, 


Red Top, Timothy, Red Clover, Kentucky Blue Grass, 

W. H. WOOD & CO.. 117 to 125 J Street. SACRAMENTO. 






Prevents and destroys all fungus growths. 
Will etfectuallj' check mildew and coulure. 
Universally used in Southern California 
as a preventive and cure of the Mysterious 

Best and Only Liquid Compound in use. 
Always ready. 

Liniment in use for man or beast. 

Poison Oak, etc. 

Send for circular and testimooiala to 

Ongertti Grafting Compnntl Co., 

211 and 212 Davis Street, 
Sin" Francisco. 

, h|]]p3, ttc. 

Our Arid Lands will be Reclaimed! 

Revolutionized by the uee of the 


Capacity 600 to 120,000 
Gallons per Hour. 

Water, if containing flO% of 
Mud or Sand, can be pumped 
from wells or streams with 
fine- fourth less fuel 
tUan any other 
known method. No 
machinery to wear out or 
require constant attention. 

sponsible parties. See 
what the users have to say 
about it. Address 


T.ewlston, I. T. 




Powerful and Durable 



HORTO N & K iNNEDY still continue to supply 
tile famous 


These Windmills have bpcn advertised in and known 
by the readers of the Pacific Ri kai, Pkkss for over 20 
y^ars. Tiie Best is the Cheapest. Write for cireulara 
and prices. 


Livermore, Alameda Co., Cal. 

San Francisco Agency, .lAMES LINFORTH, 87 Market St. 

S. W. Corner Kearny and Montgomery Avenue, San Francisco. 

lyFree Coach to and from the House. J. W. BECKER, Proprietor. 


Protect Your Trees 

Asrainst Sunburn, Rabbits, 
and other Pests. 

The Excelsior Frnit 
Tree Protector 

Is not only a protection 
against Sunburn, but be- 
ing t; prepared, is 
proof ai;ainst Rabbits, Bor- 
ers, etc , and is approved 
and being used by all 
I orchardists who have ex- 
amined its merits. Buy 
no other until you have 

^ ^ - seen tlie KXCELSIOR. 

Its simplicity of fasti^ning will recommend it, as it re- 
(luires one-third less time to adjust it than any other make. 

Price for Protection against Sunburn, Rabbits and 
other Pests, $2 per 100. Send for Samples. Special 
Sizes to order. 

BONESTELL & CO-, Agents, 

401 & 403 Sansome St., San Fraocisco, Cal. 



I. Ill IIIRr at lednced price of 76 ctB. per copy 
UUkI Ulll. byDEWKTfeOO., Publl8hen,8. r 

A practical treatise by T. A. Garht 
giving the results of long experi- 
ence In Southern California, ltd 
pages, oloth bound. Sent post-paid 



Double Easy on man and 

Workinc;. { ) beast. 
ji''3"^^i,„- VacB 00 doors. 

The most powerful, rapid and durable Press in Americi. 


Champion Full Circle Baling Press, 
The Miller Lightning Hay Press, 
The Junior Monarch Hay Press, 
The Improved Petaluma Hay Press, 

And all kinds of 

Hay, Hide, Hop and Wool Presses. 

Send for catalogue giving full description. 
We are Headquarters for all kinds of Hay- 
in]^ Tools. 




Horse Powers 
Windmills, Tanks 

and all kinds of Pump- 
ing Machinery built to 
order. Windmills from 
$66. Horse Powers from 
$60. Send for Catalogue 
and Price List. 

F. W. KROOH & 
CO., 51 Beale St. 
San Francisco. 


AND The wiNU-ntii/L that 

STILL," seliil forijur|iriliteil iiial- 
ter showing' every eoiiceiviiblc 
rihiise ..f «Mi(l-linll work. Our 


(will k ( niiM.ic-reil) cosCs ulily one au- 1l.ii"1.. <1„(,,wImIo 

tlie Tiltiiijt Tower is nut expen- 
sive. AERMOTOR CO., 

Chiuaco. m. liraaoh: Ui Main Stni', 
Sail Francisco, Cal. 

We have the Latest improvements In 


For all Formations and 
for any Depth. 

Seni 20 cts. for mailisg 





H^^.l:rllli.■, .lillini;, U.volviii-. Artesian, 
DiaiiiinHl I'Mspcrting Tools, Kii|{iiii-a, linili-ra, 
W Mills, I'liiiips. EncycluiK'dlii, l,"'") 

Eurth\Mrala, Ili lerinl. 
[iinlity wat('r;nini],-.l,'^,^c, 
.nierlrnn Well Works, 

Aurora, III. 
11 & l;l N. I'nnal 
-i J SI., ( Iilrnco, III. 
ins Elm ,SI,. 

Uiillii., Toxnt, 

AllSteel. LIGHTNING FullOrcle 



We PosiTIvm.v Cuiiic all kinds of Rupture 
and Rectal Diseases, no matter of how long 
standing, in from 30 to 60 days, without the 

use of KNIKE, DRAWINd lil.OOlJ, or' DK.TKN- 

TroN FROM nii.siNKSs. Terms: No' Cure, 
no Pay; and no Pity until Cured. 

If afHit;t('d, coniu and see us or send stamp for 
oamiililot. Address: 


888 Market Street, - - San Franclaoo. 



[Jolt 12, 1890 



Tubular welis*'a;re Inexhaustible! 



A WKLV. cao be auSk and completed at the rate of from 50 to 100 feet per day in orifinary material. NO CASINO KEijUiRED. The 
Pi)<3 and Tamp all one. Removable Valves. Bed Rock, Boalders, Bard Pan, Cement Gravel and Quicksand arc no obgtatles to the 



Has the Dry Time Come a-Knocking at Your / 

Door ? 


It Mast Be Pamped from Below. 


Will irrigate your ^'rowing crope, fruit trees, gardens and lawns, and supply fresh, healthy water 
Most Durable. Will run in a li^'bter breeze and pump more water than any mill on the market. 


Deep Well Pumps. Shallow Well Pumps, Force Pumps, Lifting Pumps, Hand, Wind- 
mill and Power Pumps, Double and Triple Acting Pumps, Steam Pumps. 


CYLINDERS ! Polished Iron. Brass Body. Brass Lined and All Brass. 

y Bolting stxid I^ctolsLiixsr- 





2 1 5 J street, Sacramento, Cal. 1 09 & 1 1 1 North 4th St., Portland, Or. 




BROTHERS for Vehicles ^Vy^StIo^n" 



With Patent Spiral Sprlnit Lazv Back, lias a 
very soft and eaiy sprlnj,'; in well-proportioned, 
roomy andi comtortatjic. Has seat for 
wcoden dash aid liox under seat for panels. 
Body is framed, slued, and stren;.'t.hened by 
rocker-plates and steel braces. Kiui-bed in rich 
Scarlet Lake, or Brewster Green, with BUck 
body Substantial one-incii Sirven wheel. 16-16 
inch St. el axle. Upholstering. Corduroy or 
Evans Leather. Shafts leather trinnned. Weieht 
175 lbs. Shipped securely crated. Fully war' 








Fully ^"-tfioi; 



33 AND'35' 


San Francisco. 

Vol. XL —No. 3. 


DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
Office, 220 Market St. 

Mono Lake. 

Like Mono is gltaated in east-central 
California, within a few miles of the Cal- 
ifornia-Nivada border. The lake is 6380 
feet above sea level. The Mono basin is 
remarkable for its diversity of topography, 
its varied and striking contrasts of ecenery, 
its wide range of climate and corresponding 
variations of flora. Besides these more ob- 
vious characteristics, the basin has a varied 
geological history, the later chapters of 
which are of fascinating interest and can 
be read with unusual facility. 

The highest peaks that overshadow the 
lake rise more than 6000 feet above its 
level. Over the entire area of the basin no 
running water can be found during the 
greater part of the year, and the region 
is consequently silent and lifeless. Near 
the shore of the lake are low hills with 
castellated summits which at once attract 
the attention of the geologist by the pecu- 
liarities of their forms. These are tufa 
crags, mainly composed of calcium carbon- 
ate which was deposited from the waters 
of the lake when it stood much higher than 
now. There are three varieties of this tufa, 
tubular masses being sometimes formed, 
that appear to have been precipitated from 

The lake is rudely circular in outline, 
and, including its islands, has an area of 87 
miles. The average depth is about 62 feet, 
and the greatest 152 feet of water. iThe 
entire bottom is of soft black mud. The 


most remarkable features of 
the lake are the absence of 
an outlet and the strongly al- 
kaline condition of its water. 
The lake derives the principal 
portion of its water supply 
from the creeks that descend 
the slope of the Sierra, and 
supplementing this surface 
drainage are a number of 
springs, many of them warm 

At the western extremity 
of the lake are several sub- 
lacustral springe. Two of 
special interest rise at the base 
of tufa crags 20 or 30 yards 
from the lake shore. At the 
present time they are not de- 
positing mineral matter though 
the tufa about them was evi- 
dently deposited by them. 
The positions of the springs 
rising in the lake near Black 
Point are indicated in calm 
weather by the eddies on the 
lake surface. On rowing over 
these submerged springs it is 
seen that come of them rise 
from the tops of tufa crags 
which are covered by 10 or 12 
feet of water. These crags 
are of the same character as 
those on the shore and were 
formed by the deposition of 
calcium carbonate from the 
incoming waters. The sub- 
merged towers from which 
these spring! lesne are in some 
I l(Continued on page SG.) 



f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

[Jdlt 19, 1890 

^PoUbTf^Y ^ARD. 

General Topics. 

Tbe value of whitewash as applied to poultry 
fences, roots, etc., Is greatly overestimated. It 
is true that it beautifies the poultry yards 
when well put on, which is of some value, but 
is overbalanced by the harm it does by refleot- 
iag the sun's rays to the icjary of the fowl's 
eyes. This is particularly the case in Califor- 
nia, where the summer months are one contin- 
nous procession of cloudless days. As a disin- 
fectant whitewash has some value, but the 
fences do not require a disinfectant. It is only 
the roostp, and a little gas-lime scattered about 
and dusted into corners that become damp and 
foul, is ten times more effective than lime- 
wash. Laave the fences and buildings the nat 
oral color, or mix some dark color with the 
wash or piint. 

What to do with broody hens puzzles not 
only the beginner, but nearly all fanciers and 
poultry -raisers. Probably as good a method as 
any to relieve them of their desire to incnbste 
is to remove them to a large coop or yard 
where they may have room to move about, 
scratch, dust themselves, etc., bat with no 
place that resembles a neat. Liberal feed and 
pure water should not be withheld. As broody 
hens are generally more or less lousy, it is a 
safe rule to always give them a good dusting 
with some insect powder when " breaking up " 
tbe fever; and while they are " in hand," give 
their shanks and feet a good brnshiog with 
sweet oil and carbolic acid as a precaution for 
po'sible scale leg. 

From experiments I conclude that eggs from 
vigorous ttook, feriile and properly packed, can 
be brought from tbe E=kst, and a fair hatch ob- 
tained; that better results are obtained from 
eggs packed in baskets than cases, owin^, I 
suppose, to cases being handled more roughly; 
that the best way to pick is to wrap each egg 
in paper or excelsior, place in egg fillers in a 
basket (the E Hot egg-basket bilng the best of 
any I received) with a good layer of excelsior 
under and over them. If shipping from a cold 
climate, I would prefer newspaper to wrap 
eggs in, as it would help to keep them from 
getting too cold. Bran or sawdust is bad 
packing for long distances; it settles down and 
packs too tightly around the eggs. If 
Eastern breeders would be more careful to send 
fertile eggs, they would get more trade; all they 
care for, with some exceptions, is to fill the or- 
der. In addition to my own experience, an ao- 
e] laintance sent for 75 White L'-ghorn eggs, 
whioh, after repoaing under hens 21 or 22 days, 
produced 4 chicks, the only ones fertile. Aa 
the expreseage was $4 25, when added to the 
first cost of egg", the chicks were a trifle dear, 
to say the least, and there is no danger of that 
man sending East for any more eggs. 

John D. Mercer of Lis Angeles, writes: I 
believe the following to be the best, most prac- 
tical and cheapest poultry fenoe: No. 20 wire 
netting, two-inch mesh, four feet high, board 
of any width at bottom; no top piece; posts six 
feet, two by three resawed, making one end 
come almost to a point; set large end 1 j feet io 
the ground, small end come to a point so that 
the fowls have nothing to alight on. By resaw. 
ing post and bottom board you get twice the 
amount for your money, excepting S2 or $3 a 
thousand for resawing. The ab^ve is for acres. 
For small pens or yards, posts SK feet, two by 
three resawed, set two feet in the ground; 14- 
inch board resawed, one above another, making 
28 inches high; four feet, two-inch mesh, No. 
20 netting over bottom boards, making fence 
six feet four inches high; no top piecp, and 
posts sharp at top; posts eight feet apart. 
Small stake driven in the ground between 
each post, and board nailed to them will keep 
them from warping. That kind of a fence 
looks well, is cheap and practical, and I will 
guarantee it to hold any breed of fowls. 

Geo. B. Bidger writes of color of fowls' lege, 
eto. as foUowe: Speaking of strong light ane) 
wind as causing paleness of plumage in poultry, 
Mr. Marker has expressed his views on that 
subject quite in agreement with the conclusions 
arrived at by ornithologists in regard to birds 
in general. The subject has been under consid- 
eration by scientific men for many years. Ex- 
tensive and systematic collections of birds have 
bi^en made in all parts of our vast domain. 
From Maine to Oregon, and from Mexico to 
Alaska, large series of epecimens have been ob- 
tained; in fact, but little doubt now exists, not 
as to actual color, but rather as to the expres- 
sion of the color. Heat accompanied with 
moisture and shade, tends tu bring out and in- 
tensify all colors, whatever those colors may 
be and vice ver/ta. As to yellow legs on the 
Plymouth Rock, I don't see but what breeders 
on the Atlantic Coast experience very much 
the same difficulty that Californian breeders do, 
perhaps not quite to the same extent, though 
the difference is not so great as many suppose. 
There, as here, the trouble is mostly with the 
hens. It seems to come almost as natural for 
the cock to possess yellow lege as it is for him 
to cjrry a lighter plumage throughout; though 
the pullets will have the bright yellow legp, the 
matured hen frequently loses this desirable 
characteristic. The trouble has always been to 
prevent the hens from running too dark, even 
to blackness. There is a law of nature known 
among naturalists as the law of correlation, 

whereby a change of one part of any organism 
is followed by a change of some other part; of 
course exceptions occur, but the rule is a sub- 
stantial one. It is quite reasonable to suppose 
that a plot of grass should assist fowl in main- 
taining the bright color of their legs, as grass 
and moisture are natural concomitants. Add 
the shade so easily obtained in this, the most 
magnificent of all the States of our Union, and 
California can do as well as Massachusetts. If 
grass does not naturally grow here daring the 
dry seasnn, there is one thing certain, the Cali- 
fornian Yankee knows how to make it grow: 
and as to shade, so essential to the comfort and 
well b-ting of fowl, where can it be grown more 
favorably than in this land of plenty ? — Califor- 
nia Cackler. 

Vermin on Fowls. 

Daring the past week I have received no less 
than nine letters from parties inqiiring what 
to do in order to rid their hen -houses of the 
vermin that have taken possession. 

Lice on fowls is one of the most annoying 
features connected with the poultry businesr, 
and although it seems to some almost impoeslble 
to guard against their becoming firmly fixed in 
the fowl house, it is to others no trouble to 
keep clear of th< m. If yon will commence in 
time and pay close attention to your roostr, 
nests, etc , you can by diligence greatly reduce 
the probability of having these minute parasites 
take possession of your buildings. Uae kero- 
' sene on your roosts at leatt once a week freely. 
A good idea is to take the roosts out of the 
house once a month, cover them with kerosene 
and set them afire; the oil burns off, killing the 
lice and germ», but does not inj ire the wood. 
After seeing all the fire is out replace the 
roosts and again cover with kerosene. Aside 
from keeping lice from the rooets, the evapor- 
ation during the night, when the fowls are 
roosting, and the fumes rising and entering 
their feathers serve to destroy all vermin on 
them. Sprinkle sulphur in the nests twice a 
week. The heat of the fowls while on the 
nests aids the propagation of vermin to a great 
extent, but it also causes the sulphur to pass 
up in fumes, thus destroying all that hatch out. 
A. wash made of lime with carbolic acid, in the 
proportion of two ounces of crude acid to the 
gallon of whitewash, is not surpassed for cleans- 
ing the inside of the poultry-house. White- 
wash your house with this every two or three 
months. By following the above you will have 
few, if any, lice about your fowls. 

Shcald your fowl-house be affected with 
parasltep, shut it up close, take an iron kettle 
with a quantity of live coals in it, place in the 
center of the house and throw on the coals a 
quantity of sulphur. The fumes rising and 
filling the bouse will eradicate all vermin. 

There are a great many breeds of lice — more 
than enough to correspond with the breeds of 
fowls — but of the whole the greatest mischief 
is done by three or four kind', whioh are per- 
sistent and not easily driven off. The worst of 
the lot on this coast is the red snider louse, 
which is a very small parasite. Unless very 
close examination is made, this little fellow 
will escape observation. Many persons suppose 
that tbe bird^ are free from his depredations 
because he i» so diminutive as to escape notice, 
but give him a few days grace and he and his 
mate will multiply so rapidly that countless 
millions will be present, and in every crack and 
crevice. It will only be necessary to touch any 
part of the wall with the hand to fi ad out if 
they are there. We have known of several in- 
stances of their getting on horsep, where the 
fowl-house was located next to the stable, and 
if not speedily attended to they will kill a 
horse in a short time. Toey do more damage 
at night than during the day, and as their 
small siz3 enables them to hide moat anywhere, 
the best way to destroy them is to make a 
thin, hot whitewash, add a tablespoonful of 
strong liquid carbolic acid to each gallon of 
wash, and, with a watering-can, sprinkle (or 
pour if necessary) it into every portion of the 
poultry-honsp, th-n follow with a brush. Lat 
no part of the house escape — roosts, walls, 
nests, flior and even the roof must be deluged 

Tbe tick louse is a large fellow, nearly one- 
eighth of an inch in length, dark in color, with 
legs near the head. He prefers the head of 
chicks, and sticks close to bis victim. A good 
dusting with insect powder is more than his 
constitution will endure, and he qaickly suc- 
cumbs or leaves. 

The flash louse — so-called because it is nearly 
the color of the flesh of the fowls — is very ac- 
tive, long in shape, and feeds close to the roots 
of the feathers. A good dusting with insect 
powder renders his location very unhealthy, 
and once he is out of the way the dust-bath 
will prevent his return. 

The flat louse is buff in color and eats por- 
tions of the feathers, often stripping the quills 
clean, giving the birds the appearance of hiving 
lost their feathers. iJust the fowls freely with 
insect powder and repeat three times a week. 

It is of the utmost importance to keep the 
quarters clean, a< filthy houses will be inhab- 
ited by lice. The whitewash solution should 
be applied every week till there is no sign of 
vermin left. Many persons advocate using 
grease on young chicks, but I am thoroughly 
opposed to its use, having known many valu- 
able chickens to be killed thereby. Insect 
powder is much safer to use, and if applied 
with a " powder-gun " takes very little. If 
your soil is sandy you do not need to provide a 

special dust-bath, but if not, take some dry 
dirt and add a little sulphur for the fowls to 
dust in. Keep the house clean and the fowls 
will free themselves of lice with tbe dust-bath. 

If strict cleanliness be observed about the 
house, using kerosene on the roosts and sulphur 
in the nests, as recommended above, you will 
never be troubled to any extent with the pest 
of the chicken-tatser — lice. — Los Angeles 

©HE ^lEbD. 

The Washington and Oregon Hop Crop. 

Ezra Meeker's Hop circular dated Puyallup, 
June 26th, says : It has been 2fi years since tbe 
first hops were planted in the Puyallup valley — 
the first in Washington — and never before, with 
but one exception, has there been so much rain- 
fall and consequent heavy growth of vine in all 
these yearp, before the bloom ; that exception — 
the year of 18SS, we grew fully 50,000 bales 
although we were not able to save but 42 000 

Unless all tbe usual signs fail we will grow 
as large a crop as that of 1888, and neighbors 
of Oregon will turn out 20,000 bales or more, 
so that with no unforeseen event the two States 
will grow fully 70.000 bales of bops the present 

Are we ready to take care of that quantity 
properly ? This is a question that each indi- 
vidual grower must canvass for himself, and if 
not, then go to work at once to set his house 
in order. To make the best quality of hops, a 
house 24 feet square, will prooably cure ao av- 
erage of not over 1000 pounds per day. It is 
better that not more than 800 pounds should 
constitute an average day's run ; with this as a 
starting point, and take 20 days as the season's 
run, it is an easy matter to estimate whether 
the drying capacity is ample for the probable 
crop ; if not, then it is the poorest kind of econ- 
omy not to proceed at once and prepare to 
properly care for the crop that all' or nearly all 
the expenses of raising has accrued. 

It is well to remember, that were it not for 
our export trade, that some of our hop yards 
would need to be plowed up; that without the 
extra care of some of our growers, this trade 
would be impossible ; that to the reduction in 
the temperature iu curing much is due to tbe 
good name our hops havd acq aired abroad; 
that it is our well-matured hops tti%t are wantecl 
for export — thoroughly cured but not high 
dried, baled whole and while hot, or at least 
soon after curing and before time elapses to 
toughen — absorb moisture — and in not too 
heavy bales. 

On this last point, as to heavy or light bales, 
we have abundant experience and say that we 
know the light bales are the best — make better 
summer-use hopp, nicer, brighter, springy sam 
pies which give that " polish " on the "boards " 
in the borough so highly prized by the Eaglish 

We hope for a good market, as well as for a 
large crop. This last is almost an assured fact; 
we can only wish the former was as certain. 
The experience of the last year only again im- 
presses us as to the impossibility of even guess- 
ing what the future of the hop market will be. 
It is fresh in our memories, how we all thought, 
producers, dealers and consumers alike, that 
there had been a large surplus of hops produced 
the world over in the crop year of 1889; how 
growers became eager sellers, even at unre- 
munerative prices, while consumers were re- 
luctant buyers, believing prices would go lower, 
still no surplus existed and instead an actual 
shortage was manifest; how prices here rose 
from 7 to 14 cents per pound, and even to 18, 
and tiaally how the market was never more 
bare of hops in June than now. 

The lack of accumulated stock ongbt to ap- 
sure a steady market, but whether it will or not, 
no man can tell. A marked feature of the 
trade — if dealing in futures can be called a trade 
— is the unusual number of contracts for the 
incoming crop. Up to the present writing, 
fully 8000 bales have been contracted, almost 
all at 15 cents per pound. Most of these have 
been upon " American " account, so termed in 
contradistinction to those bought upon export 
orders, and have gone into the hands of a num- 
ber of dealers, instead of but a very few as 

A cheerful feature as to the outlook for the 
future of hop-growing in Washington and Ore- 
gon is the fact that orders for the K iglish mar- 
ket can be placed at all before the hope are 
grown. These contracts are all based upon the 
quality of the best growth, and the moment we 
lower the standard of our qualities, that mo- 
ment we drive the Koglish buyer from our 
fields. No market is more exacting than tbe 
Koglish, and none more discriminating as to the 
quality; if we will produce what they want, 
they will buy. If not, then they will let us 
severely alone. Then let us strive, all of us, 
to produce only the best, for thereby we create 
a market that would otherwise be lost to up, 
and likewise enhance tbe price of the whole 

Watkk Works — It is said that water-works 

in the United States and C*nada have about 
trebled in the last ten yearp, growing from 660 
in 1881 to 1900 to day. Tbe capital inve-trd 
is §.500,000,000, their annual revenue is $50,- 
000,000, their mains are 30,000 miles long, and 
they have 2,000,000 taps. 


Wool and Mutton. 

I. J. Williams writes for the Sheep Breeditr 
on a question which every sheep owner hat 
thought more or less about, as follows: 

The question whether sheep can be profitably 
bred for mutton alone has been one upon which 
considerable thought has been given, and yet 
we find a diversity of opinion among men whom 
It would seem are fairly able to judge. To the 
question I will venture the answer. No; and 
try to give reasons afterward. Now if we raise 
sheep just for the mutton, why not abandon 
them and raise cattle ? 

In my experience I have arrived at the con- 
clusion that in the raising of sheep the wool 
will pay for tbe keeping, and we have that 
much more profit; aud when we breed for the 
mutton alone we materially decrease the wool 
product and proportionately decrease the profits 
arising therefrom, and therefore we must not 
breed for one thing alone. 

If the enormous herds of this country were 
bred for mutton alone, it would be but a short 
time until the entire wool trade would be 
turned over to our Australian friends, who 
would supply the demand, which would have a 
tendency to increase the price of wool, which 
in turn of necessity would increase the price of 
common wearing apparel, or turn the whole 
wool business over to onr merino friends to 
supply us with fine woo), and we all cannot 
afford to wear such fine clothing. 

The merino breeders don't raise very much 
mutton, as their sheep is nearly all wool, and 
after the fl;ece is clipped there is nothing left 
but a very fmall carcass. In order to gain a 
n quisite amount of profit we must raise a sheep 
that »i'l combine a growth of wool with a 
growth of mutton— one that will make the 
most pounds of mutton and a good grade of 
wool. Enough pounds with the least feed- 
that is where we get onr profit. When we 
drop the wool interest we are losing that which 
we should have, for if the wool pays for tbe 
keeping then all we make on tbe lambs pays as 
a good interest on our money. For illustration 
we will take SlOO in the fall and start out and 
buy 20 good common ewes for S75 and pay the 
S25 remaining for a ram. We then breed them 
and take fairly giod care of them through the 
winter. When spring comes look after them 
closely and we should have 20 lambs, which at 
the end of the year from where we started, we 
can sell to the butcher at $.3 75 or St per head. 
We will accept the lower price and will be safe 
in saying that we can sell the 20 lambs for ?75, 
which brings us a return of 75 per cent on the 
money originally invested, and the flook is left. 

Now we will fall back on the wool, and with 
anything like good care the wool will bring 
S30, which I ays all expenses for the keeping of 
the sheep. Now it is easy to be seen that if 
the sheep had been raised alone for the rnutton 
we should have to deduct the $.30 from the sale 
of lambs, which would leave $45, or only 
45 per cent on our money. From this deduc- 
tion it is plain to be seen that we mast keep 
the mutton and the wool together to make the 
raising of sheep prcfitable. 

This is the reason that sheep breeders can 
raise sheep and sell the mutton at the same 
price aa that of cattle and make more money, 
for the wool pays for the feed, and the wool 
from the cattle don't sell very well. 

There is another thing in favor of tbe sheep; 
they don't tramp the ground ao much as the 
heavy cattle and the manure is far superior to 
that of any other stock. 

No w on the other hand, we mutt not breed 
too much for wool, for when we do we weaken 
the constitution; we always notice that sheep 
of any breed which are the bett covered on 
head and legs are the weakest in constitution. 
Therefore we mu«t guard against that part and 
try to raise a sheep with a good constitution, 
with plenty of mutton and all the wool we oan 
get, the more the better. 

Australian Scab .Cures. 

The following letter with instraotions was 
sent to the Breedert' Oaiette by P. R. Gordon, 
Inspector of Stock, Brisbane, Qaeensland, 

As Australia is tbe only sheep country which 
has effectually stamped out pcab in sheep, it 
will be permitted me t; offer advice on the 
subject to other countries. I inclose copy of 
instructions issued by me to my staff of in- 
spectors for the dressing of sheep. These are 
Insisted on by the Governments of each of the 
Australian colonies and have never been known 
to fail. 

The tobacco and salphar care is equally 
efficacious with that of the sulphur ana lime 
cure; but tbe latter is preferred for the reason 
that it is much the cheaper and more easily 

You will notice that we insist on using the 
dip at a high temperature, The reason for 
this is that we fiad by actual experiment that 
whereas tbe scab acarus will live for some 
minutes in the mixture when cold, it succumbs 
in about 40 seconds when the temperature is 
1 10 degrees F^hr. 

It la essentially necessary to a perfect cure 
that the sheep swim or fl )at in the bath, so that 
every part of tbe body will be in contact with 

JtTLY 19, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

the mixture. The bead shonld be pressed 
nnder just prior to the ebeep leaving the bath. 

Many bandreds or thousands of sheep have 
been cured in the Australian colonies by means 
of the above dips without the loss by death of 
a single sheep. I have not known a single 
dressing to fail, but our legielature compels 
three dressings in the case of all sheep imported 
from other countries whether diseased or not. 

The inetructions referred to in the above 
leti'er are as follows: 

E ther one or the other of the following 
preparations must be used in dressing imported 
or infected sheep: 

Tobacco and Sulphur. 

Oae pound of sound leaf or manufactured 
tobacco and one pound of flowers of tulphur to 
five gallons of water. 

Mode of preparation. — Infuse the tobacco the 
night previous to dipping by boiling the water 
and adding the tobacco in a proportion not ex- 
ceeding one gallon of water to one pound of 
tobaoco. Allow the infusion to stand all night 
in the boiler well covered over. Mix the bath 
with hot water to the desired heat and strength 
in the morning. Thoroughly mix the sulphur 
with the band in a bucket or other vessel with 
water to the consistency of gruel before putting 
it in the bith and keep it well stirred be- 
fore immersing the sheep, so as to keep all the 
particles of sulphur afloat. 

Lime and Sulphur (Hydro-Sulphuret 
of Lime.) 

Take in the proportion of ten pounds of flour 
of sulphur to five pounds of quicklime (a large 
proportion partially slacked); boil in ten 
gallons water; keep mixed by constantly stir- 
ring for about ten minutes or until a clear, 
dark brown orange color supervenes. Then 
make up the dip or bath to the required quan- 
tity by mixing one gallon of tbi" solution with 
three gallons of hot water. If rock or un- 
slacked lime cannot be procured, use double 
the quantity — that is, (q ial proportions of lime 
and sulphur, 

Directiona for Using the Bath. 

Temperature. — N.ver allow the temperature 
to fall below 110 degrees nor to exceed 120 
degrees Fahr. 

Duration of bath. — Never less than .50 
seconds for the second and not lees than 80 
seconds for the first and third dressings. The 
whole body, with the exception of the head, to 
be kept completely immersed during that time, 
the head to be immersed on the sheep being 
placed in and taken out of the bath. Never 
allow the sheep to be exposed to rain for at 
least one day after dressing. 

Feed to Preserve the Milk Flow. 

The secretion of milk has a tendency to di- 
minish the volume of blood by drawing both 
upon its liquid and solid elements. To keep up 
a fl >w of milk, this draft must be supplied by 
furnishing enough to restore the steady waste. 
A failure to do this for any considerable time, 
ia not only to decrease the yield of milk during 
the lack of food, but to invite a hurried con- 
traction of the blood vessels connected with 
the udder. These once reduced, there ia no 
enlarging them again till the occasion of another 
birth, and the supply of blood for making milk 
will be diminished to their reduced capacity, 
keeping down the flow permanently and short- 
ening the time of its final cessation. 

Immense losses are sustained every year by 
dairymen from not comprehending this fact 
with sufficient clearness. A lack of feed in the 
midsummer drought where shrinking has al- 
ready begun, hurried the shrinking along; last- 
ing several weeks, the reduction becomes per- 
manent, and must remain the rest of the sea- 
son. No former activity of the glands will be 
resumed, for the vessels supplying them have 
become reduced. The great value of soiling, 
when grass fails, lies in keeping up and pro- 
longing the action of the mammary glands 
The dairyman who appreciates this will never let 
his milch oows lack for food or drink. 

An instance will Illustrate the (ffjct of a de- 
fective supply of food upon the milk secreting 
vessels. In visiting the farm of the Hon. iiir- 
ris Lewis, in the iall of 1873, I found his cows, 
after the severe drought of that summer, giv- 
ing an average of 22 pounds of milk a day; his 
heifers and farrow cows giving 13 pounds a 
day, and the other cows 24 pounds each. 
Though the rains had come and the grass had 
revived, the average at the factories around 
him, where soiling had not been adopted, was 
13 pounds the oow — just equal to Mr. Lswis' 
heifer's and farrow cows. The soiling more 
than paid for the cost in the dry season, and in 
the fall the large yield gave larger profits. But 
many dairymen complained that year that 
their cows did not pay for their keeping. The 
reader may possibly see why. — Arnold't Amer- 
ican Dairying. 

We had personal knowledge of the spoiling, 
for profit, for the season, of 16 very fiae cows 
of one of our patronp, in Ozaukee county, by 
pursuing the above deprecated course. He was 
the most active and enterprising patron we had 
for a small branch factory we were operating. 
He had planned to have ample pasture, about 
half of it on well seeded upland, and the rest on 

a swampy, quite level piece of land. Long 
continued rains, late in June, flooded the 
marsh, and drove his cows to the upland. This 
they soon gnawed to the roots, and semi starva- 
tion commenced, and consequent shrinking of 
the milk, first in quantity then in quality. 
We remonstrated with the owner that he was 
spoiling bis cows, and that as he had no other 
place to feed them he should do it in the barn, 
with hay of which he had plenty, and bran, 
which he would have to buy, or cut grass from 
bis meadow, and soil them. But no; that was 
an innovation he then saw no money in, neither 
did he believe what we told him — that his cows 
would be halt dry ere he got the second growth 
from his meadows. He believed as thousands 
do yet, that all that is fed a cow in summer that 
she does not nip from a pasture, whether it be 
long or short, tender or woody, is a dead Iosf, 
and the half dried-otf cows will regain their 
flow when fresh pasture comes again. But 
that man learned a lesson that fastened con- 
viction on him that went down to his pocket- 
book. In the fall he had 16 noble cows up to 
their eyes in pasture, all getting fat enough for 
beef, and not giving more than a half mess of 
milk per day, as compared with the cows of 
his neighbors. Two tons of bran fed to his 
cows, at the opportune timf , would have saved 
his cows for prcfit that season, and the fertil- 
izers left on the soil would have been worth 
two-thirda the investment. 

Not to feed cows, no matter what the piico 
of milk, at a time when they will dry i S 
otherwise, is just as silly as to not throw a few 
pails of water on a tire when a little water will 
prevent a oonfligration. — Hoard's Dairyman. 

Feeding Horses. 

The following from Prof J. W. Sanborn will 
interest all who are entering upon the business 
of breeding and raising fiae horse stock, al- 
though written from Eastern experiment and 
observation and does not take account of many 
feedstufia available in California. He says: 

The sole purpose for which horses are kept 
is for the production of force and work. This 
sets the horse apart from other domestic ani 
mals in special features of feeding and care. His 
ratio of stomach to body and intestines is also 
unique, and calls again for special considera- 
tion. His stomach holds only some three and 
one-half gallons, while his intestines are very 
large. The horse, however, seems to be spe- 
cialized for the peculiar purpose of speed. 

The horse sells for some fifteen cents a 
pound, while the steer sells for but two or three 
cants. Is the difference one of food cost, that 
is, does the horse require in food for 1000 
pounds in growth an amount in ratio to the 
difference in cost more than does the steer? He 
certainly does not, although he costs some 
more, and unless there is a great difference in 
other directionf. Is a much more valuable mar- 
ket for food than the steer. 

German experiments have shown that of very 
coarse foods the horse digests somewhat less 
than the steer, but this difference seems to be 
confined to coarse foods. E. W. Stewart gives 
us an account of feeding three colts whose gain 
was in round numbers two pounds daily, which 
was as economically made as that of steers, 

Boussingault, of France, fed several colts on 
weighed rations. Three, weighing 1106 pounds, 
ate 19.8 pounds of hay and seven pounds of 
oats. This was in the equivalent of hay 2.6 
per cent of live weight daily, and gave a 
growth of 1.2 pounds daily, as good as an equal 
amount of hay would make on steers. I made 
some trials with four horses and mules last 
winter, which led me to believe that mainte- 
nance for a horse is elightiv more than that for 
a steer of equal weight. Bat cattle and sheep 
are ruminants, or chew the cud. 

They have four stomachs, while the horse 
has one little one. The ruminants were de- 
signed by nature to handle coarse foods to best 
advantage. I believe that we are fairly taught 
by the makeup of the horse that when at work, 
if not at other times, he should be fed on more 
concentrated food. The attempt to make hay 
the chief ration of horses imposes a severe tax 
upon them, and the result is seen in their dis- 
tended stomachs and the spiritless and clumsy 
horses of many farmers. 

All intelligent students of the horse give 
little hay, or a moderate amount of hay, and 
feed grain more liberally than to the rumi- 
nante, for the double reason that the horse will 
make poorer use of the hay than the steer or 
the sheep will, and will be less easy of motion. 
Good horse feeders give but ten to twelve 
pounds of hay a day, and feed once or twice 
daily. In feeding the colt we have to bear in 
mind that mare's milk is richer in proteine than 
cow's milk in ratio to its sugar and fat. This 
means that a oolt's diet should be rich in pro- 

While latitude in the ratio of proteine to car- 
bohydrates is peimiasible in the fattening ani- 
mal, or in any animal bising kept for animal 
products, it is not so with the colt. He is kept 
for hia muscle; hence a fattening diet, or a very 
carbonaceous one, is out of place on the oolt 
until matured and set at work. When hii 
muscles are grown and work begun, then feed- 
ing foods that are most productive of force Is 
permissible. I do not, therefore, join the out- 
cry against the use of oornmeal for working 

horses. It is now known that the carbohydrates 
are a source of force. 

Formerly, proteine was held to be the only 
source of force by many. Corn ia a good, 
cheap heat or force producer, hence will an- 
swer for a work horse. This does not mean 
that it should be the only food given. In large 
mass it does not digest perfectly. I have 
shown, if not, I will now assert, from my tri- 
als, that a pound of cob meal (corn and cob 
ground together) will make as much pig growth 
as a pound of clear corn meal. The cob acts as 
a divisor in part of the doughy mea), and di- 
gestion ia probably more perfect. For the 
horse, bran mixed with cornmeal will serve 
this purpose, while incidentally it will make a 
more valuable manure and furnish proteine. 
One half a pound of linseed meal, where carrots 
or some other roots or ensilage are not fed, 
will tend to keep the bowels open and secre- 
tion good. Where clover is at command the 
use of straw cheapens the ration, and may be 
used as one of two feeds of coarse food daily. 

For traveling horses there seems to be but 
little doubt that oats are the best, although 
usually the most costly food. A French in- 
vestigator claims to have found that there is a 
principle in oats called avenine, which develops 
nervous force in the horse. This he asserts on 
the basis of a trial by an electric machine. 
Horsemen agree that for road horses oats have 
no substitute, I should say that a trial of 
corn on a great commercial scale in Paris found 
it a cheap and valuable food for work horses, 
Gr»at transportation companies using horses 
make rather free use of corn. Most of them 
use some oats. I should desire to give one 
feed a day of them and the rest of corn, with a 
little bran mixed with it on the score of econ- 

Where bran is ased I do not recognize the 
absolute necessity of oats, and hence would not 
use them for work horses where the disparity 
of price is very wide. The horse's stomach is 
eo small that he often drinks in hot weather as 
much or more than hia stomach will hold. In 
such an event the grain fed is subject to being 
pushed out into the intestines when it is fed 
before the horse drinks, A trial of feeding 
grain before and after watering resulted in an 
adv.mtage of importance to the practice of wa- 
tering before feeding. This matter I went 
over with some care, and believe it invites a 
change of practice on the part of those who feed 
grain before watering horses. 

The relation of mixing grain with hay for the 
horse to the economy of the ration, may not 
necessarily have the same result as that found 
for the cow, because of the difference in the 
stomach relations of the two classes of animals. 
The single small stomach of the horse did not, 
in a trial of mixed grain and bay, give the same 
result as with the cow, and was therefore more 
effective for the horse than when fed alone. 
That is. grain mixed with hay for the horse was 
more eff.-ctive than when either was fed alone. 

I began with contrasting the horse with the 
steer as a food economizer, but did not quite 
complete the thought. The horse will not 
make aa effective use of coarse foods as will the 
steer by, probably, from four to 11 per cent. It 
will make, probably, as good use of grain and 
very digestible foods as the steer. These foods 
cost something more per pound of digestible 
matter than does hay, so that it is probable 
that horseflesh costs slightly more than steer- 
flesh, yet not enough more to cut any figure 
when the relative values of the growths are 

JIJhe Irrigator. 

A Meeting of Irrigrttlon District 

Editor.s Press:— In the interests of irrigation 
will you have the kindness to cill attention to the in- 
closed circular of invitation now being sent out, and 
its objects in your paper. The favor will be duly 
appreciated. I^. Oakford, 

Sec'y Tulare Irrigation District. 

Tulare, July lolh. 

The Circular. 

It has been suggested that the officers of the 
various irrigation districto of California formed 
under the Wright Irrigation law, should meet 
in convention for the purpose of forming a 
State Association of district officers. 

It is thought that such an association would 
enable each district to benefit by the experience 
of all other districts in the solution of prob- 
lems of mutual interest, and that an arrange- 
ment might be made whereby all districts 
should contribute to the adjustment of such 
difficulties as beset the paths of all alike. 

It is not unlikely that further legislation 
will be required from time to time, and that 
concerted action upon the part of the districts 
would greatly facilitate the passage of such 
laws as are needed. 

It is possible also that concerted action may 
be needed to prevent the enactment of legisla- 
tion adverse to the district system. 

Subjects important for associated considera- 
tion will doubtless suggest themselves to the 
minds of directors of all districts, the discus- 
sion of which would be productive of good. 

In view of the foregoing and other conaider- 
ations the undersigned, directors of Tulare Ir- 
rigation district, hereby extend their cordial 
ard earnest invitation to the directors and 
I ffioers of your diotrict to meet delegates from 
the aeveral irrigation district! of California in 

convention at Tulare, California, Sept. 12. 

Delegates are requested to invite frienda of 
the district system to attend and assist in the 
deliberations of the convention. 

Arrangements have been made whereby per- 
sons paying one full fare to Tulare will be giv- 
en a return ticket for one-third fare, provided 
they bring with them a receipt from their 
agent showing purchase of a ticket to attend 
said cocv»ntion.— J. W. Mackie, W. B Cart- 
mill, E. De Witt, A. P. Mekritt, J, F, Gin. 
SON, Directors Tulare Irrigation Dist. E Oak- 
ford, Sec'y. 

Comments by the Tulare Register. 
About a year ago the Register suggested the 
propriety of forming a State association of irri- 
gation district cfiicers, so that each district may 
have the advantage of the experience of all 
other districts, and that all may pull together 
for whatever is necessary for the advancement 
of the district movement. From time to time 
since then we have repeated the suggestion, and, 
no other district having taken it up, our own 
district cfficers in Tulare have issued a call for 
a convention to be held in Tulare September 
12th next. 

There are many important subjects for a dis- 
trict association to consider, a number of which 
are suggested in the tflBcial call which appears 
in 'another column. But there are others of 
even greater importance which a free discussion 
among delegates would certainly bring out. 
Among other subjects for consideration, we 
would suggest the following: 

First, whether California might not with 
propriety follow after the Australian idea, by 
aidiog in placing district bonds. District bonds 
are not taken aa readily aa the Scate'a necessi- 
ties require, and something should be done to 
further their placement. Suppose, for instance, 
the State of Oalifornia were to Issue bonds of 
its own of a like nature as district bonds, but 
bearing 4 or 44 per cent interest, and, with the 
proceeds, take up irrigation district bonds bear- 
ing one cent higher rate. This would furnish 
a revenue for repaying the State all expenses 
entailed, and more, and would give an impetus 
to internal development that nothing else could. 
Of course the State's engineering and legal de- 
partments would have to sanction all such pur- 
chases of bonds to insure against wildcat enter- 

There is another point of great importance. 
It is a correct principle that " the land that 
gets the water should bear the expense of the 
getting." Towns should, by right, no more 
help the farmer to build his ditches than his 
barn or fences. Considerations of public policy 
may sanction a departure from this principle, 
still it is nevertheless a sound one to follow 
generally, just as it is sometimes advisable to 
subsidize railroads and other public enterprises. 

But the land that gets the water can well 
afford to pay for it, and districts can easily be 
made self-supporting. No more should be re- 
quired of unirrigated property than that it 
should lend ita credit for the common good. 
When once the canals are built, the banks set- 
tled and the system in working order, a reason- 
able charge per foot for the use of water would 
create a much larger revenue than would be 
required to discharge the operating expenses of 
the canal, and whatever sum should be found 
tp remain after discharging such expenses 
should be applied upon the interest charges. 
If the law were so modified aa to permit this, 
the land that gets the water, the actual use of 
water, could, without feeling it, pay off the 
entire indebtedness, and it should do it, for the 
plant is for ita benefit. Whatever other and 
public benefits are ecjoyed will be shared in 
common by town and country, whatever helps 
the one helping the other also. We respectfully 
commend this subject to the consideration of 
delegates to the Snate Association of Irrigation 
District Otfioers, to be held at Tulare Septem- 
ber 12th, 

Let there be a big convention, the fullest dis- 
cussion, a permanent organization and concerted 
action in furthering the irrigation district 
movement throughout this State. 

Antiseptic Vauje OF Etcalypths. — A late 
correspondent of the Salma Irrigator aays: In 
soaking up old wine or vinegar casks, we throw 
a few blue-gum boughs with their leaves into 
the water, and it never becomes putrid, while 
without the blue gum we would have to change 
the water dally to prevent putridity and apoil- 
ing of the flavor of anything afterward kept in 
the cask. We have kept fresh beer e ght days 
in the hottest weather, by keeping around it a 
plentiful supply of green blue-gum leaves, and 
changing them daily. A decoction of green 
leaves is a stronger and more lasting stimulant 
than tea or coffee, and more salutary in its ef- 
fecte, as it does not cause wakefulness. It 
seems to have the stimulating effect of quinine, 
without any of its irjurious qualities. In ad- 
dition to the above it may be remarked that no 
worm or insect is ever found upon the eucalyp- 
tus tree, or in the earth where its roots per- 
meate, A row of trees planted through an 
orchard or vineyard will cause insects, worms 
and caterpillars to vacate that region. The 
branches of the eucalyptus used in the rooms 
or windows, or aa decorations in dwelling 
rooms, will cause mosquitoes, motha, fleaa and 
fliea to leave the premises, and when the leaves 
are placed beneath a carpet around the border 
of the room, when the carpet Is laid, is an In- 
surance against the moth, and branches placed 
beneath the bed pillows a protection against 



[JcLT 19, 1890 

3!?ATR0;^S Of JiuSBAJ^DF^Y. 

In our Rural Press Official Grange Edition, Issued 
every week, will be found additional matter from 
this and other jurisdictions, ol Interest and import- 
ance to Pa'.roEs. Any subscriber who wishes can 
Change free to that edition. 

Patriotic Grange Meeting. 

Editors Press: — Watsonville Grange held 
auother of those delightful meetings, for whiob 
it has become so noted, at its ball, July 5ib. 
This meeting varied from all otberi as it was 
purely patriotic. The ball was tastefully dec- 
orated with fl>gs. bannf<rs and emblems, the 
artistic work of W. O. Judd and his energetic 
committee, while the rostrum, the position oc- 
cupied by (Jeres, Flora and Pomona, were beau- 
tiful to behold. A pleasing and appreciated 
feature was the Mister's chair, made into a 
bower cf beauty by garlands of red, white and 
blue II iwers, in honor of her first visit, after a 
protracted illness. 

After routine business the gates were thrown 
open under " (Jood of the O der," and all inter- 
ested in the eUvation of humanity invited to 
listen to a select and patriotic program gotten up 
by our energetic L'ioturer, Sister A. Howman, 
The hall was soon filled to its utmost capacity. 
Among those present were noticed visito's from 
Stockton, San Jose, Hollister and Salinas, 
Patriotic speeches, gay, grotesque, profound, 
convincing, converting and declamatory, were 
heard on all sides, while the " Star Spangled 
Binner," "Hail Oolumbia," and "America" 
lost none of their old thrilling sweetne's and 
power. That peerless matron, Sister Merrill 
of Stockton Grange, gave one of her inimitable 
recitations, "The Dindy Fifth." She was 
promptly encored and replied in a manner 
which proved her an elocutionist of pathos and 
genius. Her little danghtpr also added to the 
pleasure of the rccasion. Bro. Brown, W. A 
S., of Holliatpr Grange, evidently sees the way 
out of the difficulties besetting faimers; signifi- 
oantly pointing to Bro, Nash, Master of Hol- 
lister Grange, he said: "We don't talk poll- 
tics In our Grange, but we do outside. Brothers 
and sisters, there is cur nfxt Assemblyman," 
to which we add, and a better man can't be 
found in San Benito county. 

Remarks were also made by Bro. Dabart, for 
years efficient Steward of Watsonville Grange, 
now of Hollister. Bro. Feeley of S»n Jose 
Grange gave some thoughtful hints as to the 
duties of Grangers, the practical carrying out 
of which would bs of inestimable benefit. 

Thus ended another gathering of great bene- 
fit to all, and should be a convincing proof ( f 
any is needed) that no Patron can a fif}rd to miss 
even one Grange meeting; for if they do, a link 
in the great chain o( events is lost, never to be 
recovered; a gap is left open through which at- 
tack and defeat are made possible; indiffurence 
is engendered; lukewarmness often follows, 
while tirne swings great opportunities out of 
reach. Rush of work an an excuse at all times 
to keep Patrons out of Grange meetings sounds 
like a rush of bullets to keep soldiers out of a 
battle when their camp is attacked — an act of 
cowardice for which they wnuld be court- 
martialed and shot. Surely, Patrons, the in- 
terest and honor of one should be as great as 
the other. If so, we sincerely hope that no Pa- 
tron will desert the banner of the Grange in 
these stirring times unless actual necessity com- 
pels, and let not that necessity be the delusive 
hope that a dollar is gained by staying away to 
get in an extra day's work, when the truth is, 
very much more has been lost by the absence. 
Make attending Grange a regular business. 
Everything will soon give way to it, aud you 
would as lief think of going to bed with your 
boots on as to miss even one meeting. 

Wataonville. A. P. R, 

Grimes Grange. 

Editors Press: — It has been some time since 
you have heard from Grimes Grange, but the 
busy season of haying and harvesting has made 
Grange matters, for the time, a little quiet. 
However, you will see by our quarterly report 
we have not been altogether dead, and have 
added a few names to our roll-book. 

We conferred the third and fourth degrees on 
a sister at our last meeting, July 12 :h, and 
have several applications for membership in 
now. As soon as the busy season is over we 
will have all we can do in the way of confer- 
ring degrees, at there are quite a number 
anxious to join. 

The farmers here are busy harvesting now, 
but crops are far below the average. 'The ex- 
tremely wet winter greatly interfered with farm- 
ing pursuits. 

You will hear from us oftener after this, as 
the harvest will be over in« few weeks and we 
will have better attendance at Grange meet- 
ings. We feel sure of increasing our member- 
ship to 50 within the next three months, and 
with one or two harvest feasts the Grange will 

Orime$, July H. P. 

Beo. H. H. writes that Orland 
Grange of which be is W. M., has appointed 
a special committee to urg<i the claims and ad- 
vantages of the Grange upon eligible members 
of the community, and that when the busy sea- 
son is over, some efifective work is expected. 
The RuR.vL is also winning new frienda in the 
Grange circle. 

Sacramento Grange. 

Editors — W. M., LiRne being sick, 
the W. O., E. Greer presided. A good attend- 
ance was present, considering the harvest, 

A number of communications from sister 
Granges were read and acted on. There was a 
discussion of the " Btr and Grange," as Friend 
Eiston puts it, and Bro. Krnll expressed his 
views. The Grange condemned the act by vot- 
ing unanimously to allow no more privileges in 
that line. 

The circular letter from Pomona Orange of 
Sin Joaquin county, on the "Australian plan 
of voting " was received and placed on file for 
future action. To rest the brothers, the W, L , 
Sister Hattle Sims, announced a short program, 
when the W. L, called on Sister Ella Merwin 
for a song. Sister Gussie Wilcox followed with 
a fine instrumental piece, and Sister Flora 
Daden closed with a song. 

The sisters are tuning themselves np for the 
coming State Grange (for all must exert them- 
selves to do their part with what talent they 
have), so look out for fine speeches, essayr, 
poems and music, as well as a social high time. 
If each does his or her part, no time will be 
wasted, but all will happier and better. 

The committee on " Woman's Work " came 
together and arranged their work for future 
action, I believe they intend to appoint a ccm 
mlttee for next year, on " Children's Diy," 
We must not forget the young folks. Bring 
them in the way they should go. 

P. M., Dtniel F;int gave us some good 
points on county exhibits. He came back full 
of enthuslaem from bis visit at Sftbastopol and 
" Children's Day." W. S., W. W. Greer gave 
bis reasons for not being there. Work in the 
harvest demanded bis attention. 

Sacramento can beat Watsonville six to one 
in initiating "native" born Granges. We 
don't have time to " resolute " for it would 
keep too many " committees " at work, but 
we at once book their names on the roll list 
with dates, as fast as they enter the Grangers' 

The Committee on Annual Exhibit at the 
State Fair met and appointed Bros, Gao. 
McMullen, Chairman, E. Greer, Sic'y and 
A. Krull, Manager; also appointed sub-com- 
mittees for various departments. Public-spir- 
ited G 'angers think a fair showing can be made 
from the products of the soil, although the 
outlook is not very promising, still they feel 
the chances in this county are as good as the 
surrounding ones, Bro. Krnll has been busy 
passing through the county selecting parcels 
of grasses, grain and whatever he thought 
would make up a good variety for display. 
They intend to put up fruits of different kinds 
by cold storage to preserve for poblio exhibit. 

Lemon Bill. G. T. R. 

A Token From Oregon. 

Many Patrons will remember the presenta- 
tion scene when Treasurer Cressey, on behalf 
of the brothers and sisters cf the Oregon State 
Grange, presented a gold-headed cane to Bro, 
John Simpson, Past Lsctnrer. Also the prompt 
and magnanimous words with which B o. 
Simpson delegated Bro. Cressey and the other 
California visitors to present Bro. A. D. Logar, 
President of the Grangers' Bank, with a rare 
old keepsake in the shape of an un'qae walking- 
cane having a queer but conveniently shaped 
young buck horn for a handle. 

B-o. Simpson's words of commendation of 
Bro. L-)ean, whom he had casually met while 
at the National Grange, were both excellent 
and well deserved. 

Recently, in the Rural cffije, there 
met by chance B.-oe. Logan, Steele, Cressey 
and Dawey, when the aforesaid cane was sud- 
denly drawn upon Bro. Logan and presented 
in that lively and common-cense language that 
Bro. Cressey is so much noted for. He men- 
tioned the kindly feeling existing between the 
brethren of Oregon and California, and the 
noble words of fraternal regard that B.-o, Simp- 
son had sent with the cane to Bro. Logan, with 
thanks for his personal kindness, and also the 
good-will felt toward him and all the brothers 
and sisters of California. 

Bro. Logan looked thanks, and modestly 
spoke with gratitude for the unexpected com- 
pliment and present thus brought 700 miles to 
him. Now, Patrons, when Bro. Logan puts in 
an appearance at Grange it will be in perfect 
order to ask him to make the little speech 
which the sudden oaning and unqual fisd 
pleasure prevented our hearing in the Rural 
Press sanctum. 

Walnut Creek Granoe.— The old Grange 
veteran of Walnut Creek, Brother Nathaniel 
Jones, called in on Tuesday looking as happy 
and vigorous as ever, bringing us information 
that Walnut Creek Grange expects to confer 
the first and second degrees on a class of four 
on Saturdry, July 26th, at 2o'clook p. m. We 
are glad rf this evidence of progress on the 
part of Walnut Creek and hope that, as the 
Grange has had some diffionlties in its way 
there will be a liberal visitation present from 
other Granges. Walnut Creek is a promising 
town and should have a thrifty, growing Grange 
Brother Jones bears marks of a late accident 
which came near leaving us one Irss Master in 
our Grange circle. May he always make as 
fortunate an escape. 

The Master's Desk. 

■- W. DAVIS, W M. 8. O. OP CALirOKNIA. 

Charters have been signed for Anderson, 
Grimes, Hanford, Orland and Wat;rloo Granges 
during the past week. The delay in receiving 
these charters from the National Grange has 
been patiently borne by each of the Granges 
above-named, and we most cheerfully commend 
their patience to the Fraternity everywhere. 
Patience is a cardinal virtue, and the (irange 
tfaehet and practice* it on alt occasions. Truly, 
the Order or i'atrons of Husbandry is compoeed 
of a patient and forgiving people, or, long 
since, the politician would have been routed 
from bis station, high and low. Bs ye patient, 
then, brothers and sisters, and persevere to the 

It is the duty of every good citizen, and es- 
pecially of every Patron, to denounce and op- 
Dose the sale of lottery tickets. The Louisiana 
Lottery is robbing thin State and thin Nation of 
untold millions annually. We object to the 
lottery plan of selling our wheat, corn, live 
stock and other farm products, yet we silently 
countenance the sale of lottery tickets. We 
know it is against the law to buy, $ell or have 
a lottery ticket. Our newspapers, even (I am 
sorry to write it) some of our Grange papers 
advertise the "Lottery Robbery." These 
things ought not to be. L?t us elect men to 
cfSse who will enforce the law and stop this 
" Louisiana " and " Mexicana " lottery business 
in California. 

Contra Costa county Granges propose a re- 
union of farmers some time in the month of 
August, Several "Big Gans" are to "fire 
away " then and there. No doubt Mt. Diablo 
will echo and re-echo the good things said and 
done for many years to come. B'o Gao, P. 
Loucks of the Executive Committee is to ar- 
range the forces, and as he is an executive man, 
all may expect a well-prepared entertainment. 

I have been told to write something of a prac- 
tical kind. Wish I might do it. For me it is 
easier to preach than to practice. Bjt here 
are a few things a farmer ought to remember 
Though old, the facts are useful, A bushel of 
wheat, beans, potatoes or clever seed weighs 60 
pounds; corn, rye, flaxseed or onion", per 
bushel, 56 pounds; castor beans, per bushel, 46 
pounds. There are 2150.4 cubic inches in a 
bushel; 4.1 560 rquare feet in an acre. A atrip 
of land 220 feet long by 198 wide is an anre. If 
you walk one mile yr u pass ever just 5280 feet, 
or make 1760 steps of three feet each. Minds, 
like mold-boards on onr plows, hardly ever 
wear out. Mott of them rust out. This is a 
sober fact. 

Folded arms bring saddened hearts. 

Sunshine, activity and smiles will make your 
life more than ordinarily suoceEsfnl, 

Love your neighbor as yourseU, and be sure 
you love yourself only for what there is in you 
worthy of love. 

Steel is only valuable when well tempered. 
So we are only companionable when our tem- 
pers are under proper control. Remember that 
speech is silver, but silence is golden, and thus 
you can largely govern your temper. 

The minimum fee for membership in a subor- 
dinate Grange is for a man .93, and for a woman, 
$1. All persons over 14 years of age and inter- 
ested in agrioulcnral pursuits are eligible to 

The Grange is a success in spite of its en- 
emies and of all opposition. 

Scatter seeds of friendship and you will 
gather friends for your harvest. And "a 
friend in need is a friend indeed." 

If L'.nooln, Wheatland, Rosevilleand Eureka 
Granges will hild a joint meeting, we are 
sure the farmers of Placer county will be bene- 
fited. The State Grange will be pleased 
to send some of its best speakers and will 
do all it oan do to foster the cause of agri- 
culture, to promote the welfare of the O.-der of 
Patrons of Husbandry and to make all who at- 
tend feel it Is well they were present. Won't 
Bros. D. A. Oatrom, Hollis Nfwton, John C 
Bains, E. L. Hawk aud John Gould take hold 
of the work 1 Bro. B. F. Frisbie will lend a 
helping hand, and he is a whole team in Grange 
work. A long pull and a strong pull ! All to- 
gether now, and let's hear of the reunion and 
the revival of Grange work in that flourishing 
section of the State and among those progres- 
sive fatmcra. 

Never put cff till to-morrow what can be bet- 
ter done to-day. Join the Grange now. Next 
day may be too late. At any rate you lose one 
day's time. 

Worthy Master Davi.s speaks correctly of 
lotteries. Do our readers ever think of the 
hundreds of dollars it costs us every year to 
exclude lottery advertisements and oth"r ques- 
tionable advertisements and irj irious ptffi out 
of the Ri RAL, or of the thousands of dollars 
saved thereby to the oommunity, beeides that 
which is better than gold ? . 

Unpleasant Truths Ably Stated. 

The historian, John C. R'.dpatb, of Indiana, 
recently gave the following address at the com- 
mencement exercises at Da Pauw. Thoughtful 
Americans know his assertions are lamentably 
true, and the question, "What shall we do 
about it?" baa Icng been on the minds of tine 
Patrons and patriots: 

What, then, is the modern political party ? 
Practically it is an organ''/.ttion of a few men 
in a great State, constituting a sort of close 
corporation, having one tingle ulterior end in 
view, and that is their own advantage. In or- 
der that such a body of men may get power, it 
is necessary that they profess sometbirg. What 
their profession is depends exclusively upon 
what they think is best calculated to take the 
country in. There are always lying about the 
surface of human society certain questions in 
which the people at larg<>, from patriotic or 
other ccnsiderations, are likely to take an in- 
terest. The party maker searches diligently 
among these qaestions to find one or more 
which he thinku are likely, if fanned with a lit- 
tle fallacious oratory and factitious discussion, 
to break into a flame. So the question is taken 
up, and all the elaborate machinery which a 
century of self interest has invented is immedi- 
ately put into operation to create or penetrate 
an issue. People are actually made to believe 
that the interests of the country depend upon 
the decision of this question or that question 
by their votes. They are made to believe that 
that sublime product of reason and eternity 
called history is created by drum majors and 
central committees. They f>re tangnt that 
they should leave their cornfields and work- 
shops in the village and rally at once to the call 
of some peripatetic demagogue who is hired out 
of a corrupt fund, collected from the benefi- 
oiariep, to go about the country explaining and 
perorating about the "burning issues which 
now divide the American people." S.metimes 
a man of sense and reflection attends one of 
these meetings and stands like Anarcharsis on 
the edge of the crowd to hear the oration or 
perhaps to contribute feebly by his presence to 
the proposed salvation of the country. What 
must be the real impression made on the mind 
of euch a man under such circumstances? He 
listens for awhile at the oratory. He sees his 
country's flag at the back of the platform. He 
watches the drummer as he pcunds his booming 
war-tub, and then considers the antics of the 
orator as he goes np and down the platform 
roaring acd cavorting like a wild ass of the 
Assyrian desert filling his belly with the ea»t 
wind, and then turns on his heel toward the 
seclunion of his own home, the quiet of his own 
study, saying as be walks along and communes 
with himeelf: "How long, Lord! how 
long ? " 

And yet this performance in the public 
square is at present, and has been for more than 
half a centnry, the dominant fact in American 
society ! Of course orators and teachers go 
about telling you something else. They say 
that our public schools, our churches, or our 
railroad enterprises, or our great cities, or our 
marvelous induetriei>, or our expansion as a 
people from east to west, from north to south, 
are the dominant facts in American society. 
Bat it is not sc; that is, it is not so as things 
go. The dominant fact in American society is 
that political meeting which the thnughtful 
man attended and went away from with bitter- 
ness in his heart. That is the thing to which 
every other element of power and influence in 
the public and the private life of the United 
States bends a hnmble, and I am sorry to say a 
patient, knee. That is the thina; after which 
the great Pfttestant church marches at the tail 
of the proceseion, Toat is the thing which, 
beginning far baok in the history of rur repub- 
lic, under the modest name of convention, at 
length achieved autonomy, gained an independ- 
ent life of its own, grew and expanded until 
its jaws wf-re full of dragon's teeth and Its sufficiently enlarged to swallow at a 
gulp every form of opposition that appears in 
its pathway. That Is the thing that has gone 
wallowing and sprawling and roaring through 
the United States, crushing end devouring and 
devastating the land, living on the fruits of in- 
dustry, gathering the rewar a due to enterpris'-, 
and blasting not only the hloesoms and fruits, 
but the very branches and st^m of American 
culture and American manhood. 

Let all honest citizens take ooanstl, plan and 
act against the giant evils I 

Letter Notes, 

From Worthy Master Davis. 

I send duly signed, under separate covers, 
charters for Anderson, Grimes, Hanford, Or- 
land and Waterloo Granges, You will pleaoe 
sign, ifiix seal and forward as soon as possible. 
These good people have been very patient. 

Bro. Coulter In the Field. 
Bro, 8. T. Coulter, P, M. of S G., will rep- 
resent W, M., Davis at the anniversary cle- 
bration of Kibesillah Grange, abpot Aug. 10 ^h. 
Bro. Coulter, we are glad to announce, will 
soon begin a little Grange oamoaign in bis own 
distriot of S noma connty, which we are sure 
will be productive of many good results. 

Juvenile Oranges. 
" I received a letter from Mr. F. B, Mills, 
Woodbridge, Cil , stating his Grange was in 
receipt of a fraternal letter from me, in which 

July 19, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAId f ress. 


I spoke of Juvenile Granges. He wrote for infor- 
mation, and said they tiad appointed a commit- 
tee to see what conld be done. I referred him 
to Bfo. A, J. Rose, Silado, Tex., and to Sister 
Hawkins for information. So, you see, the 
seed sown may take root in one field. Lit us 
work and hope." 

Will Sister Lender of Alhambra, lend Bro. 
Mills a copy of the Cilifornia Juvenile Grange 

A Farmers' Meeting. 

B;o. James R. Hebbron, Secretary, sends 
the following from the Silinas Index: 

Salinas Grange held an open meeting at 
Grangers' hall in this city Saturday afternoon, 
June 28th, W. J. Hill, Master, pregiding. 
Qaite a large number of farmers and others not 
membets of the Order were present. Toe first 
speaker introduced was Mr. C. J. Cressey, 
Treasurer of the State Grange, who made one 
of bis characteristic and spirited soeecbes to 
the tillers of the soil, giving good reasons why 
every one of them should join the Grange for 
self-protection and mutual improvement. 

Hon. I. O. Steele of Pescadero, P. G. M. and 
present U. D. G. M. of the Cilifornia State 
Grange, was the next speaker. Ha took for 
his text an article printed elsewhere in to-day's 
/rarfea;, entitled " The Farmers' Lot," and de- 
livered an eloquent and convincing addrese, 
which ought to have been heard by every 
farmer in the Salinas valley. At the conclu- 
sion of Mr. Steele's address, the meeting ad- 

ResuU, several applications for membership 
in Salinas Grange. 

[We hope the class mentioned will be fol- 
lowed by ons of 20 candidates or more; that a 
rousing good number of the intelligent, pro- 
gressive farmers, matrons, sons and daughters 
of Silinas and vicinity may attend the State 
Grange at Watsonville in October next and en- 
joy one of the bast social and educational sea- 
sons it will ever be their lot to so conveniently 
fall in with. It will no doubt be a rare privi- 
lege ofTired to every Patron in the State. 
Don't forget that boys and girls of 14 are now 
eligible to memberihip, and that every one of 
them on the farm will be benfefited by stepping 
forward into the line of good experience, — 

March Grange 

Having received the date and time of meet- 
ing, March Grange will hereafter appear in our 
directory. We have to thank its live Master 
for the following: 

March Grange has its regular meeting on the 
second Saturday of each month, with a fair 
attendance. Djepite the busy times, I think it 
will prosper in the end, I want to say that 
our Lactarer has not visited this Grange since 
it moved to Pennington, We would like to 
have the Master of the G. S. G. visit us some 
time in the near future, or any of the other 
State cfEaers, Our regular day of meeting is 
on the second Saturday of each month at 2 p, 
M., though we have been meeting regularly 
twice a month since moving to Pennington. 
Harvesting is getting along pretty well, and 
the yield is very light — say one-third of an 
average crop. Fraternally yours, 

W. T. Lam, 
Master of March Grange. 

The Farmers' Movement, 

The farmers' movemeat is on. There is no 
mistaking it; the movement is started and can 
not be stopped by the sneers and misrepreoenta- 
tions of those who are interested in h:kving it 
stopped. Of course there is opposition devel- 
oping; but it would be folly to euppose there 
would be no opposite inflaences. Everything 
that moves must have opposition — there must 
be a resisting medium in everythiag. All nature 
ia thus constituted. Society always tends 
toward centralization. The relations between 
men and classes are becoming every day more 
complex. The only remedy is organiz ition. 
The farmers have found it out, and they are 
organizing. The movement is as broad and 
long as the continent. It has scared the cor 
porationo, and the politicians in Congress. Its 
infiaence has already penetrated the frigid re- 
cesses of the United States Senate chamber. 
The Congressmen are haetllog and the United 
Slates Senators are hurtling. Yet there is 
lathing strange about it; the farmers are all- 
powertnl if they determine they will be; and 
nobody appreciates this fact more thoroughly 
than the politicians. The strangest feature of 
the movement is that there are still some per- 
sons who don't know that the movement exists. 
These fellows are destined to a rude awakening 
in the future; but what good will it do them? 
Some people only get information tno Hte to do 
them any good. — Highland (Pa.) Farmer. 

Watsonville Grange has a large and in- 
creasing class to take the first and second 
degrees on Aug, 21. The third and fourth 
degrees will be conferred on Aug, 16 :h, when 
the Worthy Master, E. W. Divis, is expected 
to be present. An open meeting will be held 
Aug. 23i. 

Pescadero Grange. 

EiJiTOKs : — Pescadero Grange received 
three members by card and conferred the first 
and second degrees on a class of six on the 12th 
instant. The third and fourth degrees will be 
conferred on the first Saturday in August. The 
Grange will be called to order promptly at 11 
A. M., at Good Templars Hill in the village of 

A Harvest Feast, music by our band and a 
good time will follow the degree work, within 
the gates. 

All Patrons in good standing are cordially 
invited. Few Granges are so isolated as Pes- 
cadero. The presence of visiting members is 
much appreciated and in>pires our members 
with fresh courage. 

Oar dormant members are returning and the 
prospect is good for another class soon. 

Pescadero. I. C. Steele. 

At the latt meeting of Temescal Grange the 
report of the committee showed that the picnic 
finances were coming out even or thereabouts. 
Sister K^rr of E k Grove gave some cheering 
remarks. That Grange is improving and has 
quite a number of able and good working Pa- 
trons', inclading a member of the Executive 
Committee and Lidy Asahstant Steward of the 
State Grang'?. It is hoped that sojourning Pa- 
trons in S. F., Oikland and vicinity will follow 
Sister Kerr's good example in visiting Temes- 


A Few Hints on Fruit-Drying, 

If your trees were neglected and not thinned 
or overbearing, the fruit will be very small, 
averaging from 14 to 18 to the pound, and when 
dried weighing 800 pounds to the 10 tons 
green. If yoa had an easy time while your 
neighbors thinned theirs, you will have a light 
j}b hauling it off when dried, and your pocket- 
book will be very light too when you get home 
and settle up for cutting the fruit. The cut- 
ting of large fruit will cost IS cents per hun- 
dred, while it will cost 40 cents per hundred to 
cut small fruit, and when the first-class fruit is 
dried it will bring from 10 to 15 cents a DOund, 
while the others will sell at from 4 to 6 cents 
per pouni, and bard to sell at that. If your 
fruit has been thus neglected, it will pay you 
to get a lot of pigs and turn them upon it in 
the orchard. 

If you have as much as 10 tons of fruit it will 
require 500 trays, I use redwood and pine 
shakes for the trays, preferring the pine, al- 
though they cost about one-third more than 
the others. I use four shakes to the tray, 
making them two feet wide and three feet long. 
For a scaflfold you want 52 pieces 1x4, 16-foot 
lumber, which will make enough scaffolding to 
hold your 500 trays. Make the supporting 
stakes of any kind of lumber, 2^ feet high, al- 
lowing one foot or more for drismg, with one 
end cut sqaare. Drive three stakes in a 
straight liue seven feet apart. Now drive 
three more the same way, three feet one and 
one-half inches apart, making 25 rows, then 
take the 16 foot piece?, lay them on the stakes 
and drive a six-penny nail in each stake, mak- 
ing 25 rows with a three-foot gangway between. 
You will save enough in convenience of hand- 
ling to pay for the scaffolds. A great many 
put their trays on the ground. I do not like 
this plan, as the dirt sticks to the bottom of 
the trays when you want to stack them of 
damp nights, falling off and soiling the fruit. 
If the trays are not stacked, the dogs and rab- 
bits will be racing over them or perhaps a 
stray cow will run ever them and ruin the 
trays and fruit. If your dried fruit has to be 
washed it will hardly be fit to cook. 

You will want a sulphur box for bleaching, 
and it must be very tight. Make it 2| by 3J 
and 6 feet high. It will then hold 25 trays. 
It needs no bottom, but dirt should be banked 
arouod to make it tight. A little trench is 
necessary for the sulphur pan. Oae-half 
pound of French sulphur burning two hours 
will bleach 25tr?ysof fruit. Some people think 
sulphur is injarious to the system, but it is 
healthy for man and beast. It ia true, a great 
deal of the fruit is spoiled by using too much 
of it; eo is butter often spoiled by using too 
much salt. 

The most important; part in the drying of 
fruit is to let it get entirely ripe. Then it will 
he better, brighter and weigh heavier. The 
first two or three pickings should ba very care- 
fully male. If you pick green fruit you will 
beat yourself and every one who has anything 
to do with it. Apricots will dry in fonr days 
if the sun shines brightly. Sick the fruit in 
good sacks and before the sun is down. Then 
there will be no worms in the fruit. The moth 
comes soon after the sun goes down, depositing 
its eggs on the fruit, but the hot sun of the 
next day spoils them. Your sacked fruit 
should be placed so the wind will not strike It, 
which prevents the fruit from drying out too 
much. The best way to grade the fruit is to 
do so before it is cut, making three grades, 
carefully removing dust or dirt. 

Do not take apricots to the cannery that will 
run more than 1 1 to the pound, and in gather- 
ing don't use a pole to knock off the fruit. 
List year much was brought to our drier gath- 
ered in this way, and we don't want thus to dis- 
courage or break up the driers, but rather enoour- 

age them by bringing good fruit. The man that 
dries poor fruit will stay poor, and the poor 
man that eats it will not get fat. I think the 
man who markets this trifling fruit should be 
compelled to put a pound of sugar with each 
pound of fruit, and a bottle of "pain killer" 
along with it, and I think growers would take 
a little more pains, and coneumers a little lesp, 
with it. We cannot expect a cannery to locate 
with us unless we generally improve the fruit, 
and the very men who produce poor fruit are 
the ones who will ory "hard times " the loud- 
est as they demand the second mortgage on 
their farma. — B. D, E. in The Pomotropie. 

The above article has many good suggestions 
in it, and the writer makes many good points, 
which, if carried out, will prove both bene- 
ficial and remunerative to the producer, besides 
being satisfactory to the purchaser. Bat right 
here let us offsr a few words, by way of sugges- 
tion, regarding plans that have come under our 

l3t. We find the most satisfactory method 
of paying cutters is by the pound. Weigh out 
a sweat box of fruit and give to each cutter, 
keeping track of the number of pounds each 
person cnts during the day, and if your sweat 
boxes are of uniform size the number of pounds 
net that each has cut can be easily computed; 
if the sweat boxes are not of uniform size they 
can be weighed and the tare deducted at the 
close of the day, or when most convenient. 
This saves the unnecessary provocation arising 
from half-filled trays, as some persona, while 
cutting by the tray, will put on one-third less 
than otbera. You not only pay more for out- 
ting the fruit than is necessary, but do an in- 
justice by paying more to one for cutting than 
to another. More than this, a great deal of 
time is lost by the handling of half-filled trays 
from the cutting table to the dried fruit bin. 
Where the cutting is done by the pound this 
diffioulty is easily overcome. We believe the 
average price paid for cntting ia 20 oenta per 
100; some are paying 25 cents. 

2d, The drying on scaffolds in sections away 
from the coast as in San Bernardino county, is 
very essential, as the sun's rays are so hot that 
fruit placed on the ground would burn to a 
orisp; but in Orange county fruit on scaffolds 
would be so long in drying that the fogs would 
blacken the fruit. The best way to sun-dry 
fruit here is to lay the trays on nice clean 
stubble land, far enough from the road to bs 
free from all duet. The stubble serves to draw 
the heat and it keeps the trays clean. 

31, The best French sulphur should be used 
for bleaching. When this is used no forced 
heat is necessary for burning the sulphur. A 
scrap of paper and a match will light the sul- 
phur and it will continue to burn as long as 
there is oxygen to support oxidation, or until 
the bleacher is filled with the gas, when the 
sulphur will cease to burn and there ia no dan- 
ger of over-bleaching. If the bleacher is tight 
and the fruit allowed to remain exposed to the 
action of the gas for two hours or more, it will 
come out of the bleacher in a perfect condition, 
and cannot help but make fine fruit. On the 
other hand, if the sulphur is forced to burn, a 
little too much sulphur or a little too long ex- 
posure will ruin the fruit for market, and if 
you dispose of it at all it will be through the 
ignorance of the buyer, and your gain will be 
somebody's loas. 

4:h. There are tricks in all trades, and so 
there is in forcing the producer into grading 
his fruit. The buyer comes to look at your 
dried fruit, he offers you a first-class price for 
your best grade, which constitutes perhaps one- 
b^lf of your dried fruit; for the second grade he 
makes an cffer of a little more than cost of 
picking, hauling, cutting and drying, and on 
the third grade you will probably lose money. 
We believe a better way is to throw out the 
small fruit before cutting, and a still better way, 
see that the trees are well taken care of and the 
fruit properly thinned while young. This may 
look like a waste of fruit, but it can be given to 
those who have no fruit, and even though it be 
thrown away there can be no waste if it costs 
mere to harvest it than it will bring in the 
market. The only true way of gathering fruit 
to dry is to pick it by hand, and even then you 
will need to look well to your pickers, 

5th, We cannot place too much stress on the 
importance of handling the fruit carefully and 
when perfectly ripe. It is one of the imposai- 
bilitiea to make a nice dried fruit out of an un- 
ripe apricot or peach. It ia not until the fruit 
is thoroughly ripe that the sugar is formed, and 
when you undertake to dry fruit in the watery 
state the water is evaporated and there remains 
a dry, tasteless chip, containing no nourishment 
whatever. A little of this inferior fruit mixed 
with the good, will knock off a half cent on the 
whole lot. — Orange Post. 

Notes on Fruit-Dryicg. 

Editors Press: — I have never written to you 
before, but I take great pleasure in reading the 
Press and I do not think you will object to my 
saying a few words In regard to the drying of 

Not long since, I saw an article in a Southern 
California paper that treated on that subj eot, 
and must say my views are very different. To 
show you the difference I must give you some 
of the contributor's views, viz: The trays were 
best made of redwood shake?, dimensions 3x8 
feet. He also atated that the poorest quality 
of sulphur was the best for bleaching purposes. 

I think that the trays should be made of the 
purest white lumber that' uan be obtained; the 
whiter the tray, the whiter the fruit. This 

may be proved by drying a few peaches on a 
earthen or china plate, and comparing them 
with thoae dried on a tray, A great deal de- 
pends, too, on how ripe the fruit may be, for 
the riper the fruit, the darker the dried fruit. 
I do not think the trays should be so large, for 
the simple reason that they are hard to handle. 
The common raisin tray is a good size, and even 
that may be improved by tacking lath on the 
sides, so that in handling the fruit will not be 
wasted. There can be more fruit put on one 
of these trays, too, if the lath is on. 

As to sulphur, I think the best sulphur is 
the best, because the cheapest grade of sulphur 
is not all sulphur, and consequently may spoil 
the flavor of the fruit. 

One more difference, and that is, I do 
not think it is well to leave the fruit in the 
bleacher too long. In doing so it absorbs the 
sulphur flavor and loses its own. Sugar bar- 
rels are very nice to put the fruit in when itia 
taken off the drying-yard. The fruit crop is 
very good in this county and drying begins 
with us next week. Minnie D, Perdew. 

Qraptland, Cal.. 

California Fruit in New York. 

Editors Press: — I call your attention to the 
prices California fruits brought at my sales of 
July 7th and 8th. Toree cars In all were sold 
with the following results, which go to show 
New York is rapidly making a record for being 
the market to obtain the best results for your 
deciduous fruits: 

The highest sales as you see were $2.90 for 
cherries (8 Ibp. each); boxes Eirly May 
peaches, S3 15 (18 lbs. each); boxes Hale's Early 
peaches $3 30 (18 lbs. each); boxes Alexandria 
peaches, $5 00 (18 lbs. eacb); crates apricotp, 
14 80 (20 lbs. each); boxes Peach plums, $2 G5 
(IS lbs. each); crates Tragedy prunes, 54 40 
(20 Voi. each). 

The market continues good with a demand 
that will maintain equal prices on no heavier 
receipts. The prospects are for a consumption 
double last year's shipments, at profitable 
prices, if the best quality is shipped and the 
fruit is in good condition on arrival. 

New York, July 0th. E. L. Goodsell. 

Hop-Growers' Meeting, 

The annual meeting of the California State 
Association of Hop-Growers was held in 
Grangers' Hall, Sacramento, July 14th. 

The following offijers were elected for the 
term of one year: Daniel Flint of Sacramento, 
President; A. E, Cimp of Sicramento, Vice- 
President; Henry Whittenbrock of Sacramento, 

The new Directors are from each of the five 
hop-growing districts, as follows: M, B, Tuttle, 
Watsonville, Santa Cruz county; A. Menke, 
Sacramento, Sacramento county; .1. F. Long, 
Largo, Mendocino county; Joseph Pennington, 
Sinta Rosa, Sonoma county; Dr. Durst, Wheat- 
land, Yuba county. The Directors-at-large 
were: H. Rodden, Yuba county; L. Ross, So- 
noma county; Judge R. McGarvey, Mendocino 
county ; T. B. Lovdal, Sicramento county. 

The following resolutions were unanimously 

We, the hop-growers of California, in body as- 
sembled, do hereby condemn the universal practice 
of consigning hops to be sold on commission as 
detrimental to the best interests of hop-growers, as 
it brings irto compeiition the dealer with the com- 
miision-nian. As the latter has nothing to lose, but 
everything to make by the greater sales that he 
makes, he naturally infringes oa the grounds of the 
dealer by cffering to place the same hop or one of 
equal quality at a lower rate. Thus fie paralyzes 
the interest of the dealer and grower, inasmuch as 
no one knows what length he may go in order to 
sell more hops. This naturally forces dealers and 
buyers to handle hops on commission. The present 
stite of our market proves the injury to which 
growers were subjected in last year's crop. 

0*ing to the fact set forth aboife, we, the hop- 
growers of California, do firmly resolve and agree 
among ourselves not to consign under any consider- 
ation, hops to be sold on commission; and be it 

h'esolved. That we demand and will require to be 
allowed a tare of 3 ^ pounds to the bale, a tare equal 
to that on New York hop bales. 

A Victory for an American Machine. 

Farming and implement men will be inter- 
ested in news by cable despatch July 4th, from 
Bucharest, that the reaper manufacturer, 
Walter A. Wood, has captured for our country 
on its national holiday the first priz^, the gold 
medal in the important Roumanian sheaf-bind- 
ing harvester field trial. Bucharest, with a 
population of a quarter of a million, is the capital 
of Roumania and beautifully situated in the 
heart of a great grain producing part of Europe. 
Wood's ingenious machine ia doing credit to 
this country by gaining the high prizas, and 
also aiding in improving the conditions of farm- 
ing everywhere. 

A Notable Stock Sale. 

The announcement that J. H. White of Peta- 
luma, will sell his fine horses and Holstein cat- 
tle, must attract wide attention. Mr. White 
is one of our best known and respected farmers, 
and he has given much care and capital to the 
improvement of his live stock. His sale should 
draw buyers from all parts of the coast. An 
advertisement in this issue gives particulars of 
the sale which will be conducted in Killip & 
Co.'s beat style, on Sapt, 4th and 5th prox. 


f AciFie [^uraid press, 

[July 19, 1890 

Our Daily Bread. 

Give us our daily bread, we sav, 
And look no farther than to day; 
And be to-morrow gray or gold, 
O- plentiful, or pinched with cold: 
Thine bj to-morrow as to day I 

Even as the small bird shall receive 
1 be food its mother gives, nor grieve 

Left Ihit to morrow fail; so we, 
Lifting our 1 ps and hearts to Thee, 
Trust Thee for all the days we live. 

Keep us within Thy heart that's wide; 

Thy love our nest in which we hide; 
Thy thought, the wing to fold us in 
All night till the new day begin — 

1 he d <y for which Thou wilt provide. 
— Kalhtrine Tynan in " Ave Maria, 

Miss Dorothy's Romance. 

Dsrotby Field looked very Bweet and demure 
as, with her father, old Squire Field, and her 
tall, rather loosely huuf; brother Andrew, she 
walked to church one Sunday morning forty 
years ago. The little village of Framleigh was 
always quiet, yet on Sunday mornings it seemed 
even more peaceful than usual. Djrothy was 
sometimes a little oppressed by the cilm, and 
wished it would not make itself so obtrusive. 
But on this May morning no such rebsllious 
thoughts were in her mind, for she entered into 
the gently beguiling mood of Nature, and ^her 
heart was full of sunshine. 

As they oeared the rather stately looking 
brick church, little groups were seen coming 
from all direction", for every one in Framleigh 
went to chnrch. AlthooKh the congregation 
was not large, it was on the whole a well-to do 
one, for the inhabitants of this little village, 
most of whom were descended from a few aris- 
tocratic old families, prided themselves on this 
fact and kept up their good old names. 

K^ Djrothy, from her place in the choir, 
looked over the familiar faces which showed 
themselves over the high, straight pewf, her 
attention was caught by an anfamiliar face in 
Diacon Gray's pew. Surely never befcre had 
she seen this tall, elegant >onng man, with the 
pleasant eyes and sunny hair. Aad as she looked 
from him to her good-natured, awkward brother, 
it seemed to her that Andrew's coat had never 
ti'.ted so badly. 

Ojcaeionally, during the seivic", she gUnoed 
deamrely over her hymn-book at the new face 
beside the staid old deacon, and as she was 
singing, in her sweet soprano voice, ' Sweet 
Fields Beyond the Swelling Flood," she looked 
over toward tho deacon's pew to see if the new 
occupant was singing, and finding his dark f^yes 
fixed on her with a calm, interested gaze, this 
simple country girl blushed and nearly lost her 

At the various dinner-tables in Framleigh 
that day, this young man was spoken of with 
more or less ioterest. It became generally 
known that he was a cousin of the deacon'* 
wife, and had been studying at the medical 
school in Cambridge, but was now obliged to 
giv^ his eyes a rest. 

Toe blooming damsels of Framleigh, who 
outnumber the yonng men of the village, were 
especially interested in the stranger. Rebecca 
Tbompsor, a good-natured, red-cheeked g rl, 
who was hospitably inclined, was mnch grieved 
that it was too late in the season to have a 
sugar party, that she might ask Mr. Daane; 
bat finally decided to content herself with a 
"gathering," which meant a social meeting of 
the swains and maidens of Framleigh in the 
large old parlor, where they played "fox and 
geese," or " around the chimney," and ate ap- 
ples and cake or popped corn. The "gather- 
ing" would break up at ten o'clock, when 
those of the youths who were not too bashful 
to ask their favorite Mehitables or Abigails if 
they might see them home. 

Tnis kind of gaiety was quite new to the 
young Harvard student, and although he went 
in a rather superior mood, thinking to be mild- 
ly amused by the harmless gambols of these 
country people, yet he felt a thrill of interest 
as he wondered if be should see the sweet- 
faced girl who had sung in the choir on Sunday. 

K.'ibecca, the hostess, ushered him in and in- 
troduced him to every one in the room. Then 
Kibert did something which quite shocked the 
feelings of Framleigh society. On one side of 
the room all the maidens were sitting, while on 
the opposite side were all the young men, look- 
ing awkward enough in the straight-baok chairs 
and dressed in their beet clothes, for this was 
the way in which the guests always were ar- 
ranged at the " gatherings " until the games be- 
gan. But Robert, with an easy, graceful man- 
ner, took a seat on the girls' side of the room, 
between Dorothy and little Ruth Hawks, and 
began talking to them as if very mnch at ease, 
a proceeding which. cansed a surprised flutter 
on one side of the room and atrnck consterna- 
tion to the other. 

Bnt when they began to play gamei, the 

chilly air of reserve which seemsd to eacirole 
the company was changed to one of merry good 
humor. From the moment when Djrothy'e 
clear, ehy eyes looked into his, as she took the 
cat'a-cradle c£f his hands, llobsrt had a feeling 
of exhilaration, and he knew that he should en- 
jay himself. And when he left Djrothy at her 
own door, he felt very jDyfuI as he walked 
home to the deacon's, and it seemed to him 
that there was nothing more charming than a 
country village in May. 

Djrothy came down to breakfast next morn- 
iog, looking very trim and domestic in a light 
print gown, and when Aadrew spoke in a jok- 
ing manner about her new city beau, she 
blushed up to the little curls on her forehead, 
and looked rather conscious. 

That afternoon she thought she wonld go 
into the woods to see if she could find some 
late arb:itus. When she reached the top of the 
hill she found a bed of May flawer', which had 
come out late, as they were under a pine tree 
which had kept off the sun. A^ she was bend- 
ing over the fliwers, pulling off the dead leaves 
which covered them, she heard a deep voice 

Oh, do you remember sweet Alice, Ben Bolt ? 
Sweet Alice, with hair so brown ? 

Looking up, she saw Robert D^ane not vary 
far from her. Just at that moment he saw her 
and came towards her. So together they gath- 
ered the arbutus, and when K <bert said that 
picking May flowers seemed to be the most ap- 
propriate thing in the world for her to do, she 
was so like them, she turned pinker than the 
pinkest of flowers in her hand; and then he 
added, "I never knew how beautiful the 
arbutus was before." A'ter they had gathered 
all the blossoms under the pine tree, Uibert 
wanted to go up higher on the mountain to see 
if there were not some flowers there. So they 
did not get home till supper time, and Dorothy, 
who was usually very capabW about the house, 
seemed rather abstracted that evening. 

As the days went on Robert D^ane still 
stayed in Framleigh. The simple old deacor, 
in speaking to the minister's wife abont him, 
said: " It does seem mighty queer abont 
Cousin Robert's eyes. The doctor told him he 
wouldn't need to rest them for more than a 
week or so, and here he isn't able to get back 
to Cambridge yet; bnt he does seem mighty 
content here." 

May changed to .lane, and still he stayed. 
He acquired a great interest in walking, and he 
and Dorothy used to tike loog rambWg on the 
mountains, or by the quiet little river. 

Oje morning when she was working in the 
kitchen, the old knocker went in such a vigor- 
ous way that the hurried to the door with ber 
apron on. She found Robert Djane there, 
looking pale and anxious. She had hardly 
time to say " Good morniog " before he began: 
" I have jast received a letter saying that my 
mother is very sick. I muet go home. Oousin 
Nathaniel is going to drive me to Diyton and I 
«m going right on. He is out here waiting; 
but I couldn't go without seeing you. May 1 
write to you, Dorothy ? ' Dorothy very softly 
and blushingly told him how sorry she was 
that his mother was sick, and that he might 
write to her if he wanted to; then, with an 
earnest, lingering look and a gentle pressure of 
her band, he was gone, leaving Dorothy in a 
very bewildered state of mind. 

She stayed in the house for sivflral days, and 
then she began to goto the posttiSce. At first 
she asked the good old postmaster if there was 
any miil, demurely, with a happy, conscious 
little blush. Then, as the days went on and 
uo letter came, she would ask with an anxious, 
nervous maoner. Poor little Dorothy I Although 
she was faithful in her visits to the poet' ffije, 
she received no letter, and after a time all the 
pretty pink went cut of her face, and it grew 
pale and had a pathetic expression. She always 
cherished a faint hope that she should hear 
from Robert, and although one of the most 
well-to-do yonng men of Framleigh was urgent 
in his proposals of marriage, and the rquire 
would gladly have welcomed him as a sun-in- 
law, she told him it could not be. 

It was a bright June morning. Miss Dor- 
othy, now a nice old lady of sixty, was picking 
roses cff the large old cinnamon rosebush at her 
back door. Although her face was not so 
youthful looking as it was that afternoon when 
she gathered May flowers with Robert Diane, 
forty years before, yet it was still very attract- 
ive, with its clear, kind eyes, its sweet mouth 
and just a trace of the roses that used to bloom 
in her cheeks. Perhaps it was partly her kind- 
ly face that made all the children of Farmleigh 
love Miss Dorothy— Aunt Dorothy, as they 
called her — and no real aunt ever had more re- 
gard and love than she did. Her life was not 
an unhappy or lonely one, for it was so full 
of kindness and blessing to others that she was 

A few years after Robert Deane had gone 
from Farmleigb, she had heard that he had 
married a rich Boston girl. Only abnnt a year 
after she had heard of his death. While prac 
tioing at the hospital he had taken some con- 
tagious disease. That was all she knew about 
him. She had never received a word from him. 
Although at first her heart had been very bit- 
ter toward Robert, yet as time went on her 
feelings had softened, and now she thought 
of him in a fond, tender way as of one she 
had loved. 

This morning as she was picking the roses, 
little Tommy Chapin, one of her most devoted 
cavaliers, oame out ol the back door and said : 

" I left a letter on the table in the sitting-room 
for you, Aunt Dorothy." 

" Thank you. Tommy. Don't yon think 
your mother would like these roses ? They 
are about the last there'll be, I guecs, and if 
you'll come in I'll give you one of my ginger 
CO kies." 

So Tommy followed Miss Dorothy in, and 
she gave him a large, round cooky out of a 
stone j tr which she always kept fnll, so that 
she might have something to give the children 
when they came to see ber. 

When he had gone, with a large bunch of 
roses in one hand and a cooky done up in brown 
paper in the other. Miss Dorothy went into the 
sitting-room and opened her rather otfioial- 
looking letter. There was a letter and note 
enclosed in the envelope. She nnfolded the 
note and read : 

Salem, June, i88— . 

A//ti Dorothy Field rehtting the boxes of 

this postoffice it was necessary to take down the 
high ba5e-boards behind the receiving box. There 
we found this old letter directed to you. On ascer- 
taining that you still live in I-'iamleigh we at once 
forward it. kespectfully yours. Postmaster. 

Then there was an envelope yellow with age 
and with a postmark of 40 years before. Miss 
Dorothy opened it with trembling fingers and 
read : 

Salem, June, 1840—. 

My Di\ir Dorothy:— \ have thought about you a 
great deal since 1 left Kr.imleigh and now that my 
mother is better 1 must write to you. I could not 
bear to come away without tellmg you that 1 loved 
you, although I think you must know it. 1 never 
supposed that 1 cnuld care (or any one as 1 care for 
you. Now, dear Dorothy, if you return my love at 
all let me know and 1 will come at once to Framleigh. 
If you do not and cannot care for me, do not pain 
yourself and me by saying so, but don't write at all. 
Hopefully yours, Koubrt Ueane. 

As poor Miss Dorothy read this a mist came 
over her eyes. This was the hardest moment 
of her life, harder than those weary weeks of 
suspenfe. As she thought of Robert's weary, 
restless waiting, of his heartache and sorrow, 
and of the sadness which had come into her own 
life, it seemed to her that a very crnel fate had 
gu'ded the course of that letter. 

Bit Miss Dorothy's trusting heart could not 
be bitter loog. She belitved that somehow all 
things must be best as they were, and after a 
few q liet hours spent alone she came out of 
her room with her usual sunshiny manner. 
Then she went ont into the garden to pull some 
of her nice radishes to send to unattractive 
old Miss Diinn, whom she pitied very much, 
for she ti mly believed that she had never had 
a lover. — Springfield Republican, 

Why Woman is Man's Best Friend. 

First and foremost, woman is man's best 

Bjcanse she Is his mother. 

Second, because i^he is his wife. 

Because she is patient with him in illnesp, 
endures his fretfnlness and " mothers " him. 

B-canse she will stick to him through good 
and evil report, and always believe him if she 
Icves him. 

Becanse without her he would be radd, rough 
and ungodly. 

B'oanse she teaches him the value of gentle 
words, of kindly thought and of consider- 

Bjcanse she can, with him, endure pain 
quietly and meet joy gladly. 

Because, when he is behaving like a fretful 
boy — and we all do, yon know, at times with 
no reason in the world for it, woman's soft 
word, touch or glance will make him ashamed 
of himself, as he ought to be. 

Because, without her as an incentive, he 
would grow lazy; there wonld be no good work 
done; there would be no noble books written; 
there wonld bs no beantiful pictures painted, 
there would be no divine strains of melody. 

B cause she has made for as a most beautiful 
world in which we should be proud to live and 
contented to die. 

B 'cause — and this is the beat reason of all — 
when the world had reached an unenviable 
state of wickedoeer, the blessed task of bring- 
ing it a Savior for all mankind was given to a 
woman, which was God's way of setting his seal 
of approval on her who Is mother, wife, 
daughter and sweetheart, and, therefore, man's 
best friend. — E, W. Bok, in Ladies' Home 

Too Many for the Bear. 

Dspatohes from Vanceborough, Me., tell 
how Mrs, Roderick McDonald and her sister, 
who live near Molus river, were busy with 
their house work the other evening, when they 
noticed a frightful bellowing of the cattle in the 
barnyard. Going ont to see what was the 
trouble, they were confronted by a hnge old 
black bear. Oa either side of him lay a fallen 
01, while the rest of the oattle were huddled 
closely in one corner of the yard bellowing 
piteously in their terror. 

On seeing the dead animals, Mrs. McDonald 
rushed at the bear with a pitchfork and thrnst 
it into his neck. A roar of rage and pain, and, 
with a sweep of his paw he knocked her down. 
The other woman then struck him with an ax, 
disabling one of his forward legs. Mrs. Mo- 
Donald arose, recovered her pitchfork, and at- 
tacked Bruin in front, while her companion 
plied the ax. In a few minutes the bear was 
desd. The women had their olothes torn, but 
scfi'ared no icjary beyond the fright and a few 

A Few More Hints. 

[W.iiteii for the Bi'ral Prbss hv Li t*.] 
From a child, I have persistently followed 
the suggestion, almost command, in my verse 
of Proverbs (ibe one whose number correrponda 
with the date of birth), which is: 

"Open thy month, jadge righteously, and 
plead the cause of the poor and needy." In 
other words, defend the weak against the 
strong, the yielding against the cvarbearing. 
So, on reading in an exchange the self-acousing 
confession of a mother, who had been studying 
over some remarks addressed to her conscience 
by a writer for the Rural I'ress, besides "Do- 
mestic Hints " in a later number, I was com- 
pelled to protest in the name of humanity (it 
might be " hnwomanity " if there were sncb a 
word), for we have had reproachful exhorta- 
ticns flang at us till we began to think we mast 
deserve them all or they wonld not have been 
given so often. 

This mother says, when referring to the chil- 
dren: " I have sometimes been petulant with 
them when weary with a hard day's work." I 
presume she has, so have most of as, and suf- 
fered hours of sorrow for it afterward; but did 
we carry out the resolutions formed in those 
remorseful times ? If we did not, why ? There 
was some season, physical or spiritual, for our 
desire to do so was sincere and strong. There 
may have been a canse farther back than the 
momentary feebleness of the will power, (or 
petulance is not more likely to come from a 
serene spirit in a comfortable body than a 
whirlwind from harmonious atmospheric ele- 

If a mother is exhausted by the hard work 
which has taxed every muscle and nerve to 
their utmost, perhaps it is her fault and perhaps 
it is not. It may not have been necessary for 
her to do so much, and, on the other hand, 
blame may belong with others who have made 
previous demands on her vitality. 

Why must the mother alone be the one who 
shall personify the charity that " suffereth long 
and is kind; ' ' ' that endnreth all things," 
etc.? Why do we hear so few hints to the 
father and the boys of a household about mak- 
ing home attractive? They are quite as much 
responsible for the family miseries as the 
mother, and have a better chanoe to bring 
peace where is now discord, for they oome to 
their meals (I am now referring to farmers) 
fresh from the out-door air, with their minda 
fnll of the satisfaction which comes of doing 
constructive work which will remain long 
enough to show that something has been done; 
while the mother has been laboring for hours 
to prepare what in a few minutes will be re- 
duced to repulsive fragments and, perhapv, 
taken with such ha»te, in snch quantities, di- 
vided into such enormous mouthtuir, that at 
the sight, the heated, tired woman lose* what 
little appetite she had, especially after some 
sarcastic remark about the foolishness of being 
affected by such little matters, and the boast- 
ful "Now y never let such small things move 
me." If a child should make a demand just 
then, could the greatest of saints prevent the 
petnlant answer?, And if that great "I" 
happens to have a little toothache, or the 
babiep, or even the flea«, keep him awake half 
an hour, is he never cross ? Watch him and 

Now as to setting the table attractively: 
What good does it do to cultivate artistic 
taste till everything uncouth brings distress 
when there is no escape from repulsive combin- 
ations ? Yon may arrange yonr table exactly 
according to your ideal, and nine times out of 
ten the men and boys will take their places be- 
fore the dinner is half there, because the hay or 
the grain is waiting and they must get back as 
soon as possible, and in their hungry eagerness, 
commence on whatever they find, shoving 
things this way and that in order to reach bet- 
ter, till the whole effect is destroyed. In this 
way they get ready for pie or pudding before 
the mother has scarcely taken two monthfuis, 
if indeed she could swallow past the big Inmp 
brought by weariness and disappointment. 

In both these cases, and they are not by any 
means the only ones which could be described, 
the body is not nonrished, the nerves suffer on 
account of the poverty of the blood, the energy 
oozes out in helpless tears, and home is not 
"made attractive." If it is not, whose fault is 
it? Is it alivayi "the woman whom Tfaoa 
gavest to be with me " — she that should be 
held accountable for everything ? 

Of coarse " circumstances alter cases;" we 
have been told that times enough to know it, 
and of course it is our doty to do onr best, but 
no more than it is the father's daty to make 
the same effort. I am sick of preaching from 
men who never have been and never can be in 
woman's position, and tired also of seeing 
women meekly appropriate all the blame to 
themselves when, just as often, at least half 
belongs somewhere else. We do enough that 
is unwise or wrong under the best of circum- 
stances, so let as not quite destroy our hope 
and prevent the growth of self-respect by tak- 
ing the discredit of more sins than we actnally 

But of coarse the Pres.s and its patrons are 
generally right. There were lately iome glori- 
ously strong sentences against the lottery busi- 
ness, and S. R. Esston brings a needed rebuke 
concerning saloons. 

Not long ago I had ocea*lon to ride down the 
San Leandio road, near Oikland, and becaase 
my turning-point was at a certain saloon, I 

JtJLY 19, 1890.J 

f ACIFie F^URAb f RESS, 


commenced counting and found eight in a dis- 
tance of two mile«. Here is a chance to do 
some thioking as to who does most toward sap- 
porting them and bow much of the increase of 
this business in the outskirts is due to increas- 
ing stringency of town laws and all the other 
questions that come into the mind of one who 
hopes the world is getting better. 

Kindness in Speech. 

An illnesa of long duration once kept me se- 
cluded for weeks at a time. A few close 
friends penetrated as far as the room to which 
I was confined, but they were not of the sort 
who eojoy scandal and I grew unused to the 
criticisms which people hurl at each other 
when the person criticized is not present. Rs- 
covery permitted a close contact with the out- 
er world and it seemed as if the very spirit of 
caustic speech was vented upon my unaccus- 
tomed ears. They were what are termed 
" good-hearted people," but I felt ready to cry 
out on the utter badness of the hearts which 
could prompt such unkind remarks. Every 
speck of dust In a neighbor's kitchen was en- 
larged into a mountain of untidiness. The 
least slip in the behavior of her children 
showed mismanagement and uofitness for 
motherhood, A cold supper served at the 
close of a hot, busy day was construed as neg- 
lect of husband and home. And the girls and 
boys who had arrived at the dignity of being 
" out in company," bat who had not learned 
to lay aside all their kittenish pranks and non- 
sense, were denounced without mercy; there 
were even hints which touched upon the purity 
of the lives of fair young girls, who had never 
harbored even a thought of evil. I looked 
at these spiteful detractors in perfect horror, 
and when one of them addressed me, prefacing 
his or her remark with "have you heard" 
or "I don't know how true it ip, but they 
sav," I felt like asking them to pause and 
refleot as to the wisdom of soiling their ton^u >a 
with 8Dch gossip. 

There is another class, whose work is just 
as dangerous, if not more so. Their charges 
do not come in frank speech, which can be 
met with equal frankness, but ihey respond to 
your word of praise for an absent one with 
" Ob ! well ! " and a toas of the bead or an ele- 
vation of the eyebrows which may mean much 
or little, but when voiced by the person who 
carries the story onward, is sure to mean the 
very worst. 

There is no guarding against these enemies 
to the peace of a community. A vigorously 
prosecuted slander suit m'ght perhaps quiet 
them for a time, but they would soon forget 
the lesson. 

The only way to get at the root of the mat- 
ter is to fill the minds of the rising generation 
80 full of good, useful thoughts that a love of 

gossip will find no lodgement there To 

know the great men and women of our own 
and former times through the records of their 
lives and work is knowledge which must ad- 
vance all ages and classes. Nothing could be 
devised which would be more likely to check 
idle gossip. A lady who is deeply interested 
in the work of the Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific circle, once said to me: "I have no 
time to talk about my neighbors since I began 
the C. L. S, 0. reading and study." Let us 
hope that the rising generation will be un- 
able to find either time or inclination for any 
" work or recreation " which lower them men- 
tally or physically, ".Jennie" gave us a good 
thought in her letter in the Husbandman, for 
June 4!:h, when she said: "If we would al- 
ways look for the good qualities and meanings 
of our friends. In lieu of mistrusting their 
words and acts, how much unhappiness would 
be avoided ! " Let us cultivate kindly feeling 
and kindly speaking. Our glass houses are so 
very frail that we cannot safely throw stones. 
— Alice Carringlon, in Thi Husbandmai, 


A TOUNQ man at Louisville, Ky., who smoked 
40 cigarettes a day, has just been declared an 
idiot by the conrts. Hardly necessary to 
bother the courts. Any body could have de 
cided such a case. — Ez, 

Many a man has made a goose of himself 
with a single quill. — Philadelphia Inquirer. 

" Ye8," said the old hen as she prinked her 
feathers a little, "everything is changing." 
"What's the trouble ?" asked the peafowl. 
" These incubators. Seventy-five chicks came 
walking out last night, and I can't tell which 
are mine and which are the incubator's. Ma- 
ternity is truly an awful resoponsibility." — 
Merchant Traveler. 

AiN obituary notice in one of the religious 
papers, says of the departed brother: " For 
two years preceding his death he was a con- 
stant reader of the . He was a great 

sufferer, but grace sustained him." The Con- 
gregalionaliat exolaimt : " How sad that he did 
not take to the reading of some other news- 
paper in time I " 

Mamma: Now, Lilly, tell me what Mrs. 
R:)nndaboat was saying to you. Obedient 
Lilly: Must J, mamma? Mamma — Oertainly, 
Obedient Lilly: Well, she said it was strange 
euoh a pretty little girl should have such a 
homely mother. 

Nature's tendency is to restore the balance; 
as a man gets "short ''his face gets long, — 
Hotel Qazeile. 


The Prime Minister Becomes the Ex- 
ecutioner of Whisker Mouselop, 

[Written for the Eural Pkess hy F. Stone Lewis. 1 
"I swear," said the grocery man, as he stuck 
bis bead into the cheese-room and withdrew it 
quickly, shutting the door with a fiarce slam 
that shook the pickles in all the bottles and 
ran behind the counter, " Ob, this is a little 
too much," he continued, running his fingers 
through his hair until it stuck up straight as if 
he was really quite wild. "How did that 
mouse get out after he was drowned dead ? 
Come, now, tell me that ! " he demanded sav- 
agely as he put the pepper where the clove be- 
longed and the preserved blackberries among 
the pickles, emptyiug a bag of salt into the 
sugar barrel. There was no one to answer him, 
so he put a dczm bad eggs into the box of good 
ones. Really there was no end to the things 
that man did, he was so mad. 

The clerk was down cellar patiently holding 
eggs in regular procession between his left eye 
and a candle to determine which box they 
should go in when they walked upstairs, so he 
couldn't hear and knew nothing of the whirl- 
wind the little dead moase was creating in the 
grocer's breast. The reason the clerk held the 
eggs between his hfc eye and the candle to de- 
termine whether they were clear and good, or 
clouded and bad, was because the right eye had 
a equint, and being of a philosophical turn of 
mind he was troubled with fears lest the right 
one should grow worse, and he decided that of 
the two evils he preferred to have them match, 
so be worked away on the eggs with his well- 
favored eve while his master fljw around up- 
stairs. Now the woman who got the pepper 
instead of clove and the man who carried home 
sugar with salt in it, were both very angty 
with the groceryman and left him in great 
wrath as a man who did not understand hie 
business, and traded with the grocer in the next 
block. When bis wife beard of it she was 
furious and rated her husband soundly because 
he had so stupid a clerk. He never spoke one 
word in reply but eot up and walked into the 
cheese-room where Bungler still lay by the side 
of the tin can. Certainly the cheese was nib- 
bled shockingly. 

" It is no use to get angry with a mouse. 
One can't reason with the horrid little things, 
but I must fix the creatures in some way," he 
muttered to himself as he chewed his lip. The 
harum-scarum young Mousetopa who lived in 
the tall chimney and blasted holes which filled 
up with soot, and so became quite downy, com- 
fortable places of abode, wete certainly made 
quite comfortable places of abode, were cer- 
tainly making considerable commotion and 
havoc in the grocery store, and the grocer 
went out and out up some slices of bread. Then 
he mounted the step-ladder and came down 
with a little tin box in hand, spreading the 
contents evenly and carefully on these slices. 
He carried them into the cheese-room, throw- 
ing the pieces about in a careless way, and 
then Bungler hit the board fence ont in the 
back yard with a dull thud, but the poor thing 
could not feel it, which was a mercy. 

Whisker heard the door when it slammed, 
so he rushed down to see what the grooerymin 
bad been doing, as he was quite gorged and 
tired to death of cheese. He rushed through 
the hole in a hurry, or rather be tried to get 
through, but unfortunately he had grown so 
stout on his new diet that he stuck fast. Scarry 
Mousetop senior was slim and slender, for 
really he had never taken the time to eat, which 
a well-regulated mouse considers necessarv, and 
the hole was made to fit him. If the Mouse- 
tops had only been there to see they most have 
split their sides laughing, Whisker looked so 
fnnny. His eyes were like two big glass beads, 
they stuck out so, and his ears seemed quite too 
large for his mouth, as he held it wide open. 
He looked as if he wanted to speak and could 
not on account of the pain. 

"This comes of eating too much cheese ! " he 
finally groaned. "I guess I don't want to go 
in here. That grocer may want to poieon me. 
Ha's full of tricks. I'll back out of this." It 
was not one single bit of use ; he was caught 
and all he could do was to lash his tail. 

When the Mousetops came down one after 
another to take a secret nibble of cheese and 
saw his big tall lashing they were frightened, 
for he had ruled by the strength of that, so it 
fell out that they raced up-stairs and kept the 
secret of Whif ker down in the hole to them- 
selves. Broomsticks and all sorts of unpleas- 
ant occurences would be forthcoming if it was 
known that they had been in the forbidden 
chamber, so they just scampered about in a 
most delightfnlly innocent way. 

That very night the prime minister went 
down for a morsel of cheese as he felt quite 
faint. Ho had been searching all day for some 
secret and had determined to keep it to him- 
self when he found another, and he sat down 
and washed bis face very coolly indeed on find- 
ing Whisker stuck fast. He could easily have 
pulled him ont, for D>t was not at all afraid, 
but he did not do It and went away full as 
softly as he had appeared. 

" I don't care," he said as he rushed back to 
bed. " I won't pull him out. He is a greedy, 
selfish thing. He took all those Mousetops in 
there just to show how smart he was. The 
groceryman never would have set that trap in 

there for me, as I only nibble a little. It is 
lucky they are all so busy on that tunnel, and 
are all tired of cheese, or he would be found 
oat and saved. I'll be glad when they get 
through into the next building ; it'll be prime 
fun, for now I shall rule the Mousetops," de. 
clared Dot sleepily, and he went off into dream- 
land, as if he was a saint instead of an execu- 
tioner. Thus Whisker's grand scheme to ap- 
point Dot his prime minister, flittering him so 
as to worm his secret out of his little breast, 
caused Djt to commit a crime and sealed hin 
own doom. 

The groceryman walked in, to see the effect 
of his bread and tin box trap, when his eye fell 
on Whisker and he jast laughed till his wife 
and the little grocers all rushed in, to see the 
fun, and then father and mother kissed each 
other and made up their quarrel then and there. 

All the customers were invited in to see the 
new trap, and everybody laughed heartily and 
loudly ; so the grocer became popular and 
famous, so much so that be had to lay in a new 
stock immediately. Whisker died of fright, 
although the grocer tried to keep him alive 
with bread and cheese and all the dainties he 
could think of, which were at hand. It was 
no use; Whisker expired, and he had to haul 
him out and send him after Bungler; but he 
grew rich on the trade the funny trap had 
brought him, for people were never tired of 
joking about it; so the grocer became very fat 
and jolly. Wben the Mousetops had nothing 
to fear, as Whiaker had disappeared no one 
knew where, they ate up all the grocer's bread, 
and were all caught in the tin box trap and 
went cff suddenly. G-iandpa Mousetop died of 
the great shock, and those left to mourn moved 
Into the next block through the tunnel, but 
closed it carefully behind them, leaving the 
grocer to solitude and trade. 

How to Live, 

There are two things we chiefly wish for 
while we live — health, to make life enjoy- 
able, and length of days to make it lasting. 
To obtain both mainly depends on ourselves. 

We do not simply die; we usually kill our- 
selves. Oar habitf, our passions, our anxieties 
of body and mind, shorten our lives. 

The key to health and long life is sobriety in 
living. It is the fashion to restrict the term 
sobriety in the use of intoxicating liquors. 

We say with truth that the drunkard is kill- 
ing himself, but we rarely speak of overeating 
as a shortener of life, 

A sober life implies moderation in all things. 
" It consistp," says Cornan, "in moderate eat- 
ing, in moderate drinking and in a moderate 
enj tyment of all the pleasures of life; in keep- 
ing the mind moderately bat constantly em- 
ployed, in cultivating the affections moder- 
ately, in avoiding extremes of heat and cold 
and in shunning excessive excitement either of 
body or mind. A sober life is a life of order, 
of rule, of temperance — that divine sobriety 
which is grateful to God, friendly to nature, 
the daughter of reason, the sister of virtue, the 
companion of temperate living — -modest, gentle, 
content with little, guided by rule and line in 
all its operations." 

Ill is an important rule to observe and prac 
tice for health, comfort and our peace within 
and without, to attack every ailment and 
malady at its beginning, to arrest the premon- 
itory symptoms before they take root in our 
vitals, and gradually or quickly interrupt the 
normal action of the organs. A loss of strength, 
a weakened memory, a tottering walk, all be- 
speak a mental or physical disorder, which, if 
not arrested in the early stage, will lead to dis- 
ease and fatal consequences. 

"One can hardly believe," siys Reveille, 
"how far a little health, well treated, will 
carry us." 

"And the rule of the sage," says Cicero, "is 
to make use of what one has, and to act in 
everything according to one's strength." — Ez. 

Leprosy of the Middle Ages. 

According to Dr. Morell Mackenxie, leprosy, 
the scourge of the middle ages, has not become 
practically extinct among Europeans, but is in 
reality spreading. It has between 1000 and 
1200 victims in Norway, is also found in Portu- 
gal, Greece and Italy, and is rapidly spreading 
in Sjily, in the Baltic provinces of Russia, and 
in France, while the British Islands are not 
exempt from it. 

In the United States cases have been found 
in California, in some of the States of the North- 
west, in Utah and in Louisiana, Many cases 
exist in New Brunswick. In the S«ndwich 
Islands the disease first broke ont in 1853, and 
there are now 1100 lepers in the Molokai set- 
tlement alone. The disease is extending in the 
West Indies, 

The Treatment of Leprosy. 

Kate Marsden, whose investigation of lep- 
rosy in Russia baa been mentioned frequently, 
had interviews with M. Pasteur with the view 
of ascertaining whether inoculation could be re* 
sorted to. M. Pasteur, however, could hold 
out no hope of leprosy being dealt with in that 
wcy. Miss Marsden ia anxious that this neg- 

ative result ebould be promptly known In Ne\ 
Zialand, where hopes have been entertained oi 
the applicability of the Pasteur treatment to 
Maori lepers. Miss Marsden is about to return 
to Russia to continue her investigation. 

Danger in Stale Meat.— A man was found 
dead some two years ago in a lodging-house in 
this city. An analysis of the contents of his 
atomacb was made, and the following report 
handed in to the coroner : " I have made a 
chemical and microscopical examination of the 
stomach and contents of John Dwyer, which 
shows that his death was probably caused from 
eating mince pie containing tainted or par- 
tially decomposed meat. The chemical analysis 
demonstrated the presence of a poisonous 
cadaver alkaloid." 


Strawberry Jelly. — Crush ripe strawber- 
ries, strain the juice, put in a kettle, let boil, 
add a pound of sugar to a pint of juice, let 
cook 15 or 20 minutes longer. 

Sponge Cake —Six eggs and three cups of 
sugar, beaten together five minutes, one cup of 
cold water, four cups of flour, two teaspoonfols 
of baking powder, lemon or almond flavoring ; 
bake in a dripping pan. 

Potato Pdff.— Two cups of mashed potato 
(that has been put through a sieve); season with 
salt and pepper ; stir in two tablespoonfuls of 
butter, beat to a cream, add two well-beaten 
eggs and one cup of cream. Pour into a baking 
dish and bake in a hot oven. 

Milk Porridge —Two cups best oatmeal, 
two cups water, two caps milk. Soak the oat- 
meal over night in the water; strain in the 
morning, and boil the water half an hour. Put 
in the milk with a little salt, boil up well 
and serve. Eat warm, with or without pow- 
dered sugar. 

Sponge Cake. — This inexpensive recipe 
makes very satisfactory sponge cake : One cup- 
ful sugar, two eggs, one-half cupful cold water, 
one pint flour, one teaspoonfnl baking-powder. 
Baat the yolks of eggs and sugar to a cream, 
add the flour in which is the baking-powder 
and water, lastly the whites of the eggs. 

Rioe Snowballs. — Boil one pint of rice un- 
til done soft, put in small cupe, and when per- 
fectly cold place on a disb, make a bailed custard 
of one pint of milk, three eggs, half-cup of su- 
gar, one teaepoonful of cornstarch, flavor with 
either lemon or vanilla. When cold pour over 
the rice balls. This is a simple but nice dessert. 

To Cook Rice or Grits. — Take a clean can 
or other snitable vessel, put the rice in this with 
water sufficient to moisten it and allow for 
swelling, place the can in a kettle of boiling 
water, cover the latter closely and let boil with- 
out stirring until the rice is tender. There Is 
no danger of scorching. Grits are nice cooked 
in the same manner. Salt to taste when put- 
ting on to cook. 

Indian Meal Gruel. — One tablespoonfnl of 
fine Indian or oatmeal, mixed smooth with cold 
water and a saltspoon of salt; pour upon this a 
pint of boiling water, and turn into a saucepan 
to boil gently for half an hour; thin it with 
boiling water if it thickens too much, and stir 
frequently; when it is done, a tablespoonful of 
cream or a little new milk may be put in to 
cool it after straining, bat if the patient's 
stomach is weak it is best without either. 
Some persona like it sweetened and a little nut- 
meg added, but to many it is more palatable 

Waffles. — First be sure the irons are 
amooth. In the first place, if your irons are 
rusty or rough, make a batter simply of flour 
and water; grease irons thoroughly and heat 
well. Put this batter in and cook till done; 
take out, and if it does not come out easily 
have patience, and get all the flour out by 
scraping with a sharp-pointed knife. Repeat 
this process, and you will be surprised how 
smooth your irons will become. Then to one 
pint of buttermilk or sweet milk use two eggs 
and soda or baking-powder as you would for 

Good Ways to Use Cold Biscuits.- 1. Cut 
into slices about a half -inch thick, pot in the 
oven and toast brown on both sides, put in a 
dish and pour over enough boiled sweet milk to 
nearly cover them, let stand a few moments, 
then take ont of the milk and serve with sauce. 
They make a really nice dessert. 2. Break 
the biscuits into orumba, put in a saucepan, 
pour over them enough warm water to soften 
them, set the saucepan on the fire until the 
crumbs are thoroughly soaked, sweeten to 
jour taste, flavor with nutmeg or essence of any 
kind preferred, add a little salt, a small piece 
of butter and an egg, beaten light; when the 
egg is done, take up, put in dessert plates and 
serve with sauce. A good way to use stale 
light bread is to slice it, beat four eggs, a little 
salt and two tablespoonfuls of sugar trgether, 
dip the bread in this and fry in hot fat. A 
good way to use cold rioe ia to mix just enough 
warm water with it to separate every g^ain, add 
pepper and salt to taste, break in a few eggs, 
and fry in a little hot fat. Tomatoes are very 
nice if boiling water is poured tver them, the 
skins removeil, the tomatoes sliced and placed 
in a saucepan, with a little water and enough 
molasses or sugar added to make them sweet, 
letting them oook until the syrup gets quite 



[July 19, 1890 




by DEWEY & CO, 

Office, 220 Marlctl St.,N. E. cor. Front Sl.,S.F. 
tr Take the Slevator, Ho. It Front Sf.-«ft 

Our Subscription Rates. 


year. While this notice appears, all subscribers pay 
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three months, paid in advance, each 60 cents. All 
affents and clerks are required to adhere to these terms. 
No new names entered on the list without payment in 
advance. Oar premium oflerlnf;e are subject to these 

Advertising Rates. 

I Week. 1 Month. S Monthi. I Year. 

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Larcc advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
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'c extraordinary type, or in particular parts of the paper 
at ipoclal rates. Four insertions are rated In a month. 

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Registered at S. F. Post Offiee as eecond-olass mail matter. 

DEWET k CO., PATnn SOLiorroiis. 


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s. a. snoae 




July 19, 1890. 


EDITORIALS.— Mono Like, 50 The Week; Silver 
and Wheat; Prison h\%a\ The Paine Break; New Viti 
cultural Headquarters; Sketching. 56. 

ILLiOdTKATiONH.— A Sketching C'la«s of the Sac- 
ramento School of Disign; Tufa Towers near Black 
Point in Mono Lake, California, 49. Hajor-Geoeral 
John C Fremont, 57. 

Truths Ably Stated; The Master's Desk; Letter Notes; 
Patrio ic Grange Meetii g; A Token 'roni Oregon; Wal 
nut Creek Grange; Grimes Gra' ge; Pescadero Grange; 
Sac'smento Grange; March Oiai ge; Miscellaneous, 

HORTIOULTURB.— A Few Bints on Fruit Drying 

Note 1 on Fruit l)r> ing, 63. 
POULTRY YARD.— General Topics; Vermin on 

Fowls, 60 

THE P^KLiD. — The Washington and Oregon Hop 
Crop, 60. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Wool and Mutton; Aus- 
tralian Scab Cure', 60. 

THE DAIRY. — Feid to Preserve the Milk Flow, 51. 

THE STABLE.- Feeding Ho ses, 61. 

THE IRRIGATOR.— A Meeting of Irrigation Dis- 
trict Directors, 61 

THE HOME CIROLB.— Our Daily Bread; Miss 
Dorothy 8 Rom.mce; Wh Woiuan is .Man'n Best Friend; 
To"i Many for the Be»r; A Few More Hints, 54. Kin i- 
nesH in Sjteech; CiiatY. 55- 

TOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN!.— The Prime Mini?- 
ter Becomes the Kxecutimer of Whisker Mousctop, 55. 

GOOD HEALTH. — How to Live; Leprosy of the 
Middle Ages; hanger in Stale Meat, 65. 

DOMESTin ECONOMY. -Sundry Recipes, 55. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES. —From the various 
CountifH of California, 58 

Vases, 50. 

Business Axmoancements. 


Vapor Engines and Launches— Regan Vapor Engine Co. 

<;a8 and Electrie Li;,'h Fixtures— Thomas Dav A: Co., Ld. 

Semi- .Annual Statement— Grangers' Bank of California. 

Fruit Or.'>derB- G. G. Wickson A Co. 

Auction Sale of Liv^-Stoek— Killip & Co. 

Insurance — The Home Penefit Life Associition. 

Ditchcrs-F. C. Austin Mfg. Co , Ch-eago, III. 

Homo Institution of Dr. John A. Miller. 

Boarding and Day S..hnol -Mies Bishec, Ecat Oakland. 

trSee Advertising Columns. 

The Week. 

The death of the Pathfinder is the week's 
event which awakens the keenest interest and 
sympathy of the California people. He had 
nearly attained the outer scriptaral limit to 
man's life and yet his anceasinf; activity led all 
to hope that he might yet b% spared many 
years to enjoy the progress and prosperity of 
the great commonwealth which he did so mach 
to bring into existence. 

The engraving upon another page of this 
issae It doabtleis one of the finest portraits of 
Kremont ever produced, and the fact that it 
represents him in the prime of his manhood, 
rather than after age had preyed upon the 
beauty of his coantenacce, will make it the 
more acceptable to his California friends. In 
connection with the portrait we give a brief 
sketch of his life, so full of effjrt and accom- 
plishment, and so intimately interwoven into 
the history of the Great West. 

Californians will sincerely mourn the death 
of John C. Fremont; their hearts will go out 
in tender sympathy for his noble wife, who is 
now on California soil, and was unable either 
to minister to him in hii illness or attend his 
bartal. Let the nation deal generously with 

her, and let California afford her a home among 
those who delight to honor her. It would be 
singnlarly proper, too, that the ashes of Cali- 
fornia's first hero should mingle with California 

Silver and Wheat. 

The week has brought as full a realizttion of 
the ennobling of silver as can be expected from 
the present Congress, for the President has 
signed a compromise measure passed by both 
houses, the chief provisions of which will be 
noted presently. Intimately affected by the 
condition of silver, as has been repeatedly 
shown in the, is the market value of 
wheat. It is held by experts that because of 
the advance in silver which has thus far taken 
place, the cost of Russian and Indian wheat 
has already been increased, and as soon as ac- 
cumulated stocks, which have been laid in with 
depreciated silver, are exhausted, the Increased 
cost of such wheat will reach about 20 per cent 
of its old value. Of course this depends on 
the future of silver, and will be govarned by 
the realization of additional silver legislation, 
which will be striven for by the friends of 
silver. Thus, though the full advantage to be 
gained by making a metal which purchases this 
competing wheat the equal of gold is not to be 
Immediately secured, the tide seems to be 
clearly setting toward its realization, and this 
must encourage American wheat-growers, so 
long as they are dependent upon sale in Euro« 
pean markets. 

It is of special importance then to oar farm- 
ing interest to understand j 1st how far the en- 
nobling of silver is accomplished by the law 
passed last week. It provides that the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury shall purchase from time 
to time silver bullion to the aggregate amount 
of 4,. '300 000 ounces, or so much thereof as may 
be offered in each month at the market price 
thereof, not exceeding $1 for 311 25 100 grains 
of pure silver. Treasury notes issued in pay- 
ment will be redeemable in coin, and will be 
legal tender in payment of all debte, public and 
private, except where otherwise txpressly 
stipulated in cuntract, and will be receivable 
for customs, taxes and all public dues. Upon 
demand of the holder of the Treasury notes the 
Secretary shall, under such regulations as he 
may prescribe, redeem such notes in gold or sil- 
ver coin, at bis discretion, it being the estab- 
lished policy of the Uaited States to maintain 
the two metals on a parity with each other upon 
the present legal ratio or such rates as may be 
provided by law. The Secretary of the TreaS' 
ury shall each month coin 2 000,000 ounces of 
silver bullion purchased into standard silver 
dollars until the first day of July, 1S91, and 
after that time he shall coin out of the silver 
bullion purchased as much as may be necessary 
to provide for the redemption of the Treasury 
notes. The present law is repealed. The last 
section provides for covering Into the Treasury 
the fund held for the redemption of the Na- 
tional bank circulation. 

A 1 this enactment has been secured as party a 
measure there is naturally sharp disagreement 
as to its value and probable accomplishment. 
It does not satisfy the silver men because it 
does not actnally remonetizj silver, but it may 
be regarded as a step toward that end if the 
great western half of the country sends to the 
next Congress men who can be trusted to com- 
plete the ennobling of the white metal. Had 
provision been made for free coinage after the 
price of silver advanced to par, then no serious 
objection could be urged against the bill, but 
as it is, silver is still treated as a commodity, 
and as snch it will be snbj ioted to speculative 
influences. This, of course, is what Wall 
Street and the ''gold bugs" in general at the 
Kut wish, for they can get hieher rates of in- 
terest, besides speculate to a much better ad- 
vantage, bat to the country at large it is ruin- 
ous, for there are too many industries whose 
prosperity is dependent upon silver — the higher 
it advances in price, the greater the benefit 
that will be secured. 

A broad effort is to b) made to firmly fix sil- 
ver money in the policies of the American na- 
tions. Last week Senator Teller introduced k 
jaint resolution declaring it to be the deter- 
mined policy of the United States to use both 
gold and silver as full legal tender money, and 
instructing the President to Invite the Govern- 
ments of the Latin Union countries and such 
other nations as he may deem advisable to 
join the United States in a conference to adopt 

a common ratio between gold and silver for the 
purpose of establishing the international use of 
bimetallic money and securing a fixity of the 
relative value between those metals, the con- 
ference to be held at such place as may mutual- 
ly be agreed npon by the executives of the 
Gavernments joining it. 

Toe legislation thus far had upon silver 
comes jist in time to help wheat prices for the 
current harvest. The general shortness of the 
world's supply to which we have frequently al 
Inded, the lessened production in this country 
which according to the July report of the 1) 
partment of Agriculture is about 20 per cent 
less than an average orop, and the reduced out 
put of this State, all combine to bring firmness 
to values and to warrant the expectation of 
considerable advance which is now generally 
indulged in. 

Prison Bags. 

There saems to have been a quick demand 
for prison-made grain bags. Warden McComb, 
in his report to the directors last week, said 

The extraordinary demand for prison-mad 
grain bags this season exhausted our stock early 
in Jane, and at the end of the month we had 
orders for 269,000 bags, to be delivered as fast 
as manufactured. There were S •29,'),.500 bags 
sold during the fiscal year, figuring up S'2l7,7.o.'5 
after paying for raw jatp, and filling up th 
Jute Kivolving Fund to $100,000. The surplus 
was put In the State Prison Fund, which now 
contains S151,7ijt 59. We have raw jote on 
hand, including 2.500 bales in bonded warehouse 
at San Francisco, valued at $57,087 84. 

In accordance with the resolution adopted 
by ynur honorable board, I hava arranged with 
C. D. Bunker, customs broker, to make the 
necessary entries for securing a drawback for 
duty paid on the raw jate used in the manu 
facture of grain bags at the prison. Mr 
Bunker is to give his personal attention to the 
exportation of wheat in prison bags from Port 
Costa and other shipping points, and is to re 
oeive for his services as broker 20 per cent of 
the net amount of the drawback that may be 
returned to us by the Custom House author! 
ties. New wheat will b J shipped this month 
and we can soon ascertain if our claims will be 
allowed or rfj jcted; if our claims are allowed 
and our estimates are correct as to the number 
of bigs that will be discovered at the shipping 
points, we will realizi about $4000 through the 
drawback demands. 

The question which will arise in the mind of 
the farmer, on reading this statement, is the 
same which was brought forward on a previous 
occasion, v'z.: Dies it mean that the State ii 
making a large profit on the bags and thus us 
iog labor, which the farmer is taxed to support, 
to make bags to sell to him at a profit ? It 
would look that way when the account shows 
§217,753 on hand after paying for the jute. 

Again, if the State recovers $1000 as rebate 
for bags shipped out of the State, does not that 
belong to the farmers who bought the bags ? 

The Paine Break. 

A dispatch from Stcramento announcjs that 
the closing of the great crevasse below the 
city is nearly completed. It states: 

The dam is now some two feet or more above 
the water in the river, It is intended to raise 
it until it will confine the river up to the 24- 
foot mark. The water on the inner side is some 
two feet lower than in the river. Very little 
water gets through the dam. Tne tremendous 
current that swept through the break during 
the winter for several months cut up the land 
over which it roamed so badly that much of 
the territory has been rendered nnfis for use for 
purposes of agriculture. About all the water 
now runs In its proper channel, and the scour- 
ing process below the break is going on. 

We trust this is a true statement. The resi- 
dents adjkcent to the break have been Tery ap- 
prehensive of the unsatisfactory outcome of the 
work which has been in progress during the 
last few weeks, and have expressed serious 
doubts of its success and permanence. We 
trust these misgivings will be removed, for the 
menace of renewed losses will certainly have a 
bad effect upon enterprises in the immediate 
region and all along the path of the flood. 
Public work of this character should be a 
model of stability and efficiency, though un- 
fortunately it is too often otherwise. 

It is now an assured fact that Phil Armour 
of Chicago will establish stockyards on the Pa- 
cific Coast. Work was begun this week at 
Baden, on the Coast Division of the Southern 
Piotfic. The Armour Company has purchased 
1920 acres adjacent to the station from the 
Lux estate, paying therefore f460,000 in cai^h. 
The Armour syndicate has advertised for 
i),000,000 bricks for use in the new slaughter- 
houses, and a large supply of lumber has been 
engaged for the stockyards and corrals. 

Mono Lake. 

{Concluded from page 49.) 
instanoes eight and ten feet in diameter and 20 
or 30 feet high. They are clustered in groups in 
the same manner as the tufa towers and castle- 
like masses which have been left exposed by 
the receding waters of the lake. 

Unlike the masses that have been exposed to 
the atmosphere, their forms are unbroken. 
The upward rush of fresh water from the 
orifices in the summits of these sublacastral 
towers is often strong enough to defl ct a boat 
when allowed to fl}at over them, 

Oiher tufa domes rise above the surface of 
the lake near the shore and add an interesting 
and rural feature to the scenery. A group of 
these domes seen from the shore near Black 
Point, looking toward Mt. Warren, is shown in 
the accompanying engraving which we reproduce 
from "The Qiarternary History of Mono Val- 
ley," by Israel C. R issel, published in the U. 
S. Geological Survey Report. These domes 
rise in water that is 10 or 12 feet deep to a 
bight about 12 feet above the surface. Many 
of them are vase-shaped, as shown in the illus- 
tration, being smallest at the water's surface, 
and nearly circular in outline. The more sym- 
metrical ones appear not unlike huge specimens 
of the sponge, known as "Neptune's Cup," 
The tops of several are hollowed out so as to 
form basins, and in a few instances these de- 
pressions are filled with clear, fresh water that 
rises through the porous and tubular tufa com- 
prising the submerged ehaft of the structure. 
These are typical specimens of sublacustral 
spring deposits which have been left particu- 
larly exposed to a recession of the lake waters, 
but are still points of discharge for the springs 
that built them. The water of one of these 
natural fountains rising in a lake whose water 
is utterly undrinkable is of exceptional parity. 
The only other instance where fresh-water 
springs have built up islands in a saline lake ia 
in Ltke Tezusoo, Mexico. 


O^e of the engravings on our first page pre- 
sents a scene familiar to those living near our 
larger towns. Any adjicent embodiment of 
the picturesque is quite likely to be invaded 
during the summer by a band of aspirants to 
art honors who come armed with camp stools, 
easels, drawing boards and sunshades, to test 
the skill of their eyes and fiugers in catcbing 
nature in her varied forms. The scene In the 
engraving lies near Sicramento and the unsus- 
pecting sketcbers which the camera has attacked 
in the rear are members of the Sacramento 
School of Djsign. This school, as most of our 
readers know, has its heac^qiarteri in the 
Crocker Art Gillery, and is conducted in an 
enterprising manner to advance art and art 
studies. It has the fullest arrangement for 
indoor work with models aid masterpieces and 
in the beauties in and about the capital city 
finds grand opportanities for field work. The 
institution is one which those seeking krt cul- 
ture should visit. 

New Viticultural Headquarters. 

The demolition of the Piatt's hall strnctare 
to make way for a grand new building has 
made it neoeasary for the Viticultural Commis- 
sion to select a new location for its headquar- 
ters, and this has been done by leasing the 
store .315-17 Pine street, between Sinsome and 
Montgomery. This location Is superior in 
some respects to the old one, and is cheaper by 
$100 per month. The removal will take place 
about September Ist. 

At the meeting at which this action was 
taken. Commissioner George West of Stockton 
was present, and it may be of interest to other 
wine-makers to know that he considers prospects 
good for the present year. He said: " I think 
everything looks now as though our wine men 
were going to make some money this year." 

The Commission proposes to prepare a revised 
directory of the viticulturists of the State. 
The names of all the growers and the variety of 
grapes which they grow, whether table, wine or 
raisin grapes, with the acreage of each, are to 
I be obtained. The total numbsr^of aores of 
I vines in bearing ia likewise to be givan. No 
doubt the ommission will welcome reports 
from all growers covering these faots. 

I JdH.v BiDWBi.L had 248,000 pounds of oher. 
I ries this year on his Chioo ranch. 

July 19 1890.] 

fACIFie I^URAId f ress. 

Deatli of General Fremont. 

Major-General John C. Fremont died in New 
York on Sunday afternoon, after a sickness of 
brief duration. He was 77 years and six months 
old at the time of his death. 

General Fremont's name is closely identified 
with the early history of California, ha having 

authority of the Government, and while en- 
gaged in them in 1838, Fremont received from 
President Van Buren, under date of July 7 th, a 
commission as second lieutenant in the corps of 
topographical engineers. 

In 1842, Fremont projected a geographical 
survey of the territory of the United States 
from the Missouri river to the Pacific Ocean, 
the feasibility of an overland communication 
between the two sides of the continent being a 

the sea, be ascended August 15th, accompanied 
four men. This mountain is now called 
Fremont's Peak. From the Wind River mount- 
ains, which he left August IStb, Fremont re- 
turned to his starting place by nearly the same 
route that he had followed going out. He 
reached the mouth of the Kineas October 10, 
1842, afthr an abaence of four months. He had 
encountered much hardship and many perils, 
and bad successfully accomplished a 11 the ob- 

river far enough to ascertain its character, and 
then crossed over to the Platte, which he as- 
cended to its source in the mountains, where 
the Sweetwater, one of its tributaries, springs 
from the neighborhood of the South Pass. He 
reached the pass August 8th, went through it, 
and saw the head waters of the Colorado fliw- 
ing toward the Gulf of Oalifornia. On Septem- 
ber 6th, after traveling over 1700 miles, he 
came in sight of the Great Salt Lake, of which 

been one of the most prominent figures in the 
events which led to its cession to the United 

He was born in Savannah, Ga., in 1813, In 
1833, he obtained a poeitlon as teacher of 
mathematics in the U. S. Navy, which he kept 
a few years, and then went Into surveying and 
civil engineering, In 1838-39, he accompanied 
M. Nicollet, a Frenchman and a distinguished 
man of science, in explorations of the country 
between the Missouri and the British line. 
These explorations were made under the 

leading idea in the scheme of explorations. He 
applied to the War Department for employment 
in this service, and having received, at his own 
suggestion, instructions to explore the Rocky 
mountains, and particularly to examine the 
South Pass, he left Washington, May 2, 1842, 
and on June 10th began his pxpedition from a 
point near the mouth of the Kansas river, a few 
miles beyond the Missouri border, whence he 
proceeded up the Platte river, through bands of 
hostile Indians, to the South Pass, which he 
carefully examined. 

He next explored the Wind River mountaina, 
the loftiest peak of which, 13.750 feet above 

jects of the expedition. Over the whole course 
of his extended route, he had made barometri- 
cal observations to ascertain the elevations both 
of the plains and of the mountains, and astro- 
nomical observations for latitudes and longi- 

Immediately after the publication of the re- 
port of this expedition, he planned another of a 
more comprehensive character. He determined 
to extend his explorations across the continent, 
anf" to survey the then nuknown region lying 
between the Ricky mountains and the Pacific 
ocean. In May, 1843, he commenced his jour- 
ney with 39 men and proceeded up the Kansas 

no accurate account had ever yet been given, 
and of which very vague and erroneous notions 
wpre entertained. 

His investigations effected important rectifi- 
cations in our geographical knowledge of this 
portion of the continent, and had subsequently 
a powerful influence in promoting the settle- 
ment of Utah and the Pacific States. From 
the Salt Lake he proceeded to the upper tribu- 
taries of the Columbia river, whose valley he 
descended, until on November 4th he reached 
Fort Vancoaver, near the mcuth of the Colum- 
bia. On Nrvember 10th he set out on bis 
(Oontinued on page 61.) 


f AClFie F^URAId f ress. 

[July 19, 1890 

^Agricultural JJotes. 


FioHTiNc FiKE — Livermore Herald, July 
10 : A fire waB Btarted on the Pillareno place, 
on the BOQth side of the Crane ridgp, last Sit- 
nrday, by a couple of hunters. They decamped 
upon seeing what they had done, and the fire 
attained considerable head way before the neigh- 
bors could get together to fight. L^w B. Clark 
and Aurelius Lidd finally got a small party to- 
gether and hngan work near the top of the 
ridge, while Jalian Romo fought sinele-handed 
on his range, near the Mocho. The fire started 
early in the morning, and burned all day, the 
last spark being finally stamped out at five 
o'clock in the evening. Mr. Rimo worked 
alone all day, while the party followed up their 
line to the end. The fire ran to the Crane 
ridge road on the ridge, and burned a large 
portion of the feed and about a dc7,?n cords of 
wood on Horace Overacker's range. Mr. Romo 
Inst a large area of feed, the fire going to the 
Iilocho creek. A deep canyon checked its 
course toward the southeast. 


The Wheat Harvest.— Ore ville Regitter, 
July 10: The big combined harvesters are now 
at work throughout the eastern part of the 
county. In many sections the crop is turning 
oat better than was at first expected, though 
on much of the black land it will probably be 
only one-third as heavy as usual, or even less. 
The county, as a whole, is undoubtedly fully up 
to the average of the State in its wheat yield, 
and IB far ahead of many less favored localities, 
where the proportion of low land is greater. 
There are many fields of heavy growth some- 
what beaten down by the late rains, though by 
the present methods of harvesting nearly all the 
grain will bs saved. 


Why the Crop is Poor. — Colusa Sun, July 
12: The crops are not turning out as well gsn- 
erally as was expected. It seems that the 
wheat sown before the first rains in October, 
and which has been looking beat, is taming out 
poorest. It is found after the harvesting has 
been begun that there are many heads wichoat 
wheat. Captain Ash thinks a frost came 
at the wrong time for the first sowing. Taking 
all things together, this has been a poor season 
for wheat. 

Contra Costa. 

CKOr NoTKS. — Martinez Oazeite, July 12: 
The harvest is in fall bloom in the eastern por- 
tion of the county, and the yield is in pleasing 
contrast to the rest of the county. The ex- 
cessive and oontianed rains prevented the 
proper sowing in the large wheat growing sec- 
tions elsewhere, but the season was well suited 
to the system of summer-fallowing generally 
followed at Byron, Brentwood, and that vioin- 
itv. We learn that Mr. E. D. Grisby threshed 
810 sacks from 40 acres at Brentwood, and that 
Mr. Geo. A. Miller's wheat yielded 2800 
pounds to the acre. Others are presumed to do 
SB well, bat these are the only ones from which 
we have definite returns. 

El Dorado. 

More Grassdioim'eks — Record Union, July 
9: A revident of White Rock, writing to the 
Record Union of the ravages by grasshoppers 
in that lection, says : Having read the account 
in MDnday's Record-Union of grasshoppers 
being so numeroaa in this vicinity, I write to 
tell you something of the damage already done 
by them here. They have stripped a great 
many fruit trees and grapevines of every leaf, 
and peeled the bark from all tender shoots. 
Vegetable gardens are ruined, and, where two 
weeks ago were lovely fljwer gardens, nothing 
but stalks remain. The pests undoubtedly 
hatched here as when they were first noticed 
they were about the siza of common house 


Good Yield of Wheat — Selma Irrigator, 
Jaly 10: K F. Himmers, who has a half-sec- 
tion of fine land one mile south of Belmi, re- 
ports the largest yield of wheat yet given this 
year. He thrashed this week from 80 acres of 
land 869 sacks of excellent wheat. This is al- 
moFt 1 1 sacks to the acre. 

Grain in the Huron Cocntry. — Hanford 
Sentinel, July 10: Ransom Jones, whose grain 
ranch is one mile north of Huron, has harvest- 
ed 2360 sacks oS 150 acree — nearly 16 sacks to 
the acre. J. Bohwinn. a resident of the same 
locality, harvested 2119 sacks off 140 acres — 
more than 15 Backs to the acre, Frank Mc- 
Clellan got 2008 sacks from a quarter section 
of volunteer, near Jones ranch, and the Huron 
country has done nobly this year. 

More Irrigation. — Fresno Repuhliean, 
Jaly 11: The surveys, plans and details for 
the proposed lumber and water flume from 
Stevenson oreek to Toll House, and ultimately 
to this city, have been completed and the work 
of constructing the flume will be began at once. 
The flume will carry 'MO feet of water to the 
head of Big Dry creek, four and a half miles 
above Toll House, this water to flow along Big 
Dry creek and to be used for irrigating par- 
poses. The remainder of the water will be 
used in the flame for the traneprirtition of 
lumber from that point down to Toll House and 
Fresno. The irrigating water will be taken out 
at a point near Academy and will irrigate the 
whole of the Big Dry oreek country lying be- 
tween the San J oiqoin and the King» rivers, 
a fertile region of rich, red loam that cannot be 

irrigated from any other source. This section 
includes the thermal orange, lemon, fig and 
olive belt lying along the foothills, and it will 
become valuable property as soon as the water 
gets upon it. 

A Runaway Harvester. — Traver./4dooca/e, 
July 11: A combined harvester running near 
Huron, on the West Side, one day last week 
was run away with by the horses attached 
thereto, who carried the machine over the rail- 
road track. Perry Clough of this vicinity, who 
was attending a lever on the top of the ma- 
chine, was thrown off and had his right ear 
torn nearly oS. The driver was pitched back 
on to the place where Oloagh had been and 
thus escaped serious injury, Mr. Clough came 
home and is under Dr. Williams' care, and his 
ear is now growing back to its usual place at a 
rapid rate. 

Wool.— Eareka Times, July 10: Frank H. 
McKee, who lives in the southern part of the 
county, a few miles inland from Shelter Cove, 
was in Eareka yesterday and paid a visit to the 
Times office. Mr. McKee reports general pros- 
perity in that section, with hopeful prospects. 
He says the wool crop is for some reason better 
quality than heretofore, and that good prices 
are being realized. 


Crop.s on the Steven.s Canai, — Inyo Inde- 
pendent. July 11: Tills is the first Beason when 
crops have been irrigated from the Scevens ca- 
nal. Mr. H. J. Ribinson has wheat growing 
which promises to make a very heavy crop He 
says part of it now looks as if it would yield 
one and a half tons to the acre and it is ripen- 
ing fast. Corn is making very rapid growth 
and will be a heavy crop. His first cutting of 
alfalfa produced three tons to the acre. Mr. W, 
Jenkins also has fine orops of alfalfa and wheat 
growing. The oanal is now in fine condition 
and carries a large volume of water. 


Fair Date Changed — Susanvill" Advocate, 
July 10: The Biard of Lassen County Fair 
Directors met last Monday, President A. L. 
Tunison and Directors Lawson, Wemple and 
Lsavitt were present, 0. E. Knerson was 
elected assistant secretary, and immediately 
entered upon the discharge of the duties of that 
office. A speed program was adopted and a 
premium-list was arranged. The date of com- 
mencement of the fair was changed from Oct. 
7cb to Oct. 6th. 

Los Aneelea. 

Fruit Canning. — Pomona Progrest. July 10: 
Work at the cannery this week has been rash- 
ing, to say the least. From oO to 60 tons of 
apricots per day are being delivered. A force 
of over 200 cutters are at work and nearly 400 
men, women and children are employed about 
the works. The dried fruit is already being 
shipped to the Eist and several carloads have 
been forwarded. The variety mostly being 
brought in is the Royal, but some of the earlier 
Moorpark orchards are beginning to be picked 
and are yielding some of the most magoifioent 
fruit we have ever seen. We should judge 
some specimens would go at least three to the 
pound. From 20 to 40 teams can be found at 
all hours waiting to unload. The cannery is 
running day and night. 

San Bernardino. 

Editors Press: — Harvesting is nearly over 
and the time is at hand when the speculator 
tells of the enormous crops, and runs the price 
down until he gets possession of the farmer's 
produce, when lo ! we find the crop was not so 
large as estimated. Wheat is advertised for 
sale in Riverside at $1 15 per cental, and rolled 
barley is Belling at $1,20 per cental. Why is 
this ? Is it because the Perrie and San J^icinto 
farmers have raised more wheat than usual, 
and buyeis can afford to sell small quantities 
cheap, in order to be able to buy large quanti- 
ties still cheaper ? Thrashing has been going 
on for some time; still there seems to be no de- 
cline in the price of barley. There has been no 
thrashing done in the north end of our valley 
yet, but the hay le baled and the whole amount 
put up for sale is about 80 tone, where the 
crop, two years ago, amounted to between 1000 
and 2000 tone. Many of the farmers have bare- 
ly enough hay to carry them through the sea- 
son. Mr. Kebl's wheat-field is being headed, 
and on the best of it the stacks are few and far 
between. The hot weather has ruined the corn 
and beans in oar neighborhood, but we only 
raise small quantities for home use. We have 
a school district here now and have kept school 
one month. Our census marshal's report shows 
21 census school children and 34 children all 
told in the district. The average attendance 
was 1.5i.— L. S Lyman, Aleuandro, July 10th. 

Fritit Driers Busy. — Rjdlands Citrograph, 
July 12: Cook & Lingley, fruit driers, now 
emnlny .360 hands, and have a weekly pay roll 
of S2500. They handle from 60 to 80 tons of 
apricots a week, an amount which has never 
before been equalled in this section. 

San Diego. 

The Hemet Dam.— San Jacinto Register, 
■July 10: Hancock Johnston informed as Mon- 
day evening that he had received a letter from 
W. F. Whittier of Los Angeles, one of the di- 
rectors of the Hemet L»nd & Water Co., itat- 
iLg that a ship load of cement bad arrived at 
San Dipgo to ha used in the construotion of the 
great Hemet dam. 2,C00 barrels of cement 
will be shipped immediately from San Diego. 
He also states that they will have to begin 
work on their warehouie and side tracks at 
once, and as soon as Engineer Schuyler returns 
from Denver, where he will be compelled to re- 

main 10 or 12 days, work will be commenced 
on the dam. 

New Grain Warehouse — Son Z)ipj7an, Jnly 
11: The Sprectels BrotherB* Commercial Com- 
pany set men to work this morning to build an 
important addition to the west end of their 
coal bankers. The addition will be 300 feet 
long and 40 feet wide, and is intended as a ware- 
house and elevator for the storage and ship- 
ment of grain. Its capacity will be 3000 tons. 
The warehouse will be located, as stated, at the 
west end of the bunkers, and will fill the va- 
cant space in the wharf now seen between the 
bunkers and the engine-houee. A big gang of 
men were put to work, and the ctlicers of the 
company Bay the house will be ready to receive 
grain in 15 days. The intention is to supply it 
with all the modern appliances for handling 
grain which the coal bunkers have for handling 
coal, and ships will be loaded with the quickest 
possible dispatch. 

The PRnucoERs' Union Drvini; Frtit.— 
San i)i>(]ian, July 11 : The big drier ordered 
by the Union some time ago is to-day being set 
np at the Uaion's headquarters down on Fifth 
street and will be puc in trial operation to- 
morrow. Hilf a ton of apricots will be put in 
as the firot batch, but Manager Webber stated 
to a San Diegan reporter this morning that he 
expected by the middle of next week to be 
taming out two tons of apricots per day, and 
he would maintain the operation as loi g as the 
fruit lasted and the price warranted, 
San Joaquin. 

Watermelons. — Lodi Sentinel, July 12: On 
account of the exceedingly wet weather melons 
are late this year. The first sViipnnent this sea- 
son was made yesterday, Wm. Ttcklerbsrg 
having cnnsigned half a car load to S.n Fran- 
cisco. Next week four or five car-loads will be 
shipped, but the business will not be booming 
until after the 25 ^h instant. 

San Luis Obispo. 

Annual Fair. — Arroyo Grande Il-rald, 
July 5: Tne regular meeting of the Arroyo 
Grinde Agricnltaral Association was held at 
Phillips' hall, on Tuesday afternoon. July 31. 
President Lsedham being absent, Vioe-Presi- 
dent J. V. N. Young presided. It was n'oved 
and carried that the society hold its fifth an- 
nual fair on October 8 :h, !)ih and 10th. The 
president appointed a committee conoisting of 
A. Philips, W. N. Short and N. J. Djwner to 
revise the premium list and bring the same be- 
fore the board at a called meeting to be held 
Saturday, July 12th, at 3 p .m, 
Santa Clara. 

The Egg Record Broken. — Los dtos 
JVeiot, July 11: Mrs. Ciroline Gray, propri- 
etor of the Hillside Cottage, in the Santa Oruz 
mountains, at Wrights, sent to this o£Boe on 
Monday some egg« which beat anything we 
ever saw in the line of ben's eggs. They 
weighed a quarter of a pound each and were 
laid by a light B.-ahma only one year old. This 
hen lays one of these eggs every other day. 

Alfalfa. — Anderson Knterprite, July 10: 
Weaver & Campbell have 50 acres of alfalfa 
from which they will out three crops this year, 
grown entirely without irrigation. Two orops 
were cut last year, the first year from the seed. 

New Fruit Dkier — Healdsburg Enterprise, 
July 12: L. Jiffe, whose Hoe farm lies seven 
miles northeast of town, is having erected a 
good-sixed fruit-dryer, and will hereafter dry 
his own fruit. Mr. Jaffa is at present in e- 
gon, but writes that he will return to Califor- 
nia in time to handle this season's grape crop 
on his place. It is probable that he may also 
buy a considerable tonnage of grapes. 


Thrashing Outfit Burned — Modesto Her- 
ald, July 10: Od Monday afternoon the 
thrashing outfit of T. J. Young was bnrned 
whiln thrsBhing a stack of rye on the ranoh of 
W. B. Harp, several miles south of Modesto. 
The fire caught from the engine, and the re- 
mainder of tbe outfit was burned tngether with 
the rye thrashed and the stack. Young's loss 
will be about S2000 and Harp's S6000, bjth un- 
insured. After burning a few acres of stubble, 
the fire was put out. 

It Might Have Been — Modesto 
Nexi-s, July 11: Oa Saturday evening last, 
about 7 o'clock, a stack-bottom on the old Red 
Thatcher place on Dry creek, owned by M. A. 
Wheeler, was discovered to be on fire by J. A, 
Rydberg, Twenty acres of stuble and grass 
land were burned over before Sir. R;dberg and 
others 'succeeded in stopping it. The grain, 
which had been put in sacks eight hours be- 
fore, and which was still piled ap near the 
stack bottom, was not injured, though the 
stubble sU around it was burned. Owing to 
the heavy rainfall last winter, Mr. Rydberg 
was unable to put in any grain, and when tbe 
fire reached his land, it was easily put out. 
Had a crop of growing grain been standing on 
the latter's ranch, nothing could possibly have 
prevented the fire extending to the Taolumne 
river, a distance of over four miles, entailing 
great less of property. The fire was probably 
started by the steam thrasher whioh had left 
tbe stack-bottom eight hours before, 

Glanders. — Mirysville Appeal, July 11: 
J. A. Peter of Nicolaus township, Sutter coun- 
ty, one of the gentlemen who appeared before 
the Sutter county Board of Supeivisors yester- 1 
day in relation to stock running at large in his 
township, was seen by an Appeal reporter and j 
queationed in regard to the report that a num- 

ber of horses suffering from glanders bad been 
killed near Nicolaus. Mr. Peter informed the 
reporter that the report was true, and that 
there were undoobtpdly more of them that 
should be killed. Oae of the horses killed he 
I had noticed on the road eight days previous in 
I a most sickening condition. Tbe spread of. 
this disease so far has been very slow in the 
vioinity, but residents there are beginning to 
get very anxious, and want to see something 
done to prevent these stHioted animals from 
running at large. 

The Grape Crop.- ■Sutter Farmer, July II: 
From present indications the grape crop this 
season will be unusually large. All vaiietlia 
are well set on the vines and the clusters are 
full and numerous. R, C. KelU, one of the 
piincipal grape-growers, informs us that the 
early varieties will soon be ripe. The season is 
late, but is no detriment to the yield. Last 
year Mr, Kells had grapes in the mirket on the 
4:h of July. 


Central Canal Company. — Visalia Delta, 
July 11: Toe Central Oanal Company, organ- 
ized to dispose of water for irrigating purposes 
in Kern and Tulare counties, has tiUd articles 
of incorporation in the Secretary of S:ate's 
c fiioe at Sacramento, Principal plac- of ha*i- 
ness, San Francisco, Capital stock, $3 000 000, 
D rectors — Robert McMnrray, H, F. Cailer, 
G 'Orge Eiston, George H. Mix well and George 
K Wells. 

Culture Station Notes. — Tulare Rfgixter, 
Jnly 11: Tbe foreman of the cul ure station, 
Mr. Forror, has nearly completed his takk of 
haiViisting. All the grain was cut by band 
with the knife and shelled out with sticks, so 
that not a kernel was lost or damaged, and the 
varieties were kept separate. There is some- 
thirg of a contrast in expense between this 
mode of hai vesting and harvesting with a steam 
combined harvester. The hand method costs 
about ten cents per pound, while the other 
costs about ten cents per 100 pounds. Varie- 
ties have been grown upon the station this year 
which have yielded as high as 85 bushels per 
acre. In a short time small parceU of the best 
varieties of grain will be given out to those who 
will stipulate to give them a fair trial another 


De.\th to Thistles — Woodland Democrat, 
July 10 : The Board of Trustees passed an or- 
dinance Tuesday, compelling all owners of 
property inside the city limits to keep their 
property cleared of what ia known as ' Bull 
Thistle." The Marshal has been instructed to 
notify all those on whose property there is a 
growth of this thistle, and if the owner will 
not cut them down and barn then', the Mtr- 
shal will do so himself at the expense of the 
owner of the property. 

Pkdfitadle Potatoes — Woodland Mail, Ju- 
ly 12: In his ramblings about the county look- 
ing up the fruit interests, a Mail reporter 
viiited a vegetable garden consiatiog of 25 
acres on the I. P. Digga ranch, north of Cache 
creek, and the property of Johnson May. In 
an interview with Mr. Johnson he learned facts 
which seemed almost incredible. Thirteen acres 
of the garrien were planted in potatoes about 
January 1 it and the total expense includire la- 
bor, seed and everything, did not exceed .<tOO; 
1600 sacks of potatoes were marketed from this 
patch and were sold at $1 60 per 100, bringing 
in $2000. Six hundred sacks of the potatoes 
were shipped to various points on the Pacific 
Coast, and tbe remaining 1000 sacks found a 
market at home 

Melons in Bulk — Fruit Ship.ments. — 
Winters Exjiress, .July 12: We are informed 
that our enterprising fruit-growers'are inaugu- 
rating a new plan for shipping their water- 
melons and cantaloupes to Oregon. By using 
false bulkheads in one end of a car, they are 
enabled to ship the melons in bulk, thus avoid- 
ing the expensive package they were obliged to 
use; which, taken with the heavy freight on 
same, shows a saving to our shippers of about 
six cents per melon. Should tbis plan prove 
successful, it will tend to largely increase the 
shipments in this line to Portland. . . .Oje hun- 
dred and twelve carloads of fruit were shipped 
from Winters during the month of June The 
weight averaged over 11 tons per car. This ia 
a large increase over any former year, 


Alfalfa on Alkali Lands. — P, tpoix Her- 
ald July 10: Mr. C. L. Pbippeny is up from 
the Buckeye conntry to-day and informs the 
Herald that that portion of the country is pros- 
perous with good crops of alfalfa and grain. 
An important piece of information from Mr. 
Puippeny is that he has made a aolendid suc- 
cess of alfalfa on alkali lands. He bad some 
trouble in setting the seed to set well at first, 
but when it was once set, the orops are more 
luxuriant on alkali lands than elsewhere, all of 
whioh goes to show that the "salt lands'' 
found here and there in tbe valley are as valu- 
able as any land, if properly handled, in cer- 
tain crops. 

Cattle Shipments. — Wilcrx Stockman, Ju'y 
12: cars of steers — 125" h»ad — were 
shipped from here Tburs^^ay to Hutchinsor, 
Kansas. The cattle belonged to Henry Fitch 
and J. C. Stone, and were purobsserl from J. M. 
Richardson, Charles Gottgens, C. R. Puree!', 
H, C. Sjverin, \V. M. Attenboroogh and J. P. 
Johnston. Mr. Fitch ar-ompanied the ship- 
ments A shipment of 247 steer«, purchased in 
the Tonto country by George Frisk for V, B, 
Wright, Was made from here Monday. 

July 19, 1890] 

f ACIFie I^URAb f RESS. 

Rockeries and Vases. 

[Read by John Gahlir, before the State Plotal S.ciety, 
at tbe mc tini; ot July 11th ] 

Rockeries belong to the unnsual sights of 
nature, therefore they are contrast?, and help 
to relieve the atiffoess of a level plain. la 
landscape gardens we are imitating nature, and 
the rockeries which claim such an important 
place are introduced into parks and gardens to 
render them more pictures que. Wherever 
nature has been so kind as to provide a rockery, 
where a garden is to be created, it should be 
made use of to the greatest advantage. The 
reputation of many landscape gardens ia due to 
the natural rockeries which they had only to 
beautify. Many large rockeries would lose 
much of their beauty could their foundation be 
clearly seen, others appear imposing and elegant 
only from certain points, and the walks leading 
to those should be laid out with regard to the 
best view obtainable. For small rockeries the 
trees and shrubs used in planting about them 
should be of correspondingly small growth, so 
that when grown np they will not obstruct the 
view by biding the rocks; neither should there 
be very large trees in the vicinity as the rockpry 
will appear to disadvantage by comparison. The 
harmony in sizes should be preserved. Should 
there be an accumulation of loose rock around, it 
should be removed, thereby making the rockery 
appear larger and to better advantage. 

In the gardens and parks of Ciilifornia there 
are many large rockeries. There is a fine one at 
Mr. W. Dingee's place in Oikland. A walk 
ought to be made up it, and a small temple 
with five or six pillars would be a nice orna- 
ment at the end of the walk. It is for many a 
great pleasure to climb over the rooks. It is man's 
peculiarity rather to climb up to take in a partic- 
ular view than to go down for the same purpose. 
To perfectly imitate the rockeries of nature is 
very difSoult. Those in the parks of Paris, the 
palm gardens of Frankfurth and in the Duke of 
Devonibire's place at Chatsworth in Eagland 
are admirable imitations of nature. Rockeries 
should always, if possible, be built on elevated 
ground, and look well as adornment for knoll 
or hillsides. In building only large and care- 
fully-selected stones should be used, with a 
view to bringing out the different formations 
and veins, leaving room here and there for 
shrubs, vines, etc., and also places for Alpine 
plantp, for only by the most careful planting 
can it become a good imitation of the natural. 
It will also be improved by having large stones 
scattered around ; those can be made any size 
and shape with small stones cemented together. 
Rockeries in flower gardens are generally small, 
and for sucb, lava and other stones of volcanic 
origin are the best adapted ; if not obtainable, 
then any rough rook oan be used. In the con- 
struction of bridges, circular and terrace walls, 
and other ornamental work in park or garden, 
rough stone produces the best effects and is 
much preferable to wood or other material. I 
have seen a garden on the Rhine built of ter- 
races of rough rock in an irregular manner to 
the height of 50 feet, so that the house on the 
top had all the appearance of being built on a 
natural rock or hill. In all such constructions, 
regularity must be avoided, but care must be 
taken to have the grain of the stones uniform, 
either perpendicular or horizontal. To build a 
rockery skillfully requires a close study of 
rocks and a great taste for natural beauty. 

Plants for Hoclierles. 

The most suitable plants for rockeries are 
those which thrive naturally among rocks or 
rocky ground, such as Fuchsias, dielytra spec- 
tabilis, olianthus puniceup, pentstemons ; and 
all plants with hanging flowers look better to be 
up slightly from the ground. Plants for rock- 
eries are of the shade and sun-loving kinds, the 
shade-loving being the most numerous, such as 
are commonly called Alpine plants, though but 
few of them have origioated in the Alps; these 
include nearly all evergreen and perennial 
shrubs, and many bulbous plants. True, rock- 
plants which naturally grow among rooks and 
which we may call sun plants are all semper 
vivum varietiep, many Sixifragap, Erica carnea, 
Bednms, Aubrietias, Arabis, Erinuf, LInaria, 
Mesembryanthemums, etc. It a rockery is lo- 
cated in an open sunny exposure, a collection 
of cacti and succulents set out tastefully Is a 
pleasing otjjct. I would strongly recommend 
the different varieties of Mesembryanthemum, 
as these make a very fine show. If a rockery 
is shaded by trees or is so large that the north 
side has sufiBoient shade, then ferns may be 
planted. A Dicksonia antartica, perhaps, on 
the foot; and smaller ferns, as Adiantum cap- 
piluB veneris, Polypodiump, Pteris, Lomarias, 
Kephrodiums, etc., can be arranged so as to 
give the best effect. 

On the sunny side, some of the small growing 
CupressuB, Rstinosporas, Thujas, Juniperus, or 
some other evergreen shrubs, can be planted. 
A skillful gardener knows exactly what plants 
to use to make a pleasing picture, and should 
be be fortunate enough to have at hand a small 
stream of water dropping down the rookery, a 
pond oonld be made below which could be 
filled with Nelumbiums and Nymph:i:», on the 
margin of the pond could be placed such moist- 
ure-loving plants as Cyperus papyrus, or 0. 
alternifolius, Tritoma uvaria, etc. The shore 
being filled out with irregular patches of C^illas, 

Farfugluro, Dlcnlarias, Caladium esculentum, 
Arundo Donax and some bamboo; then, let us 
imagine a tree near the lake, the branches of 
which are entwined with a Passiflora with its 
scarlet flswers drooping into the water. That 
would certainly make a picture to satisfy any 
lover of nature. The following are good climb- 
ing plants for rockeries: Ampelopsis Yeitcbii, 
Clematis, Hardeubergias, Plumbagos, Rhynchos- 
permum. Smilax, Spergula rubra, Myrsiphyllum 
auriculata, Ficns reoens, iviep, etc. Flnca major 
vaiiegata is also a fine plant for rockeriep, but 
it should be planted in a place where it cannot 
spread; a large pot or box will do; if planted in 
the rockery, they will spread all over it and in- 
jure other more valuable plants. G'Ottoes, 
formerly so much esteemed, are out of fashion 
and are only made occasionally, where the pro- 
prietor possesses peculiar tastes. In large con- 
servatories, however, a half grotto, half rock- 
ery and a pond for water plants is in good taste 
and ought to be more frequently constructed 
than it is. A conservatory on a private place 
ought not to be modeled exactly as the green- 
house of a nurseryman, with so many benches 
of uniform width. In a conservatory we ought 
to see more decorations and everything ought 
to look more natural. 


Vases are a greatly desired ornament for 
gardens, and particularly for terrace gardens. 
The use of vases is very old. In former times 
the Romans and Greeks chiseled vases out of 
stone to grow flowers in. At present we find 
more vases in the gardens of I -ialy than in any 
other country. Their gardens are laid out 
very symmetrically and the vases on both sides 
of the straight walk look very well. In a pic- 
turesque landscape garden, we have no use for 
them unless it be on some corner where a road 
makes a sharp bend, at the entrance of the gar- 
den or at the entrance of the house on each 
side of the steps. A terrace garden is the 
right place for vases. Small vases ought to be 
pot on high pillars three feet high, and larger 
ones on pillars five to six feet high, as they 
never look well when standing too low. Plants 
for vases are either ornamental or flowering. 
Among the first we have those which have a 
regularity in their habit of growth, as palms, 
Dracseuas, Yuccas, Agaves, Dasylirionn, Dori- 
anthup, Oycas, Panioum, etc. For flowering 
plants, tlortensias, fuchsias, verbenas, nastur- 
tiums, geraniums, especially ivy geraniums, 
cannot be surpassed by anything as a vase 
plant, except it be Cliantbus Dampieri. Un- 
fortunately, the Clianthus does not succeed in 
San Francieco, but in the interior country, 
where the climate is warmer, it does well. 
Myrsiphyllum asparagoides is also a vase plant 
which has no (qual; its small foliage is very 

Fine decorative vases can be obtained by 
planting them with Amaranthus tricolor, or 
A. salicifniia, Z !a Japonica var, C ileup, Achy- 
ranthes. Lobelias, etc. When Clematis or 
Convolvulus are planted on the pillars and 
twined round they will greatly help the effect. 
Ampelopsis Vei'chii or ficus repens are also 
very suitable olimbers with which to entwine 
the pillars. Twin vases at the entrance of 
gardens or at the entrance of a house should be 
planted alike. The plants chosen should be of 
like varieties end siz). Before planting a vase, 
broken crockery or charcoal should be put into 
the bottom. The plants are supposed to re- 
main in them for a long time, and if not suf- 
ficiently drained, the soil will become sour. 
Should the soil be exhausted, liquid manure can 
be mixed with the water once or twice a week. 

Don't Fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
does not want it, or het/onU the tiiiie he intends to paij 
for it, let him not fail to write ns direct to ttop it. A 
po.stal card (costing one cent only) will s flice. We wiil 
Dot knowingly send the paper to any one who does not 
wish it, but if it is continued, through the failure of the 
subscriber to notify us to discontinue it, or some irre- 
sponsible party requested to stop it, we shall positively 
demand payment for the time it is sent. Look carefully 


Wanted, Situation 

As foreman of a large fruit ranch. Have had 25 
years' practical experience in growing, packing and 
shipping fruit. Was with John Bidwell, Chico, Butte 
county, Cal., two years. Would refer anyone wish- 
irg a practical nurseryman and fruit grower to 
Gen. Bidwell. Can give good Eastern references. 
J. Luther Bowers, Hemdon, Fairfax Co., Virginia. 

Railroad Accident.s. — A Cincinnati man, 
who ba^ preserved a record of 320 railroad ac- 
cidentp, happening in this country in the past 
year, finds that only^LS out of the lot occurred 
from causes beyond human control. The others 
was due to drunkenness or carelessness. 

Housewives, Attention ! 

Two new first-class Sewing Machines for sale 
cheap. Will be sent direct from warerooms if de- 
sired. Address, H. F. D., Box 2517, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 



market rate of interest on approved security in Farm- 
ing Lands. A. SCHULLER, Room 8, 430 CaU- 
'omia St., San Francisco. ** 


real estate below market rates. HOWE & KIM- 
BALL. 508 California St., S. F. 


Thit a fact PROVEN is evidence indisputable? We 
prove our c'aim that 

Cures the sick BY CURING THEM, and furnish the 
proof in 

O XT 1=1 3XrS VTCT* BOOK, 

Just issued, which will be SENT FREE to any address. 
The results are marvelous. Send tor one. 


1332 Marrket St., San Francisco, Cal. 

In part payment for a new Piano, to be selected 
from the largest and finest stock of Standard Pianos 
in San Francisco. Address W. L., Box 2517, S. F. 

BuoQ-KS AND Bdckboards. — A Complete asiortment of 
veh cles in every grade and style. For circulars write 
Frank Brothers. San Francisco. 




A Safe, Speedy and Positive Cure 
for Curb, Fpllnt, Sweeny, Cupped 
Hc;ck, fetrainud Teniloni, Joiiri- 
d(^r. Wind I'ulTs, all Skin Dlscnsca 
or I'arasitcH.Hiru'h, niplulierla, 
rf:i;;i'yp, all Lanicn(^s8 from 
.Sp;'\ in, lllnehnnc" or other liony 
Tumors. Hi-iiKiVfs all Uiuu-Im's 
^ or JtlemlshcB from Uorsea and 
„,^\^ i'atUe. 

Supersedes all Cautery or firing. 
Xmpos^ihle tf> I*ro<liioo any 
h( Mr or ISleiuish. 

Every bottle sold 19 warranted to rIvo hmV f;n tlon. 
Price »1. 50 per liottle. Sold liy drutrr^lsts, or 1- l y 
express, charges p;nd, with full directions for lid Ubc. 
Send for dcecript i \ e t Iruiilnrs. Address 
UAWKKNCk:;. Vv'lLLIA>TS&CO..Clevclan.l.O. 




Before Buying a Sewing Machine. 
It is the lead in practical progrees. Send lor price list 
W. EVANS, 29 Post St., 8. P. 

mlir^BLE PEACH. "Ship Five More Graders." 



Of the "Value of Fruit Assorting. 

Pa'eutcd June 10, 18U0. 

To Gel llie Best Prices Your Pruaes Mu t tie Graded. 

You Can't Uake Money Easier. 



" San .losE, Cal., .Inly 12, IKOO. 

" MESSRS. G. G. WICKSON & CO., Sari Francisco, Cal —Gentlemen: Will you kindly send ns hill for 
the grader you shipped us. Wc would also like to have you ship ns the Hrst of ''exl week FIVE SINGLE 
GRADERS (regular No. 4). If you have not five in stock, please SKN" AS MANY AS YOU HAVE. 

'• We remain, very truly yours, [Signed] SAN JOSE FRUIT PKG. CO., Per W. H. Wright." 

G. G. WICKSON & CO,, General Coast Agents, 

San Francisco, Los Angeles and Portland. 



Factory, Worcester, Maes. 



Odd Numbers. 

33 and 3S Uain Street, San Fr.'kncii'co. Write to o> 
call there on Frank Bkomiicrs, for Farm Implenieots of 
every description and Buggies, Carta or Spring Wagons. 

Made from Tested Steel Wire and 
Fully Warranted. 


OF- • 


S»ve imc, AH tncy are fastened rcaili'y. 
Insure sgainat loss of haj resulting from broken bands. 

Make Bales of Uniform Size. 
■"'^ All Lengths and Sizes Carried in Stock. 

We Solicit a Sample Order. 

Better Than Wire ! Cheaper Than Rope ! 

To get the length of Tie required, add three inches to the 
measure aroinid the bale when under pressure. 
Cost ot liale Ties is from 25 to 60 cents per ton of hay. 

Write for I'rice Lists and Discounts. Address 


31 M«ilix St., Saxx DF'r^noieico. 


pACIFie I^URAId f> ress. 

[July 19, 1890 



A Select School for 'ifoung' Ladies. 

Fourteenth year. Fifteen Professors and TeachrrB. 
The npxt Session will bceln on Monday, July 28, 1890 
Kor Catalogue or information address the Principal, 
1036 Valencia Street, San Francisco. Cat. 

1 1 

If you want a first class thorough School, and a 
pleasant, refined, safe home for your boys, send 
them to 


Oakland, California. 
Send for Catalogue to 

W. W. A^DERSON, Principal. 


Seventh ATeniie and Sixteenth Streets, 

Will Beopen Wednesday, July 30, 1890. 

Pupils prepared for State UniyerEily and Koatern Col- 


Classical and Military Academy, 

1020 Oak St., Oakland, Cal. 

Term begins July IC.h. 
COL. W. H. O'BRIEN. Superintendent. 


Unlverstly Avenue, - - - Berkeley, Cal. 


References to parenbi of pupils \vho have entered the 
University from this school, Send lor circular. 
T. S. BOWENS, B. A., 

Bead Master. 



Superior advantai;es in Seminary studies, including; 
English, Ancient and Modern Languages, Uusic. Draw- 
ing and [Minting. Locttion beautiful, building modern, 
climate healthful and home iulluences desirable. 

Next term commences Aug. 4, ISDO. Address 
JOHN M. CHASE, Vallelo, Cat. 


Seuilaary Park, A lameda County, California. 


For full information, address MRS. C. T. MILLS, Mills 
College P. O. 


No VA0ATI0N8. Day and Evinins Siasions. 

Ladles admitted into all Departments. 
Address: T. A. ROBINSON, II. A,. President. 

J F HounuTON, President, J. L. N. Sheparo, Vice-Pres. 
OUAS. R. Story, Sec'y, R. H. Maoill, Gen. Ag t. 

Home Mutual Insurance Company, 

216 Sansome Street, San Francisco. 


Losses Paid Since Organization '^•22?'J?2 ni 

XsMta, January 1, 18'J0 ^.5" 09 

Capital, Paid Up In Gold . . . „ MO.OOO 00 

VET 8UEPLU8 over everythmg 11 




The Home Benefit Life Association 

Non-forfeitable ! Simple and Straightforward! Lowest Rates! 

LOSSES PAID, OVER $500,000. 

Home Offices, 101 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal 






Warehonse and Wharf at Port Coeta. 


Money advanced on Grain Id Store at lowest possible rates of Interest. 
Full Cargoes of Wbeat furnished Shippers at short notice. 

ALSO ORDERS FOR QRAIN BAGS, Agricaltoral Implements, Waggons, Oroceries 
and Merchandise of every description solicited. 

E. VAN EVERT, Mananer. A. M. BESLT. Assistant Manaser 



Can be Easily Operated. Is Fireproof and Durable. 

Write for CiriiilarK to 





«;u:irniilr<Ml C'a|i;tl>l<' of plariiit; in c-iiil)aiiknn-iit 1 .OOO to I.-IOO riihir tjnrils of 

earth in lit iKiiirs with <i l<-aiiis and :t ni^i ■ of loading <iOO to KOO \vat;"i>!< of IM 

yards eacli in tli€' same tinx', at a cost of 3 ctiils per eul>ic yard. F. C AL'STIN 


& CO., -A-gents, 




24 POST ST.. 8. F. 

r CoIIeRo Instructs In Shorthand, Type Writing, Book- 
(eeping, Tele);raphy, Penmanship, Drawing, all the £D' 
<I1bo branches, and everj'thln^ pertaining to bualnesa, 
lor six full months. We have sixteen teachers, and give 
Individual instruction to all our pupils. Oar school hat 
Its graduates In every part of the State. 
MTSuD Foa CiaouLAK. 

K. P. HEALD, President. 

n. S. HAI.ltY. Becretanr. 

INVFNTnR^t on the Paclflo Coast should secure 
in w uil 1 un«J their Patents through Dewey bCo.'s 
UiNiae ASD SciMTipic PKB8B Patent Agency, No. 220 
Muket St, B. F. 

The Armstrong Antomatic 



The I'.est, Lightest, Cheapest 
. Engine in the world. Can lie 
1^ arranged to Burn Wood, Coal, 
ifc> Straw or Petroleum, h or 8 H. P. 
Mounted on sltlds or on wheels. 
TRUMAN, HOOKER &, CO., San Francisco. 


•' Oreenbank " 98 degrees POWDERED CAUS- 
TIC SODA (teats 99 8-10 per cent) recommended by 
the highest authorities In the State. Also Common 
Caustic Soda and Potash, etc., for sale by 

Manufacturers' Agente, 
104 MarfcetHt. and R CallfomiR St.. S. 

Superior Wood and Metal Engrav- 
ing, Electrotyplng and Stereotyping 
•done at the office o( this papet. 


Bounding Billows ON THE SEA, 

Or the pure Mountain Breezes will soon invite your 
presence. .Make your leisure twice the pleasure, by 
taking along our entertaining Music 

(It you have no Ga'tar, Mandolia, Banjo, 
Flute or Violin, call or send for lists of fine 
Instruments at our branch store, J. C. Hatnes & 
Co., 33 Couit Street, Boston.) 

of the music of 19 Operas. Pric 81.00. Arr. for Piano. 

TION. 51 very ea«y and very gool pieces. Price fl. 

SABBATH-DAY MUSIC. For Piano. SSbeautiful 
Melodies, finely arranged. Price $1, 

Vol. 2 of Miss Eleanor W. Everest's ALBUM OF 
SONGi. 12 ttrst-class Songs by the bett authors. 

COLLEGE SONGS. New, enlarged edition. S2ji.llv 

Songs. 200,C0OBold Pi ice 50 cents. 
OLD FAMILIAR DANCES. For I he Piano. 100 

of tliem. Easy, and as merry as they can ho. SO cents. 


TdKATLA«. By Carl Zerrahn. 20 splendid Choruses. 
Sacred and Secular. Most of them quice new. $1. 

Any book mailed for retail price. 


C. H. DITSON & CO., 867 Broadway. New York. 

Sharpies ImproYed Separator. 

The only iieparator with bill ui irini;-; not • lot'. 

The only Separator with automatic si^lit oper. 

Gnarante<d to ?ive two per cent more butter than any 
other Separator. 

Twenty per rent cheaper than any other Separator on 
the market. 


I^ciQc Coact Agent, 

203 Fremont Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Manufacturers of 

Sheet Iron and Steel 


130 fieale Street, San Francisco, Cal 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe ob 
ground All kinds of Tools supplied for making Pipe. 
Itetimates given. Are prepared for coating all sizes of 
f^pe with a composition ol Coal Tar and Asphaltum. 

0. H. EVANS & CO. 

(Sticcessors to THOMSON & EVANS), 

110 and IIS Beale Street, S. F. 

Steam Pumps, Steam Engines 

and all kinds ol MACHINERY. 

^-H m 

*— H m 

Something new. The ^milh Patent Improved 
Combiued Kitchen I'tensll ron.sist* of a can for bak- 
ing powder, cream tartar, spices, etc.; a 
meaiiurc for sugar, flour, cornstarch, 
farina, rice, etc.; a grater lor nutmegs, 
cheese, bread, potatoes,, lemon or 
orange rind; a dredge for spices, sugar, 
flour, pepper and salt; a biscuit, cake 
or cookey cutter; a doughnut cutter; 
a patty or tart cutler; also a nutmeg, 
stick cinnamon and mace holder. It is 
the handiest and most practical utensil 
that has ever been seen. Calculated to 
lessen the burden of the practical house- 
wife. By mall,50cts. SMITH MFG. CO., 
Alameda, Cal. To any body sending 
us the correct solution to the following problem 
we will send a Utcnsll free: A liquor merchant 
ha.s a barrel of whisky, but he only has a 5-gallon 
and a S gallon mea.sure, and he wants to measure off 
1 gallons. How is he going to do it? We, however, 
limit the amount of Utensils to 4 for each town lor 
the correct solution. Those who are too late will not 
be answered. 

JOHN G. ILS 8z CO., 



Kitclien and Bakvry OuilltH. firate Ban, 
Bake Ovens and Furnace Castings. 
814 & 816 Kearny St., S. F. 
Prop's Jaokaon Foundry. 

JoLY 19, i890.j 

f AClFie I^URAb f RESS, 


Death of General Fremont. 

{Concluded from page 67. ) 

retarn to the States, Ha selected a southeast 
ronte leading from the lower part of the Colum- 
bia to the upper C9lorado, through an almost 
unknown region crossed by high and rugged 
mountain chains. He soon encountered deep 
snows which impeded his progress and forced 
him to descend into the great basin, and pres- 
ently he found himself in the depth of winter 
in a desert, with the prospect before him of 
death to his whole party from cold and hunger. 
By astronomical observation he found that he 
was in the latitude of the bay of San Francisco, 
but between him and the valley of Ctlifornia 
was a range of mountains covered with snows 
which the Indians declared no man could cross 
and over which no reward could induce them 
to guide him. 

Fremont boldly undertook the passage with- 
out a guide, and accomplished it in forty days, 
reaching Sutter's Fort, on the Sacramento, 
early in March, with his men reduced almost 
to skeletons, and with only 33 out of 67 horses 
and males remaining, and those that survived 
so weak and thin that they could barely walk 
while led along. He resumed his journey on 
March 28th and got back to Kansas after an 
absence of 14 months. 

Fremont was breveted Oiptaln in January, 
1845, and in the spring of that year he set out 
on a third expedition to explore the great basin 
and the maritime region of California and Ore- 
gon. The summer and until October was spent 
in examining the head-waters of the rivers, 
whose source was the dividing ridge between 
the Pacific and the Mississippi Valley. Lsav- 
log the shores of Salt Lake in October he pro- 
ceeded to explore the Sierra Nevada, and in 
the dead of winter again crosaed the range into 
Cilifornia for supplies. Hs made his way into 
San Joaquin valley, where, leaving his men to 
recruit, he went himself to Monterey to obtain 
from the Mexican authorities permission to pro- 
ceed with his exploration. Permission was 
first granted and then revoked, and he was or- 
dered to leava the country without delay. This 
he refused to do, as his men were in no condi- 
tion to move at the time. The Mexican Gov- 
ernor Castro prepared to attack the 62 Ameri 
cans of the party, but Fremont took up a 
position 30 miles from Monterey and built a 
rude fort, where he hoisted the American fltg. 
No active steps were taken by either party and 
shortly after Fremont started up Sioramento 
valley for Oregon, but he was recalled by advi- 
ces from Washington directing him to watch 
over the interests of the Uaited States in Oali- 
fornia, there being fears that it would be turned 
over to England. Fremont promptly returned 
and the settlers flecked to his camp, and in less 
than a month Northern Cklifornia was freed 
from Mexican authority. He j jined the naval 
forces at Monterey and organized the Cilifornia 
Bittallion, a mounted force of which he was 
appointed Major. He was also appointed by 
Commodore Stockton Military Commandant 
and civil Governor of the Territory. War hav- 
ing broken out between the United States and 
Mexico, he was engaged in suppressing insur- 
rections by the Mexican inhab tants and pre- 
venting a war with the Walla Walla Indians. 
January 13, 1847, he concluded with the Mexi. 
cans articles of capitulation, which terminated 
the war in California. 

He left for " the Siates " in June, 1847, and 
arrived in Washington in September. O^itober 
14, 1848, Fremont, at his own expense, organ- 
ized an expedition to cross the continent. He 
bad 33 men and 120 mules, and with these he 
made his way along the upper wa'iers of the R'o 
Grande, through the country of the Utes, 
Apaches, Comanches and other tribes then at 
war with the Uaited Spates. He had resigned 
bis position as Lieutenant-Colonel, and was no 
longer an officer of the Government. His ob- 
ject was to find a praotioable passage by this 
route to California. In crossing the Sierras 
his guide lost his way and terrible suffering en- 
sued. All of his animals and one-third of his 
men perished. Cannibalism was resorted to. 
Finally, he succeeded In retracing his steps to 
Santa Fe, N. M, Gathering together 30 men 
be made another start for California, and suc- 
ceeded in reaching Sacramento in the spring of 

Fremont now determined to settle down In 
California. He had bought the Mariposa es- 
tate in 1847, and on this large tract were a 
nnmber of valuable gold mines. His title to 
the property was contested and he was kept in 
litigation until 1855, when the suit was decided 
in his favor by the Sapreme Court of the 
United States. In 1849, he received from 
President T<iylor the appointment of Commis- 
sioner to run the boundary line between the 
Uaited States and Mexico. In Djcember, 1849, 
the Legislature of California elected him on the 
first ballot as one of the two Senators to repre- 
sent the SUte in the United States Senate. He 
resigned his Commissionership and went to 
Washington by way of the Isthmus. He took 
his seat in the Senate September 10, 1850, the 
day after the admission of California as a State, 
and in drawing lots for the terms he drew the 
short term, which expired Maroh 31, 1853. 

Fremont returned to California on the first 
rteamer that sailed after Congress had ad- 
j )urned. For two years he devoted himself to 
bis private affairs, visiting £arope in 1852. In 
1852, while in the Senate, Biron Humboldt 
■ent him " the great golden medal for progress 
in the iciences." A few months earlier the 
London Kiyal Geographical Society sent him 

the " Founders' Medal." While in Europe he 
learned that Congress had made an appropri- 
ation for the survey of three routes from the 
Miesissippi valley to the Pacific, and he re- 
turned to the States immediately for the pur- 
pose of fitting out his fifth expedition on his 
own account. He left Paris in .Tune, 1853, and 
in September was already marching across the 
continent. He found the pass on the line of 
latitude 38 and .39 degrees, reaching California 
in safety. For 50 days his party lived on horse- 
flesh, and for 48 hours at a time were without 

With auoh a record of travel in these un- 
known regions, he fairly earned the title of 
" The Pathfinder," which he has held so long. 
He was in 1856 a candidate for the Presidency 
of the United States, but was defeated by 
Buchanan. In 1858 General Fremont returned 
to Cilifornia, When the civil war broke out 
General Fremont went to the front and did 
good service. He resigned his commission in 
1862, In 1877, he was appointed Governor of 
Arizona by President Hiyes. Since the expi- 
ration of his term of office he has lived in re- 
tirement and engaged himself in civil pursuits. 

At the last session of Congress, General Fre- 
mont was placed on the retired list of the 
army, and then for the first time in several 
years began to enjoy a comfortable income. 
He was the author of several books detailing 
his work of exploration west of the Mississippi. 

General Fremont was singularly fortunate 
in his domestic relations. In Ojtober, 1841, he 
married Jessie B;nton, a daughter of the well- 
known Senator "Tom " Benton, and in her he 
found a true helpmeet, who ably forwarded his 
various plans. She is a lady of varied attain- 
ments, literary and other, and is well known 
in social circles in Now York and Washington. 
She is at present in Los Angeles, in this State, 
with her unmarried daughter Elizibeth. Mrs. 
Fremont's friends will at once urge that a pen- 
sion be given her, as the little she makes by her 
literary labors is entirely inadequate for their 
support. A movement is talked of by the Na 
live Sons of the Golden West looking to the 
erection of a monument and the eventual burial 
of Fremont's body Id Golden Gate Park, San 

List of U, S. Patents for Pacific Coast 

Reported by Dewey & Oo., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast, 


43t.55o-— Broiler— Wni. Brooks, Oakland, Cal. 

43t, 872. — Headlight kor Locomotives— W 
J. Burke, Seattle, Wash. 

431.554-— f^ '^R Truck— C. C. Butterbaugh, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 

43t,7i7.— Horse Foot Pad -F. M. Dreibelbis, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

431,662. — Combination Tool— F. Kortick, S. F, 

431,607. — Pulp Distrihutor — F. E. Monte- 
verde, S. F. 

431,708. — Damper— S. S. Richardson, Happy 
Camp, Cal. 

431,676.— Operating Elevator Hatchway 
Gates -C. P. Stanford. S. F. 

431,788.— Axle Nut— J. M. Thorp, Santa 
Rosa, Cal. 

432,001.— Horse Collar— T. J. Thorp, Flag 
staff, Ariz. Ter. 

432 002 —Running Gear for Wagon— T. J. 
Thorp, Flagstaff, Ariz. Ter. 

431,680.— Cable Sheave— F. B. West, S. F. 

431,790.— Air Brake— G. B. Williams, Port- 
land, Oregon. 

Tde following brief list by teiegrraph for July 15, will 
appear more complete on receipt of mail advices: 

California- Henry CasebDlt, San Francisco, excavating 
apparatus; George E. Crocker, Oakland, window-case 
hinge; William Davis, Los Angeles, cultivator; Willis S. 
QUstrap Pix ey, wsshiDg machine; Kobert C. Grimes, 
Santa lUonica, attachment for lawn mower; Htrani H. 
Hanmore, Santa Cruz, covering for p pes; Alden D Kil- 
born, Oakland, 8af.;ty relief valve; Jjhn B. Masters, 
Stockton, cotton harvester; Baitlett Mclntyre, San 
I'rancisco, loading mechanism for wire rope transmis- 
sion; Walter Mcl^uille, Los Angeles, grass catching at- 
tachment for lawn mowers; Nathan W. Moody, Fresno 
city, fuse cap fastener; Orrin W. Parker, Oakland, wimi- 
mill; Sjggey D SmolianlnoS, San Francisco, assignor to 
the Americanite Manufacturing Company of Virginia, 
explosive compound; George A. Stom, Golden Gate 
vehicle running gear; James Van Curen, Fcrndale, sand- 

Oregon — Alice M. Miller, Ashland, fruit boiler. 
Washington- Joseph M. Clark, Colfax, double-acting 

Arizona— Louise J. Depuy, Phienix, device for sup- 
plying gases and liquids to moving vehicles. 

NOTB.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by mail 
or telei^raphic order). American and Foreign patents 
obtained, and general patent business for Pacilic Coast 
inventors transacted with perf :ct security, at reasonable 
rates, and in the shortest possible time. 

Newspaper Agents Wanted. 

Extra inducements will be offered for a 
few active canvassers who will give their 
whole attention (for a while at least) to so- 
liciting subscriptions and advertisements 
for this journal and other first-class popu- 
lar newspapers. Apply soon, or address 
this office, giving address, age, experience 
and reference. Special inducements to old 

Dewey & Co., Publishers, 

No. 220 Market St., S. F. 

SoMB Bheep men tried to pasture » large bind 
on the Fort Kills Riservation, M^ntaoa, re- 
cently, but the gras? was doctored with salt- 
peter one night and 400 dead sheep were found 
the next morning. 

The Regan Vapor Engine 

Attention is called to the advertisement of this 
company on another page. The Regan engine has 
passed the experimental stage, and the large number 
sold (over 150) within a year, and now in successful 
operation on this coast, is as good evidence of its 
practical usefulness as need be offered. 

Where the original purpose of this company was 
to supply a small power, cheap and conveninent for 
light requirements, it has enlarged its scope by care- 
ful steps, until now engines are being built up to as 
high as 60 h. p., with a prospect of being able to 
furnish a still greater capacity. The great economy 
and safety of these engines, and the almost endless 
use to which they are adapted, make them deserving 
the careful attention of all who require a motive 
power for any purpose. While many testimonials 
of satisfaction from those who have their engine in 
daily use are in the hands of the manufacturers, a 
still greater evidence of the Regan Vapor engine's 
merits is the fact that it has been adopted by Thos. 
Kane & Co. of Chicago and Racine, the largest 
launch builders in the United States, after having 
experimented for years to secure a perfect motor for 
their launches. A large number of engines ranging 
in sizes from X to 60 h. p. are now in course of con- 
struction. Send for illustrated catalogue. Regan 
Vapor Engine Co., 221-223 f irst Street, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Fruit Grading. 

Fruit assorting, we are glad to see, is being recog- 
nized by most of our leading orchard men and driers 
and pickers, as adding to the reputation of our 
fruit, also resulting in larger financial gain to them. 

It is only within the last few years that much at- 
tention has been given to this important subject, 
principally from the lack of a practical grading ma- 
chine adaptable to the great variety of our fruits, 
and one that will handle without bruising a large 
quantity in a short time; but the John A. Jones 
patent of June loth, i8go, (Mesirs. G. G. Wickson 
& Co. of this city inform us) has b'en found to be 
entirely satisfactory; and judging from the number 
of orders and testimonials they are receiving, we 
think they are right. 

Among their sales made this week were five to 
.San Jose Pkg. Co., making six now purchased by 
that firm. Among a few prominent fruit-growers 
who have purchased the Jones grader are John Bid- 
well, N. P. Chipman, G. W, Hmclay, R. W. Wing, 
W. J. Dobbins, J. W. Gates, Page & Morton and 
Warreti Dutton. 

heal tjtate bireclory. 

Our Agents, 

Our Friknds can do much In aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their in- 
fluence and encouraging favors. We intend to send none 
out worthy men. 

J. C. HOAO — San Francisco. 

R. G. Bailbt— San Francisco. 

Samukl Cliff — San Luis Obispo Co. 

C. J. WiDR — San Bernardino Co. 

W. W. THROBAbDS— Santa Barbara and Kern Cos. 

E. B. Taft— Central Calif irnia. 

John B. Hill — San Diego Co. 

E. H. SciiARFFLK — Calaveras Co. 

Frane S. Chapin — Solano and Lake Cos. 

W. 8. Frost— Alameda and Contra Costa Cos. 

J G, H. Lami'adius — Santa Cruz Co. 

Oso. WiL80»— Sacramento Co. 

H. Kellby — Modoc and Lassen Cos. 

Wm. M. Hillsary— Oregon 

H. G. Parsons— Northern California. 

JOHN Simpson— Oregon. 

Wm. Holdkr— Oregon. 

Feather River Fruit Lands — In the no- 
tice of the Feather river orchards ia the last 
issue of the Rural it should have been stated 
t'dat Mr. S. R, Johnson of Sm Jose is a partner 
with C. W. Reed in the ownership of the or- 
chird deecribed, also the numbers of severftl 
varieties of fruit trees should have been as fol- 
lows: Birtlett pears, 8500; 2500 each of 
applep, cherries and plums, not including 

Fish Bros. Waoons of pioneer merit and sold by the 
trade everywhere. Ask for them or write Frank 
Brothers, San Francisco. 

M A R K E T.ST.S.F.,^ 




For Surgical Treatment of Abdominal and Pelvic Dis- 
eases of Women and Men. Good nursing and home com- 
forts Send for announcement. 

Z36 Taylor St., San FrJincisco, Cal. 




GEO. BEEBE St CO., 230 Kearoy St. Large tracts 
Timber lands for sale. Government locations made. 


E. P. VANDBBCOOK & OO., City and Country 
Real Estate, 468 Ninth St., Oakland, Cal. 

ANTHONY & GILLIS, City and Country property. 
Loans negotiated at low rates, 468 Ninth St., Oakland. 

O. C. LOGAN, City and Country Real Estate and Loan 
Agent. Office, 481 Ninth Street. Oakland, Cal. 

M. J. LAYMANOE & CO., Auctioneers and Dealers 
in City and Country Real Estate, 466 Eighth St. .Oakland. 





Amount of Capital actually paid in V. S. Gold 
Coin, Surplus p»id up and Reserve Fund $815,313 78 

City and County of San Francisco. ) 
A. D Logan and A. Montpilller being each duly sworn, 
severally depose and say tliat they a-e rcsiectivtlv the 
President and Cashier & Manager of the dangers' Bink 
of California, above mentioned, and that the foregoing 
statement is true. 

A. D. LOG.\N, President. 

A. MONTPELLIER, Cat hier and Manager. 

Subscribed and tw )tn to before me this Kith day of 
July, 1890. JAMES L. KING, Notary Public. 


Showing the Actual Condition of the 


And the value of its Assets and Liabilities at the close of 
business June 30, 1890, viz: 


Loans on wli !at, real estate and other eecu 

rities $1,601,014 74 

Due from banks and bankers 11,675 40 

Real estate 32,085 04 

Office furniture, fixtures and ea'e. . 7,500 00 

Cash on hand 156 4 -(7 36 

Expenses and tixes 15,675 93 

Total $1,824 338 47 

And said assets are situated in the following counties in 
the St»te of Californi», to-wi : AUnieda, Butte, Contia 
Costa, Colusa, Fresno, Merced, Monterey, Placer, Stanis- 
laus, Sut'cr, Solano, City and County of San Frantisca, 
Tehama, Tulare, Yulu and Volo. 


Capital stock paid in U. S. gold coin . . .$ 700,000 00 

Surplus paid up and reserve fund 1I5,S13 76 

Due depositors, bmks and bankers 974 372 87 

Interest accounts 34,651 84 

Total $1,824,338 47 

City and County of San Francisco. ) 
A. D. Logan and A. Montpellier being each duly sworn, 
severally tlepo^e and say that they are retpectivelv the 
President and Cashier & Manager of the Grangero' Bank 
of California, above mentioned, and that the fore^^oing 
statement is true. 

A. D. LOGXN, President. 

A. MONTPELLIER, Cashier and Manager. 

Subscribed and Sworn to before me thii 16th dav of 
July, 1890. J\ME« L. KINO, Notary Public. 

J. M. WELSH, President. M. D. BAKER, Secretary. 


Fire Insurance Company 




Head Office. STOCKTON, CAL. 

LU il t Olll' 'lliltll r IlimiU>{ lU II 1, iiTin (I iiTii iiiiu ui tiurm nun iiuinj 

The Freeman Implement Co. , Portland, Or. 


f*aj. No. 310 Mwkel stieat, S«n Frutdtoo. 



[July 19, 1890 

breeder;' birectory. 

Six lines or leas lo thla Directory at Mc pei lln* per month 


HBNBY HAMILTON, Weatley, C»l., breeder ol 
Kentucky Jacks and Jennies, Draft Horses and Hoi 
eteln Cattle. Jacks, Horses and Mules for sale. 

BL BOBLiAR BANOHO, Los Alamos, Santa Barbara 
Ca, Cal., Francis T. Underhill, proprietor. Importer 
and breeder of thoroughbred Hereford Cattle. Infer 
matlon by mall. C. F. Swan, manager. 

JBB8BY BULL No. 4^^S P. C. J. C. C. for sale 
cheap, A fine fou>-.\ear-old animal. Address Dellwood 
Poultry Yards, Napa, Cal. 

Horses and Holstein Friesian Cattle from the most 
noted families. H. P. Hohr, Mt. Eden, Alameda Co. 
Cal. Visitors welcome. Correspondence solicited. 

J B. BOSS, Lakevil'e, Sonoma Co., Cal., breeder of 
Thoroughbred Devons, Ruadtters and Draft Horses. 

CHABLES B HUMBERT, Clocerdale, Cal., Im 
porter and Breeder of Kecorded Holstein-Friesiau 
Cattle. Catalogues on application. 

A. HeilhroD & Bru., Props., Sac. Breeders of thorough- 
bred strains and Uruikshank Shorthorns; also Registered 
Herefords; a fine lot of young bulls in each herd for gale. 

PBBCHBRON HORSES.— Pure bred horsesand 
mares, all ages, and guaranteed breeders, for sale at my 
ranch near Lakeport, Lake Co., Cal. Mew catalogue now 
ready. Wm. B. Collier. 

WILLIAM NILBS, Los Angeles, CaL Thoroughbred 
Registered Holsteln and Jersey Cattle. None better. 

bust thoroughbied Poultry anil Eggs. Address Uibbaid 
Si Ellis, Santa Kosa Breeding Association, Lai. 

P. H. MURPHY, Perkins, Sac. Co., Cal., Breeder of 
Recorded Shorthorn Cattle and Poland China Hogs. 

Station, S. F. & N. P. R. R. P. O., Penn'g Orove, 
Sonoma Co., Cal. Wilfred Page, Manager. Breeders 
of Short Horn Cattle, English Draft Horses, Spanish 
Herino Sheep and Berkshire Swine. 

P. PETERSEN, Sites, Colusa Co., Importer & Breeder 
of registered Shorthorn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

JOHN LYNCH, Petaluma, breeder of thoroughbred 
Shorthorns Young stock for sale. 

J. H. WHITB, Lakeville, Sonoma Co., CaL, breeder 
ol lU^stered Holsteln Cattle. 

M. D. HOPKINS, Petaluma, importer and dealer in 
Eastern registered Shorthorns, Ked Polled Cattle, Hoi- 
steins, Devons and Shropshire Sheep. 

OBO. B. POLHB una. Coyote, Cal. Holstein-Frles- 
ian cattle, comprising males and females on advanced 
register. First premium in great milking test at 
State Fair, 18^, was won by a member of this herd. 

PBTBB SAXE Si SON, Lick House, San Francisco, 
Cal Importers and Breeders, for past IS years, of 
every variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. 

OBO. BEMBNT SON, Maple Qrove Farm, Oak- 
land P. O., breeders of Ayrshire Cattle & Essex Swine, 


Cal.; send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 

OHAS. R. HARKBR, Santa Clara, Calif. White 

Plymouth Rocks, exclusively. None better anywhere, 
East or West. If you want the latest and best improve- 
ment in poultry, get gttiuine White Plymouth Hooks. 
Write lor prices. Eggs, i3 per 13; packed to go safely 
any distance. 

JOHN McPARLTNQ, 708 Twelfth St., Oakland. 
Cal., Importer and Breeder of Choice Poultry. Send 
lor Circular. Thoroughbred Berkshire Pigs. 

B. G. HBAD, Napa, Cal., breeder of the choicest va- 
rieties of Poultry. Each variety a specialty. Send for 
Dew Catalogue. 

O. J. ALBBB, Lawrence, Cal. Pure bred poultry. 


Feriy , Cal. , breeders of Merino Sheep. Rama lor sale. 

L. U. SHIPPEB, Stockton, Cal., Importer and breeder 
ol Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle, Jacks and 
Jennys 4 Berkshire Swine high graded rams for sale 

M. W. WOOLSEY Si SON, Fulton, Cal., importers 
k breeders Spanish Herino Sheep; ewes & rams lor sale. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal., Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross-bred 
Merino and Shropshire Sheep, liams for sale. 

B. H. OBANB, Petaluma, Cal., breeder and Importer, 
Bonth Down Sheep from Illinois and England lor sale. 

ANDBBW SMITH, Redwood aty, Cal.; see adv't. 


JOSBPH MELVIN, DavisvUle, Cal., Breeder ol 
Poland-China Hogs. 

WILLIAM NILBS.Los Angeles, Cal. Thoroughbred 
Poland-China and Berkshire Pigs. Circulars Iree. 

TTLiBB BEACH, San Jose, Cal., breeder ol 
Iboraughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

ANDREW SMITH, Redwood City, Cal ; see adv't 


APIABIAN SUPPLIES for sale by Mrs. J. D. 
Enas. Napa City. Cal. 

Italian Queens, $3.60 each; Black Queens, 91 each. 
Swarms from $2.60 each; Smoker, $1. Comb Founda 
(loD, 11.26 per pound; V-groove Sections, |i per 1000 
Oomb Honey wholesale and retail; Hives, ato. W. 
8TVAN & SON, The Homestead Apiary, San Mateo, Cal. 


That the public should know that for the past Eighteen Tears our Sole Baslnaas has been, and now Is 
importing (Over 100 Carloads) and breeding improved Live Stock— Horses, Jacks, Short Horns, Ayrshire*, 
and Jerseys (er Aldemeya) and their grades; also, all the varieties of hreeding Sheep and Hogs. We can sup- 
ply any and all good animals that may be wanted, and at Terj reasonable prices and on cooTenleiit 
terms. Write or call on us. PETER SAXE and HOMEIR P. SAXE. 

San Francisco, Cal., Oct. 22. 1888. PETER SAXE A SON, Llok House, S. F. 

-A. JNT I> R SltdlTII 






Young Stock for sale at reasonable prices. Every animal ^ruaranteed. 
OPFICE—2I8 CaUfornla St, San Francisco. BEDWOOD CITY. CAL 


Ducks, Turkeys. Geese, Peacocks, Etc. 


Publisher of " Nilea' Pacific Coast Poultry and Stock Book,"' 

a new book on subjects connected with successful poultry and stock raising on 
the Pacific Coast. Price 60 cents, post-paid. Inclose stamp for information. 


Jersey and Holsteln Cattle. Also, Poland China and Berkshire Pigs. 

Address, WILLIAM NILES, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Live Stock Owners' Mutual 
Protective Association, 


HON. B. V. SARGENT, President. 
O. W. 0\LLANAR, Secretary. 
M. M. GRAUG, Business Manager. 

EDW. INGRAM, Vice President 
FRED. D. HOWARD, Actuary. 
R. H. WILLEY, Attorney. 


VOLNEY HOWARD, General Manager. 

Little's Chemical Fluid Non-Poisonons 


One trallon, mixed with CO gallons of cold water, will dip thoroutbly 180 
sheep, at a cost of one cent each. Easily applied; a nourisher of wool; a certain 
cure for SCAB. Also 

X^lttXe'S FAtexxt Fo-v;«7-c3Lex> m-|3. 


Mixes Instantly with water. Prevents the fly from striking. In a two-pound 
package there is sufficient to dip 20 sheep, and in a seven-ponod package there is 
sufficient to dip 100 sheep. 
O -A. T T O . IB U Xj Ij c*3 go.. 
Successors to FALKNER, BELL & CO.), 



One and a half milei northeast of San Leandro. 
Alameda Oonoty. has every facility for Break- 
ing Colts properly. Rates very reasonable. 
Horses boarded at all times. 


p. O. Box 149, San Leandro, Oal 



1616 and 1618 Mission St., 
Telephone No. 6093. SAN FRANCISCO. 

W ATKINS & DXJHIG, Proprietors, 


Horses bought and sold. Auction Sales every Wednes- 
day and Saturday at 11 A. u. A full line of Draught, 
DrlvinK, Saddle and Business Horses. Particular atten> 
tiOD paid to countr} sales. Special inducements to 
parties having sale horses. Stock sold on oommlssioD 
and boarded at low rates. 



Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, 
London, Knglaod, 
OnABUATSD April 22, 1870. 
Advice by HaU, $». 


No. 11 Seyenti St., near Market San Francisco, Cal. 

Open Day and Night. Telephone, No. S868. 


Los Angeles, Cal., 

Import Direct from Europe 
and sell Fnll - Blooded 
Torkuhlre Cleveland 
Bajr, Oldeiibnrg; Ger- 
''{Pi- man Coach and En- 
1.- 11 sh Shire Draft Stal- 
lions. The beat Coach and 
. I'raft Horses in the world. 

^ I ' stables pt-rmanently located. 

Third Importation. We give Eastern prices and guar- 
antee our horses. Correspondence solicited. Adaress 

1008 Olive St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Our Horses are full registered in Europe and America. 

OHIO V(i< > 

Veterinary College. 

The most successful c<illefcte on this continent 
For further partlculnrs address the Secretary, 

.I0.4. HVOilES. M. K. C. T. 
SS37-S.>:i9 State Street. Chlcaeo, III. 

Short Horn Cattle and Draft Horses. 



Red Polled Cattle. 

We have 19 head of Imported Stock. 

Young Bulls and Crossbreds on Devons for sale. 

Catalogues and Prices on application to 
Rad«n RtatloD. - San Mateo Co., OaL 




No twisting of main wires, no sa^ to fence, 
pickets easily removed and replaced. Write 
for prices and circular to Lansing Wheel- 
barrow Co., Lansing, Mich, 

Importer and Breeder of Shropshire Sheep 

They were all iniportsd from England in '88, or bred 
direct from Imported Stocli, and all registered. 


American Merino Sheep Without Horns. 

The only Hock in the United States. When we bought 
our sheep f':aet 20 years ago, among them was a ram with- 
out horns. He grew to be a large flne theep, shearing at 
2 years old, a 12 months' Heece, 36 lbs. of long white wool. 

I have bred from him and bis get ever since and have 
never made an out-croeeand.never used the same ram but 
one year on the same tlock. ' My ranis at 2 j ears old will 
weigh from 160 to 180 lbs.; have a strong constitution, 
without wrinkles, and will shear on an average about 35 
lbs., a 12 months' Heece, of long white wool. Rams and 
Ewes tor sale. P. O. Address: 

Stoay Poial, naar Petaluma, Cal. 

FRANK BULLARD, Woodland, Cal. 




Orders promptly filled and satisfaction guaranteed. 

J. L. HEALD, Pres. 

C. a MORGAN, Seo"y. 


Crockett, Contra Cofta Co., Cal. 

Stationary Engines and Boilers, 


Porlalile Straw-BnrDiii Boiler? 4 Engines. 


Machinery of all kinds furnished at shortest notlee. 

Heald's Patent Wine-making Machinery, 

Including Orape Crushers and Stemmers, Elevators, 
Wine Presses and Pumps, and all appliances used In 
Wine Cellars. Irrigating and Drainage Pumps. Heald's 
Patent Engine Governor, Etc. 

Nlles's new 
manual and 

r e f e r e nee 
book on sub- 
J e c t s con- 
nected with 

successful Poultry and Stook Raising on thePaclflc Coast 
A New Edition, over 100 pages, profusely Illustrated with 
handsome, life-like Illustrations of the different varieties 
ofPoultrv and LIve-Stock. Prle«. postpaid 60 ots. Ad- 
dress PACIFIC RURAL PRESS OfHoe, Sau Francisco, CaL 

JuLT^19, 1890.] 

f ACIFie F^URAlo f RESS. 


Account Book 



The Dairyman's Account Book is the mo»t 
practical thing of the kind ever seen. It 
gives ruled pages for daily record of milk 
yield, butterinade, and sales, for 12 months ; 
convenient size, nicely printed and bound. 
Wells, Richardson & Co., Burlington, Vt., 
manufacturers of the celebrated Improved 
Butter Color, the purest, strongest, and 
brightest color made, will .send a copy free 
to any butter maker who writes enclosing 
stamp. Also sample of their Butter Color 
to those who have never u.sed it, and a 
pretty birthday card for the baby, if you aslfc 

PoJltiyi Etc. 


Oor. 17tb St Oastro Sts., Oakland, Oal. 

Hanafkctory of the PACI- 
BROODER. A e e □ oy of 
the celebrated silver finlBb 
galvanized wire netting for 
Rabbit and Poultry-proof 
fences, the Wilson Bone 
and Shell Hill, the Pacific 
Egg Food, and Poultry ap- 
pliances In great variety. 
Also every variety of land 

and water Fowl, which 

have won first prizes wherever exhibited. E^gs (oi 
aatching. The Pacific Coast Poulterers' Band-Book and 
Guide, price, 40c. Send 2c. stamp (or 60-page illustrated 
circular to the PACIFIC INCUBATOR CO., 1817 Castro 
St., Oakland, Cal. 

Are you using: Wellington's improved Egg 
Food for Poultry I If Not, Why Not ? 

If not, your poultry is sickly, and you are getting very 
few eggs. Two eubstantial reasons forgetting it at once: 
This has been the Standard Poultry Preparation (or more 
than eleven years. It will positively CURE and prevent 
every disease o( poultry. And all who use it will tell 
you they have plenty o( eggs to sell now that the price is 
high, and the price Is going still higher. Use it as soon 
as possible. Every merchant keeps it. 

Send for circular and prices. 

B. F. WELLINGTON, Proprietor and Dealer n 
Seeds, 42S Washington St , San Francisco. 

Raiskd bt tub X'O'tA.l'U.XXX.A. 


Afford more profit than any other busi- 
ness for the capital invested. The 
most successful machines made; any 
one can manage them. A large 82 
page lUus rated Catalogue, describing 
Incubators, Brooders, etc., sent to any 
address on receipt of 2c stamp. Con- 
tains more information than is given 
ui many 26c books. Address, 



1812 myrtle Street, Oakland, Cal. 

Send Stamp for Circular. 

EGOS FOR HATCHING from Prize-Winning 
Black Langshans. My birds are first-class. $3 (or 13 
eggs. Correspondence cheerfully answered. 

W. E CORNELL, Box 136, Des Moines, Iowa. 




This is an apparatus (or burning 
straw and sulphur and also forces 
the fumes down their holes which 
never (ails to kill. I will give $100 
in caie the exterminator does not 
kill (if properly applied ) every 
ground squirrel that its deathly 
(umes comes in contact with. 
Thousands are in use. Price $3.00. 
Send tor circulars to 


SO S. MalDSt., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Injurioas Insects of the Orchard, Vineyard 
Field, Oarden, Conservatory, etc., 


Remedies for tbelr Extermination. 


Me Chief Executive Horticultural Officer of California. 
Illustrated with over 760 wood-cuts and 26 pages o( classi 
fied illustrations. This book is designed (or the use of 
orchardists, vincyardists, farmers and others interesfed 
in the subjects treated. It is designed to convey practi- 
cal information concerning some of the species o( in- 
sects injurious to the industries of cultivators o( the 
BoH, and those Interested in earth produce generallf. 
Price $4, postpaid. For sale by DiwiT & Co., publlab 
erg, 320 Market St., Sad Pranciaeo. 





Best anil Strongest Eiplosives in the World. 


The Only Reliable and Efficient Powder 

For Stump and Bank BUating. From 5 to 20 
pounds blows any Stamp, Tree or Root olear 
oat of groand at less cost than grabbing. 
Railroaders and Farmers use no other. 

As Other makers IMITATE onr Oiant Powder, so do they Hudson, by Manufaotnring 
a second-grade, inferior to Jadson. 

BANDMANN, NIELSEN ft CO. General Agents, San Francisco. 



UstDg llie Benoit Corrngdted Rollers, 

STILL AT The front. 

This Mill has been In Use on this Coast for 9 years, 


Four years in succession, and has met with general favor, 
there now being 

Over 250 of them in use in California, Nevada and Oregon. 

It is the most economical and durable Feed-Mill in use. I am sole 
manufacturer of ttie Corrugated Roller Mill. The Mills are all ready to 
mount on wagons. 

Chico, Cal., Feb. 1, 1887. 
Mr. M. L. Mery, Esq —DEAR S[R: The 9x14 Barley 
Crusher bought of you and used In the California 
Mills, gave entire satisfaction; have crushed 8000 
I)Ounds an hour. I have also crushed as much or 
more on set 10x20 when working forfieneral Bidwell, 
which set he is using in his mill to day. Yours truly, 

Travee, May 3, 1887. 

Having used one of the Barley Crushers manufact- 
ured by M. L. Mery,' of Chico, Butte County, I can 
say it will do all that is claimed for it, and to those 
wishing an A No. 1 machine, 1 would recommend it 
as the very best. I have crushed '6h tons in 11 hours' 
work. J. 1). GOLDEN. 

M. L. Mery, Manufacturer, Chico, Cal. 

I thank the public for their kind pratronage received thus far, and hope for a continuance of the same. 

M. L. MERY, Chico Iron Works, Chico, Cal. 

Send for Catalogue of RAISIN MACHINERY to 






Warehouse, Nos. 122 to 1'2S Michigan St., Nos. 45 to 63 La Salle Avenue. 

Commissions one cent per pound, which includes all charges after wool is received in store until 
lold. Sacks furnished free to sliippi rs. Cash advances arranged for when desired. Write for circu- 
!<r« Tnfnrm.Ttinn fnrni.shed promptly by mail or telegraph when desired. 


We have on hand or make to order any style or ,>attern. 

Specialty Hendereon Buckboard, Stages, Wagonettes. 


Stockton, Cal. 

CDmniisgiop Hercliapts. 




General Commission Merchants, 

810 Oallfornla St., S. F. 

Uembere o( the San Francisco Produce Exchange 

tVPersoaal attention given to Sales and Liberal Ad- 
vancej made on Consignments at low rates of Interest. 


Commission Merc]\ants 



Qreen and Dried Fruits, 
Grain, Wool, Hides, Beans and Potatoes. 

Advances made od CoDBlgnments. 
308 ft 310 Davis St., San Franciico 

[P. 0. Box 1986.] 
VConglgnments Solicited, 




601, 508, 606, 607 and bOQ Front Street 
and 800 Washington St., S. F. 

General Commission Merchants. 


Poultry, Eggs, Game, Grain, Produce and 





89 Olay Street and 28 Oommerolal Street 
'San FRANOigoe, Cai,, 

BuosNS J. Qrboort. [Established 1862.] Frakk Griookt. 


Commission Merchants, 



126 and 128 J St., - Sacramento, Cal. 

8an Francisco Office, 313 Darla St. 


Commission Merchants, 

Green and Dried Fruit, Produce, Eggs, Eto. 
Consignments solicited. 413, 416 k 417 Waebtngton 81., 
San Francisco. 



And Dealers in Fruit, Produce, Poultry, Game, Eggs 
Hides, Pelts, Tallow, etc., 422 Front St., and 221, SS8 
226 and 227 Washlncrton St., San Francisco. 


Commission Merchants, 

All Kinds of Qreen aorl Dried Frait4. 

Consignments Solicited. 324 Davis St., S. P. 




/Hathorlced Capital $1,000,000 

Capital paid Hp and BuerTe Fnnd 800,000 
DiTldends paid to Stookholdera.. 6a7,S0O 

A. D. LOGAN President 

I. C. STEELE Vice-President 

ALBERT MONTPELLIER Cashicrand Manager 


General Banking. Deposits received, Gold and Sliver. 
Bills o( Exchange bougnt and sold. Loans on Wheat 
and country produce a specialty. 

July 1, 1889. A. UONTPELLIER. Manager. 

Any one wishing to rent a well-improved farm of 
480 acres in a healthy locality, at very moderate cash 
rent, can learn particulars by applying to "Cash 
Rent," Box 37, Tulare, Cal, 


f ACIFie f^URAlf) f RESS, 

[Jolt 19, 1890 

Market Revjew. 


San Francisco, July 16. i8go. 
Cool but clear weather still favors harvest work, 
which is well advanced in the different parts of the 
State. The cereal crops are still a matter o( conjec- 
ture owing to the diversified yield, and also to the 
acreage seeded not being known. Even without 
the latter information it is sale to place the yield of 
wheat, barley and oats in this State at less than last 
year's, with the two first falling considerably .short. 

.Money promises to be lairly easy which is an im- 
portant consideration in moving the crops. 

Trade in general produce has been lairly active, 
particularly in cereals. Wheat alter advancing 
abroid began to set back, closing to-day as follows 
as reported by telegraph : 

I.iVERPOOi., July 16.— Wheat— Fair inquiry. Cal- 
ifornia spot lots 75 to 7s 2'A(i: off coast, 231 3d; just 
shipped, 37i 6d; nearly due, 38s; cargoes eft coast, 
quiet but steady; on passage, rather easy; Mark 
l.^ne wheat, ste.idy; Mark l.ane maiie, quiel; 
weather in England and France, very fine. 

Foreign Grain Review. 
London, July 14.— The Ai7«< Express, in 

in review ol the British grain trade for the past 
week, says: Continued rain renders the outlook 
less iavorable. R'pening is backward and quite 
four weeks distant English wheat is high r. 
Trade in foreign wheat is brisk. Calilornian wheat 
is IS. higher. Large stocks of llaur prevent an ad 
vance in that staple. B.irley is 3d h'gher. Maize" 
was also higher. I'o-day grain was hard to move 
at the advance's. Foreign White was gd. and Ked 
6d. dearer. The market closed 6d. dearer for Rus- 
sian and 9i. dearer lor heavy oats. 

Lilverpooi Wbeat MarB:et. 
The following are the closing prices paid lor wheat 
options per ctl. for the past week: 

Julv. Aui; SspS. Ofit Nov. Dec 
Thursday.... 7s24 1 7s:!ld 784.1 794Jd 7-4ld 754}-! 

ftldav 7!-:i"l 7s:4l 7s»Jd 784Jd 784Jd 7s4Jd 

Skturiuv.... 7 :id 7r31d 7s4td 7»5id 79.')i I 7»6id 

ItondiT 7-31 7»34d 7»4I 7.4J1 7345d 784 J 1 

Tuenday 7a2il 7s23d 7sSd 7s33d 7s4J 7t4 1 

The following are the prices for California cargoes 
for off coast, nearly due and prompt shipments for 
the past week: 

O. C. P. S. N. T). Market 
Thui»d»y . . . . ST-tid SToOd 37-61 atroiiit. 

Prlday 373 Id 3'aOl :i7!,6f Advancing 

Saturday 37a9J 37s61 37s9d linprovint;. 

Honday . . . »«iOJ 37 6 1 3S Oi Quieter. 

Tuesday 3si:td 37s«d 3.s,0it tum. 

Baetern Qratn Martceta. 
The following shows the closing priees of wheat 
in New York for the past week: 

Day. July. Aus. Sept. Oct. Niiv. Dec. 
Thursday.... flH !>1S y44 9»J 95* "'ii 

Friday «4J 94 9aj S.v; 

Saturday Mi 94J 94} 9.H 95} BOJ 

Monday ^'-'k 942 9»J 9.5 H5t 9Bi 

Tiedday !14i 93J 931 93 J 91 J 94 J 

The c'os ng pric -s lor whe it have been as follow i 
at Chicago lor the past week: 

Diy. July. Aiir S?pt Ojt 

Thursday S"! 90 

nlday 8il S9J 

Saturday ^% »»} 

Monday.. 89J 

Toeeday **7^ SSJ 

New Yokk, July 16. — Wheat— 90c for cash, 
93c for August, 92?ic lor September, 94J^c lor 
December, and 980 lor May. 

Chicago. July 16.— Wheat— 86Kc for August 
and 88c for Sep:ember. 

lodla Wbeat Crop. 
New York, July 14. — Figures received here from 
the rtpjrt of the Revenue and Agricultural De- 
partment of India give the details of the wheat 
crop of the Bombay Presidency lor the season of 
1889-90. The figures are up to May 5ih last. The 
area sown to wheat was 2,874,000 acres or 4 per 
cent below that of last year or 2 per cent below the 
average. The crop as estimated will, however, 
show an increase of 12.35 P'^"' owing 'o 'he 

better condition of the grain. There are large in- 
creases in the wheat acreage in the Scinde district. 
It is estimated at 56 per cent over last year and 73 
over the average area. In Spikarpjr the average 
has risen from 162,000 to 279.000. Of a total area 
of 691,891 acres, 24 per cent are returned und.T ir- 
rigated and 2, 182, 119 acres, or 76 per cent, under 
dry wheat. A report is also received concerning the 
central provinces dated May 2yth, which places the 
wheat product of that seciion at 832,632 tons. 

Condition of Cropa. 

Washington, July 10.— The winter wheat re- 
port of the U.-partment ol Agriculture for July rep 
resents the crop, as harvested, in all but its more 
northfrn latitudes. It shows some advance in the 
condition where it was lowest in June. In Michi- 
gan. Indiana, Illinois and Missouri there is a slight 
decline. In Ohio, Kentucky and the Pacific Coast 
and in the Southern States the general average is 
76.3 against 78.1 last month. The spring wheal 
average is advanced Iron 91.2 to 94.4. The aver- 
ages of the principal States are: Wisconsin, 93; 
Minnesota, 94; Iowa, 94; Nebraska, 98; the Da- 
kolas, 93; Colorado. 90; Washington, 93. Taken 
together, winter and spring wheat makes an a\ er- 
age ol 82.1. A small increase in the area of corn 
is reported of ab jut six-tenths of i per cent. There 
is a proportionate extension in the Northwest, and 
there will be nearly i per cent increase in the 
South. The condition of corn averages 93. i per 
cent. There has been a severe decline in the con- 
dition of oats, which have fallen from 89.8 to 8i.6. 
The condition of rye is 92, nearly the same as the 
last report. Birley advanced from 86.4 to 86.8 
The acreage ol potatoes has not appreciably in 
creased. The average condition i? 91.7. The con- 
dition of pasturage is high, averaging 96. 

Ctiicasro Market. 

Chicago, June 13.— For beans there is a littl 
belter demand. Dialers have been holding off 
for some lime. As their stocks have become re- 
duced this in turn brings them on the market 
again. Holders, in view of this and the dry weath- 
er evince more firmness, and asking prices have 
been somewhat advanced. Buyers have consented 

to pay a shade over former figures, but are not in 
the mood to meet the full views of some holders. 
Beans aie quoted as salable at the following prices; 
California Lima beans, choice. 5Ji@s5<c per lb; 
do, common, 2@4C. Hop; are quiet for the offer- 
ings are small. Choice hops are reported firm and 
in fair demand and very scarce. There are ordin- 
ary and common grades, also some slighlly dam- 
aged lols on the market and these rule dull. Prices 
are quoted as follows: Washington, choice, 22@ 
23c per lb; prime, 20@2tc; lair, i6@i8c; California, 
choice, 2oCa!22; fair to good, I7@i9c; Oregon, 
choice, 1 8c. 

Delaware Peach Crop. 

Dover (Del.), July 9. — This season not a single 
carload of peaches will be shipped from the entire 
D-laware peninsula. Few growers will save even 
a btsket for their own use, and many not a single 
p;ach. In former times it was no extraordinary ihing 
lor 300 carloads to be shipped daily, and some sta- 
tions sent off as many as 35 cirs in a single day. 
The failure of the fruil crop is not confined to 
peaches, but apples, pe .rs, plums, grapes and cher- 
ries are all short and scarce, so that a general 
dearth is inevitable. 

New York fruit Crop. 

New York, July 13. —.\ Tribune's Kingston 
dispatch says: As the season advances the com- 
parative failure ol the fruil crop along the Hudson 
river b-comes more apparent. The effect of the 
severe winter upon some ol the orchards is now 
supplemented b/ dry weather. Cherries are a fail- 
ure; early pears and apples are turning out badly; 
raspberries will fall below the average yield; plum; 
are almost a lailure; Birtletl pears, always so reli 
able in this region, are now far less promising than 
usmi without any perceptible cause. Canni-rs are 
already trying to secure crops, but they find a dis- 
position to decline advance contracts. The apple 
outlook is a little better. Late varieties are drop- 
ping badly, and the fall and winter supply in the 
river region will be small. The general farmer is 
not di^pendent upon the fruit crop, though he is 
now hoping for rain to push along his late potatoes, 
corn and buckwheat. The crops of grain and hay 
are heavy and good. 

Eastern Wool Markets. 

Philadelphia, July 11. — Wool is quiet. .Mon- 
tana. i7@2s; Territorial, i6@22C. 

Boston, July II. — Territory wool is quiet with 
sales on a scoured basis ol 6dc for fine, 56@58c for 
fine medium, and 53@55c for medium. California 
and Oregon wools are dull and no sales oi impor- 
tance are reported. 

New Yokk, July it. — UraJslreet's says: The 
feature of the wool market is its dullness, having 
nearly reached the stagnation point. The shutting 
down of many mills in New England, together with 
the disturbing influence of proposed tariff legislation 
has been effective in lowering the amount of sales to 
1,231,000 lbs domestic and 321,000 lb-foreign wool. 
Michigan, Territory and pulled wools partake ol 
the general dullness and inactivity, but Texas sup- 
plies have arrived in liberal amounts though sales 
have been small. Ohio manufacturers are said to 
have been operating a lif.le more freely, mostly at 
30c for fine grades. American competition at the 
London wool sales is very strong, maintaining 
about the same prices as at the last auction sales. 

New York. July 14. — Heavy dealings in Texas 
wool prevent the market from looking as slim as it 
otherwise would in the present halting style of buy- 
ing. The East stocks are enlarged, with decidedly 
more access to Western, but there is no large invest- 
ing or speculative leeling. Prices hold about their 
own: 20,000 lbs of California scoured, 25.000 spring, 
and 150,000 do Texas, private terms: 357,000 lbs 
do. i8(ai22c; 93,000 lbs do. 2i@23; 10,000 lbs Wis- 
consin delaine, 33KC; 10,000 lbs scoured Nevada, 
57c; 10,000 lbs fine washed fleece, 29@30c; 21,000 
lbs fine unwashed and unmerchantable, 22>^@ 
25KC; 10,000 lbs No. I pulled, 15c; 50.000 lbs Ger- 
man do, i8c; 71,003 lbs domestic, 408,000 lbs for- 
eign at private terms. The Boston market has not 
recovered from the holidays. Few buyers of I'ght 
grades; 2,119 000 lbs foreign and domestic, includ- 
ing 75 030 lbs spring California, I7@24C. Philadel- 
phia reports limited business with a cautious feeling. 


New York, July 13 — Lima beans jabbed at $3.45. 

Dry hides firm and in fair demand. Full prices; 
tooo California sold. 

Ship honey in new cans only. There is a com- 
plaint about impure packages. 

Hops continue strong. Four or five hundred 
bales changed hands, mostly stale, at 21c. The 
foreign crops are not encouraging. There have 
been London bids equal to 24j^c. Washington 
contracts, new, named at 17 Kc The brewing de- 
mand is steady. .Slate range from i8@22c; Pa- 
cific, i8(2i2ic; i888's, I2@i5c; old, 4@6c. 

Raisins — Dealers regard the policy of packers 
making delivery rates for December lower than 
September as a derangement to confidence. 

The future ol canned and dried fruits is as bright 
as ever, and it is generally conceded that the 
country cannot get along without all of the Pac he's 
surplus if the prices are not inordinately over- 
strained. Of the old crop, only apricots remain 
here, now worth $1.75. 

Local Markets. 


BayerSeasoD. "Buyer 1890 

Thursday. . 





Friday 121} lUl} 

Saturday 120i 1 io\ 

Monday 123J 120} 

Tuesday 1223 122 

"After August. 

8. 8. 





Buyer 1890. 







Thursday . 




Saturday | }* 

Monday |^ 

Tneaday \\ 

BAGS — The market is weak at 
firmness reported in last week's issue was based 
principally on a demand from up north which, when 
met, gave way. St indard-size grain bags are quot- 
ed at 6%Qi6Hc. 

b.^RLEY— The sample market has shown more 

B. "90. 

'B 3. "90 S '90. 













activity at steadily advancing prices. This advance 
was generally looked for by careful operators, and of 
which the Rural Press patrons were duly inform- 
ed. In futures, the market has been very active, the 
higher prices having drawn in more operators. The 
following are to-day's Call Board sales: 

Morning Session: Buyer 1890—100 tons. $1. 17K I 
200, $1.17^1 100, $L17% ctl. Afternoon Session: 
Buyer 1890 — 200 tons, $i.l8K ^ ctl. Buyer 1890, 
alter August ist-200 tons, $t.i8 ctl. May — 100 
tons, $1.18 ^ ctl. 

BU n h^R — The market shows more strength 
with gilt-edged marked up one cent a pound. The 
cooler weather and gradually lessening local supplies 
at distributing points combined with iree consump- 
tion are in sellers' lavor. 

CHEESE— The market is firm at a slight ad- 
vance. The demand continues to improve while 
the supply is decreasing. 

ECiGS— The market is very strong for selected 
fresh laid but for oiher kinds it is easy. The stock 
in cold storage is being added to by daily overland 

FLOUR— The market is firm at full quotations 
WHEAT— The market has he'd very strong, al- 
though at the close buyers are asking for conces- 
sions, which holdiTS, unless pressed for money or 
else to save exp.nses. are not willing to concede. 
Tne advance in silver will tell still more in lavor ol 
wheat, lor the higher silver advances the more it will 
cost to lay Indian and Russian wheat down in the 
European importing countries. On Call futures 
were quite active up to Monday when an easing off 
set in, which caused a dull market. The following 
are to day's Crtll Board sales: 

Morning .Session; Buyer 1890—400 tons, $c.4tH; 
200, $1.41 a ctl. Alternoon Session: Buyer 1890 — 
100 tons. $1.42 \t> ctl. Buyer season— 100 tons $1.- 
485-8 ctl. 


Market Information. 

Produce Receipts. 
Receipts ol produce at this port lor the week end- 
ing Ju y 16.I1, were as follows: 

Flour, qr. sks. 84 874! Middlings, sks... 2,571 

Wneat, clls ioo,3oi),Mlalfa, 

Biirley, " . 

Rye, " . 

Oats, " . 

Corn, " , 

* Butter. " . 

do bxs . 

do bbis 

do kogs 
Cheese, ctls 

do bxs 

44 537 '-hicory, bbls.. 144 

2,033 Broomcorn, bdls 

2.011 Hops, bis II 

2.3V3 Wool, " 1.416 

1, 158' Hay, tons 3. 547 

792 Straw, " 30 

2 Wine, gals 181,939 

iislBrandy, " 2 880 


869 Raisins, bxs 

62 Honey, cs . . . . 

Eggs,doz 42,000 1 Walnuts, sks .. 

do " Eastern. 72,8401 Flaxseed, sks 

Beans, clls 1.243 .Mustard, sks 

Potatoes, sks.... 18,91 1 .Almonds, sks 

Onions, " 2, tc6 Peanuts, sks 

Bran, sks 17,322! Popcorn sks 

Buckwheat, sks [ 

"Oveiland 126 ctis. 


The local wheat market his ruled quite .ictive at 
slighlly higher prices. In the interior, buyers have 
paid an advance on the bids made in this ciiy. The 
higher prices are largely due to bad crop weather in 
England, which is evidently exagg--rated; yet it is 
sufficiently bad to do a large amount of damage to 
the growing crops. U nless there is soon a change 
for the better in the weather in that country, then 
the gloomiest reports will be realized. The higher 
price of silver is in favor of wheal, for it will make 
1 ndian and Russian wheat cost more laid down in 
England and also on the continent. Among the 
better informed operators the op nion prevails that 
Congress made a serious mistake in not remonetiz- 
ing Sliver by passing a f.-ee coinage bill; yet ih s can 
be remedied by farmers at the next election voting 
only lor Congressmen favorable to the free coinage 
of silver. 1 he bill which has become a law will 
still keep silver bdow pir. With silver at par, 
which c<n only be secured by free coinage, wheat 
and other cereals will be largely advanced in price 
and the advance placed upon a more staple footing. 

In this State, harvest returns are still conflicting 
from the Sacramento valley, but more uniform from 
the San Joaquin valley and the southern part of the 
State. From Oregon and Washington our advices 
are uniformly good. 

Regarding tonnage for wheat, it is stated that 
there will be a sufficient supply for this State pro- 
vided the usual number of vessels are added before 
January 1st to the fleet on the way. The tonnage 
on the way to Oregon and Washington shows a 
very large increase— lu ly double thai on the way at 
this time in 1889. This will tend to keep charters 
up north to fairly low figures. 

The barley market has ruled quite active at ad- 
vancing figures. The well-informed hold to the 
opinion that this year's crop will not be enough to 
meet ihe demand, which, if the case, will of ne- 
cessity bring about, later on, a stili higher range of 
values. The grade this season is better than for 
years. It is said that there is quiel buying of the 
best grades of brewing for Eastern account. 

Oats have exhibited a fair degree of strength, with 
trading light. The crop in Oregon will, it is re- 
ported, be" above an average, but in this State it will 
be short. 

Corn is strong at a slight advance. The demand 
is good. Crop advices are uniformly good. 

Rye is strong at an advance. The crop is short 
when compared with last year's. 

There has been some buying of corn, in the mar- 
ket, for Central America, and rye for Japan. 


For ground feed there is a continued free demand, 
qut free receipts of bran keep that article from ad- 
vancing. Ground barley is strong at an advance. 
The higher prices are calculated to lessen the de- 

Hay is reported unchanged. Receipts of new are 
fair. There is a growing impression among dealers 
that unless the coming winter is very severe the sup- 
ply of hay will be large, and this, too, in the face of 
old hay being about all fed ouL The crop in Neva- 
da and up north is said to be large. 


The receipts of fruits continue unusually light. 
It is claimed that they are lighter lhan lor many 

years. This, as heretofore stated, is due to 
heavy shipments, larger than ever ijefore, to the 
East, free canning and freer drying. 

Crawford peaches are coming to hand more 
freely. Piums of the various varieties are in fair 
receipt. Pears and apples show an improvement 
in quality. Green g.iges are in better supply. 
Apricots continue fairly scarce. Currants and cher- 
ries come in semi occasionally. Blackberries are 
in better supply, but the demand is free. Straw- 
berries are in light receipt. Raspberries come in 
fairly free. Huckleberries sell high. Apples are 
in freer receipt with the quality showing an im- 
provement. After selling at very low prices figs 
are now scarce and fetch more money. Water- 
melons and canteloupes show increasing receipts, 
causing prices to shade off. 

Receipts of grapes are still light, with quality 
generally poor. The crop promises to be large, 
quality good, also trie demand. Wine-makers will 
use increased quantities and pay good prices too. 

The dried fruit market is strong, with slightly 
belfr prices obtainible. Light crops of green 
fruits at the East and also in this State are the 
primary cause for the h'gh prices ruling for dried 
fruits. Peaches, apricots and prunes are in active 
demand with high prices paid. F'or bleached apri- 
cots, in bags, 14c is paid for the more choice by 
the more choice by the carload. Bleached peaches 
have been contracted lor at as high i.s i6c lor the 
more choice. Sun-dried and peeled peaches are 
slow of sale. Nectarines are coming into more 
general favor. Contract sales have bien made at 
Irom iiM'Si3c. Prunes are selling at from 7@ioc 
a pound. 

A private circular reports that the supplies of 
raisins are very small at present, and it takes still 
two months before new raisms are ready lor ship- 
ment. The coming crop will probably be larger, 
but prices will most likely rule as last year, or even 
higher, in consequence of the heavy demand and 
the high prices to be paid to the growers. Grapes 
will be higher this season, because last year's 
prices were to low to make the drying pay for Ihe 
packers as well as the growers. This year larger 
quantities of green grapes will be sold to the wine- 
makers, and while last year there were a good 
many old dried grapes unsold in the ditTerent mar- 
kets, at present there are no grapes unsold to speak 
of. The demand for them is therefore already 
now quite active, although they will not be ready 
for shipment before September. 


In garden truck, summer squash, cucumbers and 
tomatoes are low er. Be ins are unchanged as is 
garlic. Okra continues to rule high. The green 
corn this year is mostly wormy, but notwithstanding 
this prices hold up well. The first cjnsignment of 
this year's marrowfat squash came to hand the past 
week and sold at $20 to $22 a ton. Green peppers 
are weaker as are egg plants. Cabbages and toot 
vegetables are unchanged. 

Receipts of onions are only fair, which tend to keep 
a steady market. For shipping there is a fair inquiry 
for good keepers. 

Potatoes have shaded off under Iree receipts. Buy- 
ers do not anticipate their wants, which causes a 
lower tendency. As the keeping quality improves, 
the demand for shipping increases. 


The market for bullocks continues in buyer's fa- 
vor. Mutton sheep are firmly held under a good 
demand. With cooler weather the demand will 
again set toward bullocks. Hogs are essentially 
unchanged for packing, but lor the block small- 
sized hogs letch an advance. Milch cows are lairly 
steady. For fair-sized work horses there is a good 
demand, but small m.ove slowly. There is a good 
demand lor general utility animals, single-footers, 
matched teams and driving animals. 

The market lor dressed cattle is quoted as fol- 
lows [to obtain the price on foot, take off from the 
price for stall-fed one-third to one-half, according to 
the nature of the feed and time fed; and for grass- 
fed take off the price from 40 to 60 per cent]: 

HOGS — On foot, light grain fed. 45i ®45ic «» tb; 
dressed, 7@8c ^ lb.; heavy, 3?4@4}^c <?lb. ; 
dressed. sii(cCti}ic ^ \h. Stock hogs. 45i@4Hc VIb. 

BEEF— Stall fed, 6}^@— c «» lb. ; grass fea, extn>, 
6@— c ^tb. ; first qiiality, 5K@— c<Clb.: second 
quality 5@s>ic If tb. ; third quality, 4^c@ — 
ft). ; bulls and thin cows, 2@3C ]fi lb. 

VEAL— Small, 6@8c «» tb. ; large, 4@6:. 

M UTTON -Wethers, 7 i^@8c lb.; ewes, 7® 
7 He 1? tb.; lamb, spring, 7H@^'Ac. 


Exports by sea the past week aggregate as fol- 
lows: Wheat, ctls, Dunkirk, 5S.76J; Rio de 
Janeiro. 46,848. Flour, bbls. Central America, 
2912; Mexico. 507; Panama, 375; Tuamaco, 172; 
.Sjuih America, 790; Petropaulovski, iioo. Dried 
fruits, lbs, \ ictoria, 650; Winnipeg, 250'>; Mexico, 
500. B.andy, gals, 2327. Wine, gals. .\cw York, 
60,866; Central America, 639; Mexico, 2870; 
France, 300. Hops, lbs, 3000. Canned fruits, cs, 
Sydney, 1550. 

Poultry has held fairly steady throughout the 
past week, 

Bfans are shading off under a lessened inquiry, 
with buyers bidding down. This is usually the 
case when the new crop begins to come in. 

Hops continue to rule st-ong under an active de- 
mand. The supply of old is about exhausttd. 
For new, contracts are being made at Irom 15® 
20c a pound. 

Wool is reported in buyer's favor, although no 
lower quotations are given. Private advices are 
still of a discouraging character, owing to the de- 
pressed condition of the llinnel and goods trade. 

From the Commercial News ol July i6ih the fol- 
lowing summary ol tonnag*; movement is compiled: 
1890. 1889. 

On the way to this port 237 775 258,523 

On the way to neighboring ports 21,269 28,781 

In port, disengaged 14 249 2 ',349 

In port, engaged for wheat.... 40.330 51.751 
1, • 

Totals 313623 363,404 

To get the carrying capacity, add 65 per cent 10 
the registered tons as pivn ab.ivt-. 

F'rom |u'y 1, 1890. tt) |uy 10. 1895, the following 
arc the exports Irom this poa: 1890. 1889. 

Whiat. ctls 241 913 289.124 

Flour, bbls 21348 45624 

Barley 2,644 4.500 

JlTLY 19, 1890.] 

f ACIFie I^URAlo f RESS, 


California Fruits East. 

Chicago, July ii.— The E^rl Fruit Co. sold two 
carloads of Calilornia fruit as follows: Barllett pears, 
$3. io®3. 55; peaches, small, $t.9S@2.65; apricot?, 
$1.65®!. 85 for choice; Royal Hative plums, $1 8o@ 
1.90; figs. lo tb boxes, 65c@$i.i5. 

Porter Bros, sold one carload as follows: Apri- 
cots, $i.ic@i.6o; plums, $2; figs, $1.15. 

Chicago, July 12. — California green fruits are 
quoted as steady and a fair demand exists. Apri- 
cots, 20-tb box, according 10 quality, $i.5o@$2; 
Black Tragedy plums, 2o !bcrt, $1.75; pfach plums, 
$3-25@3 50; Birtlett pears, 40-lb box, $3@4; Red 
apples, $2@2.25. 

Chicago. July 12. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold Cal- 
ifornia fruit to-day as follows: Peaches, $2 25® 
2.60; peach plums, $2 60 box; Royal Hative 
plums, $i.85@2.2o; apricots, hf crt?, $r.30@i.9o; 
small box, $1.45; small prunes, 20-lb box, $2.50; 
figs. lo-lb box, $i@i.25. 

Porter Bros, sold four carloads as follows: Pears, 
$; peaches, $1.75. average, $2.60; plums, 
$1.80(0)3.30; prunes, $2.65@3 90; apricots, $i.30@2, 
average, $1.75. 

New York; July 12. — At the auction rooms of E. 
I^. Goodsell, one car of California fruit was sold this 
morning and brought the following prices: Apri- 
cots, $2 65@2.70; peaches, $3 30; peach plums, 
$3 45@3-5S- One carload sold this afternoon as 
follows: Apricots, $[.75@2.6o; peaches, $2.40® 
$2.70; figs, $2.5o@2.8o; Royal Hative plums, $2.10 

New York, July 13. — Fresh Pacific fruit buoyant 
and active. Sales at auction: Six hundred bcx-s 
peaches and apricots, $1.25®$!. 35; 77 crates, $t 70 
@4 80; 148 of cherries and plums, 650®$!. 40; 292 
lo-lb boxes of Royal Anne cherries, $2. io@2.9 ; 
1365 boxes of peaches and plums, $2@2 80: fancy, 
$3-4S@3 55; 545 boxes G.fford pears. $2.25®2.3o; 
208 boxes P. D. plums, $2.30@2.5o; 240 boxes 
Tragedy prunes, $3. 15@3.75; German, $2.65; Royal 

H. Plums, $[.7o®2 40; green figs, $2, 5o@2.8o; As- 
trachan apples, $2.10. A. T. Hatch's 800 boxes of 
apricots, the finest ever seen here, sold promptly at 
$2.65@2.7o; others down to $2.40. 

Chicago, July 14. — The E4rl Fruit Co. sold 
four carloads of Bartlett pears at $2 9o®3.5o; 
peaches, $2@3.25; apricots, $1.40®!. 70; plums, 
$2.i5@2.50, Bradshaw. $2.i5®2.6o; German 
prunes. $2®2.5o. Ihe fruit in poor condition 
sold for less. 

Chicago. July 15. — The Earl Fruit Co. realiz»d 
the following prices to-day; Bartlett pears. $2 90® 
3.30; apricots, over-ripe, $i.05@r.5o;J figs, small 
boxes. 45c@$i.os. 

Chicago. July 15. — Porter Bros, sold six car- 
loads of Birtlett pears at $3@3 50, with ihe ex- 
ception of some very small btock at $2. io®2 7o; 
Crawford peaches at $2 40@3.6o; Hale's at $1.75® 
2.75; plums at $t.55®3.25; prunes, $2 5o®3.25; 
apricots (poor order), box' s, 8oc@$[.3o; half-crates, 
650®$!. 20; grapes, half-crates, $3. 

Chicago, July 16. — Californi-i green fruits are in 
fair request and steady, quotable as follows: Apri- 
cot=, 20-lt) boxes, $i.5o@2; peaches. $2@3; G rman 
prunes, $2.75®3; purple Duane plums, $2.75@3; 
Royal Hative. $2, 5o@2 75; Birtlett pears, $3.25® 
3.50; Sweetwater grapes, $3.50; Nectarines. $2; Red 
apples. ^ bushel, $2@2,25. Old hops are in much 
reduced supply and those left, vary from fair to com- 
mon. None of really choice grade are on sale. 
There is a fair demand for anything at all good, but 
poor grades are s'ow. The range of prices is as fol- 
lows: Washington, choice, 22@23c; prime, 20®2ic; 
fair, i6®i8c; California, choice, 20®22c; fair to 
good, I7@i9c; Oregon, choice, i8c J? ft. The de- 
mand for beans is very moderate. Cual buyers are 
taking beans merely to keep supplied for current 
wants. There is no buying in advance of require- 
ments. The supply is fair but not heavy. Holders 
are inclined to be firm but the quotations given be- 
low are about all that can be realized: California 

I. ima beans, choice, 5K@SKc ^ lb; do, common, 


CHICAGO, July 16. — The Earl Fruit Co. sold 
California fruit to-day as follows: Fontainebleau 
grapes, half-crates, $3 70; peaches and plums, $2 95; 
Hative, $i.8o®2.3o; Hale's Early peaches, $1.75® 
2.35; apricots, $1.40®!. 65; figs, 65c. 

Porter Bros, sold five carloads as follows: Bart- 
lett pears, $2.70@2 45; fancy French prunes, $3.3^1; 
Tragedy prunes, $®3.25; Washington plums, 
half-crates, $2.7S@3; Purple Duane. boxes. $2,2C@ 
2 75; Golden Drop. $3.05; German prunes. $2.40® 
2.65; Crawford peaches, $2,70@3.7o; Hale's Early, 
$1 75®2.3S; Foster. $2.2o@2.8s; grapes, $2.20® 
2,85, part of them in bad order; Magnum Bjnuiii 
plums, $2.6o®3.o5; apples, I2.95; St. John's peach- 
es, small, $i.65® 

New York. July 16. — The agents of the Califor- 
nia Fruit Union auctioned to-day one car of fruit as 
follows: Bartlett pears, $3.8o@3.85; Peach plums, 
$3.55; Purple Duane, $2.40®3.I5; Quackenbush, 
$1.80; German prunes. $2.35; Crawford and Hale's 
Early peaches, $i.i5®2.20; Royal apricots, $1.25® 
1.50. Most of the fruit was in poor order, especially 
peaches and apricots. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 

Obolce selected, 
quotations, while 
B.^oana?, bunch I 


Limes, Mex 4 

do Calsml cases 
Lemons. 1 

do Sicily, bx.. 5 

do Malaga 4 

do do Seidlinj! 1 
Pineapples, doz. 3 
Strawberries. . . . 

fair. clie-,t... 5 

choice, cliertt. .10 
Apricots, lb ... . 
Ka>«pbeiries do. 
"Hrkberries, do. . 
Figs. box. black, 
do white 

do Smyrna.. 

Plums, lb 

Peach plums... 
Peiire, bx 

do Bartlett.. 1 
Peaches Ikjx . . . 

do choice 1 

Grapes, b()X 

Apples com box 

do choice — 1 
Nectarines. Red 
do White 1 

In KOod packagee, fetch an advance on toti 
very poor Kradee sell less than the lower 

Wednemday. .July 16. 1890. 
00 @ 3 50 WatcrmTn»10012 00 (*15 00 
— (ft — (Jantaloujea crt 1 50 ^ 3 5fl 
50 @ C 00 ,C'rabaiJl>le», t)OX 60 (0) 75 
75 @ 1 .50 I VEUETABLE8 
CO (d 1 50 Okra, dry. lb. . . . 
00 (S 6 00 do ^reen..'. .. 

00 @ li 00 Parenlps. ctl 

50 @ 2 50 I Peppers, dry, lb 
00 @ 3 50 do giBeD,bx.. 

J. urui^m, 

00 (3 8 ro Beets, sk. 


00 (Si 
3 (a> 
C 00 8 Oil 
3 50 5 to 
t;5 0s 8h 
45 W 70 

Cabbage, 100 lbs 

t (Carrots, sk 

Mushrooms. Cul- 
tivated, lb 

Wild, lb 

Oucumbera box 
— /a — 'Tomatoes, bx... 
2!@ 34 Gar^len peas, lb 
1 00 (a 1 25 Sweet 10 do 
75^ — String Beans ... 

50 @ 2 2.5 Wax, do 

75(1*1(0 fountain do. .. . 
25 (" 1 .5" 3i|uash, sum- 

60 (a> 1 50 mer, bx 

50 (tt 75 Garlic.lh 

00 (ff 1 50 Green corn do/. 
5C @ 81 do do com sk . . 
00 @ 1 25 Egg Plant, lb.. 

6 (a 


10 ffl 


25 m 1 so 

12 (S 

75 la 1 


75 (3) 1 00 

75 @ 1 


75 m 1 


to i 


- @ 

— @ 

26 & 


10 0f 


1 9i 




1 et 


2 (3 




40 m 


4 @ 




75 « 1 
8 m 




[Furnislisd for publication in this paper by P. T. Jknkin.s. Sergeant Signal Service Corps 0. S. A.] 




Red Blufl. 

92 SK 


roi 8o;nw 
to' ss'nw 
(0 9.1! s 

£88 W 


88 S 
8.) SW 
84 SW 


.10' 64 

f 62 S W 


00 58 SW 



00 .. 


92 N 


102 S 

looj w 

98 N 

98 S 

96' W 


.CO 90 S 



88 SW 

Los Angeles. 

78 SW 

San Diego. 

Explanation. CI. f^r clear; Cy,cloiidj; Fr , fsir; Cm., calm; - indicates ton all to ix>t£niie. Tt mi ejaturc, w i d i » d wt a'htri t 5 i*. m. (Pacitic Sluidard tiiue) with amount 
of rainfall in the precediug 24 hours. T indicates trace of rainfall. 

CHAMPION BALIRG PRESSES Ai-HS^"^ °" ^RaEsr l.nemaoein sj^belt press 

R^Xo'^ . Ji, 4horse desired 

M„ .f*RE5S J<J< «^'-Lf,,^,^<'U5E>„ ^_ 3^irtTnicT,iteJl^t rijLU CIRCLE. 








"'^^^ FULL CO 

FAMOUS MF'E.C0.cHicAGO ill ""kS 




Domestic Produce. 

Extra choice In good packages fetch an advance on tot 
juotatious, while very poor grades sell less than the lower 



Bayo, ctl 3 .50 @ 4 00 

Butter 1 90 C* 2 00 

Pea 2 20 ^ 2 30 

Red 2 25 @ 2 75 

Pink 2 75 «? 3 CO 

Large White ... — @ — 
8mell White .. 2 12i(* 2 25 
Lima... ... 4 OU @ 4 60 

Fid Peas.blkeye — @ — 
do grpen .... — @ — 

do NLes 2 00 @ 2 25 

Split CJ<a - 

Choice toExtraSO 00 (a 95 00 
Fair to Good.. 70 00 @ 75 00 

Poor 50 00 @ 60 00 


Oalifomla 6 @ Bi 

aerman 6J@ 7 



Cat Poor to 10 @ 13 

do good to choice 14 @ UiJ 

do Giltedged... 17J(d 18 

do pickled — @ — 

do in kegs — @ — 

do Creamery in 

rolls 18 (3 19 


Oal. choice mild 9 @ 9! 

do fair to good 7 (<< 81 

Young America — @ 

N. York Cream. 13 (* Hj 

Western 8 @ 11 


Oal. ranch, doz. 21 @ 22! 
do do sel'cted 23 (<« 24 

do. store 17 @ 19 

Est'm.cldst'rage — @ — 

do fresh 15 @ 17 

do selected.. 19 @ 20 
do to arrive, . . — @ — 

Bran, ton 14 00 @lo 50 

Feedmeal 20 00 <»22 00 

Gr'd Barley "ii 00 .a27 CO 

Middlings 22 00 (a24 00 

Oil Cake Meal. .25 00 @ — 
Per 100 lbs.... 7 60 ® — 

Compressed lu 00 @14 00 

Wheat, per ton. 8 00 »«10 00 
do choice.... 12 OJ (WH 00 
Wheat and OatelO 00 (0)14 00 

Wild Oats 8 00 @11 UO 

Tame do 8 00 @1U 00 

Clover 3 00 (glO UO 

do ch'ctjredtop — — 

Barley 7 00 (g 10 00 

• " (<* - 

45 m 

- (g 


Barley and Oats 


Stock Hay 


Straw bale 

New hay, Wheat 
do do Oats. . — (S — 

Extra, CityMills 4 10 @ 4 35 
do Co try Mills 4 1'5 <« 4 30 

Superfine 3 lU (g 3 75 

Barley, feed, ctl. 1 07j@ 1 12; 
do ClioiCB 1 15 (08 1 175 
do Brewing... 1 17J(g 1 20 
do do Choice. . 1 20 W 1 22J 
do do giltedg'd 1 25 @ — 
Chevalier cnce — @ — 
do com to good — C<8 — 

Buckwheat I 25 @ 2 00 

Com, White.... 1 Oo (* 1 10 

Yellow 1 10 (g 1 25 

Oate. mllUng.... 1 65 (» 1 76 

Surprise 1 70 erti 1 75 

Choice feed 1 60 - 

do good. 1 55 Ct? — 

do fair 1 50 (* — 

do Gray 1 45 «r - 

do Black 1 40 C<* 1 50 

Rye 90 (q! 93J 

Wueat, milllDg, 
Giltedged.... 1 4U@ 1 42i 

do Choice 1 40 (g — 

do fair to good 1 38, '(^ — 
Shipping, cho'oe 1 3»;{(a 1 38J 

do good 1 33i' a 1 36 

do (air 1 1 3ii 

Drylgbt to h'vy 8 @ 9 

Wednesday. July 16, 1890 

Salted b m i 


Oregon. 1889 .... 14 (3 2( 
Cal 1<S89 Choice 18 (a 11 
do Fair to G'd 13 (3 1( 

Silver Skiu.... I 25 @ 1 50 

NUTS- JoBiiiNO. 
Walnuts, Cal. tt) 7 <S i 

do Oh'ce 9 @ 

Almonds, ha shl. 5 @ 

SoftsheU 9 @ 

Paper shell... 12(3 

Brazil 11 i@ 

Pecaua 9 @ 

Peanuts 6i@ 

Filberts llj® 

Hickory 6 (<* 

Chestnuts 14 @ 

Pine uuta 7 @ » 


New 1 00 @ 1 25 

do choice. . . 1 50 (ft 1 70 
Early Rose, ska. 75 (S 1 00 

ChUe 1 00 (3 - 

Peeiless 76 (g 1 (0 

River Reds — (S? — 

Humboldt — @ — 

Petaluma — ttf — 

Burbauks 1 00 @ I 75 

Sweet - @ - 


Hens, doz 6 00 (a 8 00 

Roosters.old.... 6 00 C* 7 00 

do young 6 50 @ 9 60 

Broilers, small 2 50 f(« 3 50 
do large 4 00 (g 5 uO 

Fryers 6 C (ce 6 00 

Ducks, tame.... 3 .50 @ 4 00 

do young 4 50 C* 5 50 

Geese, pair 1 00 (<? 1 25 

Gos;ings 1 50 @ 1 75 

Turkeys, Gobl'r. 20 (g 22 
Turkeys, Heng. . 17 @ 19 

Pigeons 2 50 @ 3 00 

KaDbits, doz. ... 75 (g 1 25 

Hare 1 60 @ 1 75 

Venison 9 (* 12J 

Dove 75 @ 1 00 

Manhattan. $ lb 12 @ - 

Cal. Bacon. 

Heavy, lb 10}@ 

Medium 1^ tfS 

Light 13 (<e 

Extra Light.. - @ 

Lard 9 (a 

Cal. Sm'k'dBeef 11 ca 

Hams, Cal 12 @ 

do Eastern... 12i(g 


4 (3 
12 O 



Clover, Red... 

White 20 (g 





Perennial .... 
Millet. German. 

do Common.. 
Mustard, yellow 

do Brown .... 


Ky. Blue Grass. 

2d quality — 
Sweet V. Grass 

Orchard 12 i 

U(g 2i 
8 IS 8j 

10 (<« II 
7 (ce 9 
6 <a 61 
6 ® 6 
IjCSS 2 
Hft 3 
ll(g 2 

14 @ 16 

LI la 14 

76 m - 


Lawn 27!iia 

6 m 

6 IS 



Crude, lb 3® 

Refined 6 « 



Humboldt and 


Sac'to valley. . . . 
Free Mountain, 
S Joa<(Uiu valley 

do luouiitaiu. 
Calft'v S K'th'U. 
Oregon Eastern. 

^ do valley 

8^' Coast, def., 
So'n Coast, free. 

19 @ 
15 Ig 
18 (8 


17 (a 
15 ® 
13 @ 

20 @ 
10 (a 


Baling, Duplex, lb 12 

Manilla, It) 15 

Twine, for hops, balls, tarred, lb, Manilla 16 

" " grape vine, balls, lb " 16 

coiU, lb ■' 16 

" spring, th " 18 

" binder (600 ft. to lb), lb 16 

Duplex twiue 3c per lb less. ^ 

To SoFFERERS — Atteotion is oalle'1 to the 
advertitement of D.-, J. A. Miller of 2,S6 Tiylcr 
(tret^t, in this city. Dr, Miller io a graduate of 
the Medical Department of the Univeraity, and 
baa recently taken oouraea in Kjrope. Hia 
specialty ia diseases of the abdominal and 
pelvic regions. 

Important Auction Sale 
Standard and High-Bred Trotting Horses 


Property of J. H. WHITE, Eiq., Lakeville, Sonoma County, Cal. 

On Thursday and Friday, September 4th & 5th, 1890. 

At RAILROAD STABLES, Cor. Turk and Steiner Sts., Sin Frarcisco. 

On arcoiiiit of a contemplated chanpre in business, we are authorized by Mr. White to dispose of all the 
h'gh brtil stofk upon his noted lireeding larra at LalceviUe, Sonoma County. This comprises over forty head 
ofhign-bred Trotting Stallions, Brood Mares, Colts and F Hies, most of tbcm standard and all c.vcepiionaily 
fine iudividnnls. They consist of the get of .Stallions liy Electioneer, Director. Anlevolo and other noted 
horses. of the brood mare.s are with foal by Hernanl, one of Electioneer's most prominent sons. Sev- 
eral have been bred to Director. Taken collectively they are. in size and form, the finest looking lot of 
trotters yet ( fl' red in California, and their breeding is upon the most approved speed lines 

The rattle compute over one hundr. d head of thoroughbred registered Holstein Cattle. The progeni- 
tors of this herd were selected of Ihe choicest strains upon the famons breeding establishments Kast. and 
have been judiciously crossed with a view to develop to the fulUst extent the milking strains. Mr. White 
has expended a large sum of money and great care in perfecting Ih's band of cattle, and can .justly claim it 
as oire of the superior herds ol tlie t'l iled States. 

< atalogues are being prepared and will be sent on application only. Horses and cattle may be seen at 
ranch, six miles from Petaluma. 

KILLIP & CO-, Auctioneers, 22 Montgomery St., San Francisco. 



Is the most beautiful tiact of land in Santa Cruz. It commands charming views of the whole of Monterey bay, of 
the Pacilic ocean and of the Santa Cruz mountains. It lies on a bandsoine, elevated plateau, fronts on the famous 
Cliff Drive, at the wildest and most pictureique part of the biy shore, and adjoins GarBold Park, where the 
Christian Church of California is cow erecting a $15,000 tabernacle and where thousands of people will summer 
annually from this year on. 

LOTS, 50x125, $200 TO $4C0, 

Frontiog wide and beautiful avenues, on easy terms. 
Maps of S'anta Cruz and Surfside, pricj luts acd descriptive matter mailed free to any address. 


E. A. ORENNAN. Resident Manager, 624 IVIARKET ST., San Francisco. 

127 Pacific Avenue, Santa Cruz. 







UoUIb a Broom aithereiid un; i» never 
out of order. After HcrulAiing haiifc 
your broom with bruwli down, uud it 
will dry out immediately and not 
J mold or rot, and ulwayn keep its 

' tiUape. Sample mailod and perfect 

satisfaction gaaranteed on rcci ipt of 15r. Royw and 
(cirls can more than double their money sellinK them. 
Bend 2c. Btamp for terraH. 1 doz. poBtpaid on receipt 
ofWJcts. Address ENCLE SPRING GUN CO., 
VaDuftuturors of PaU-tiU;(l Si>evlaltl«ti, HaZletOOa POa 

Take care of your HORSB. Civilized Man advances 
rapidly and the Horse will " Keep up with the Band " If 
well oared for. Horse Boots, Robes, Blankets, etc 
Saddles, $6 to $7S each. Harness, $8 to #200 per set. 
American and English Saddlery Ooods. 

W . 1>ekrsj-±& c«3 Soza., 

Batwesn Sanaome and Battery, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Send 3c stamp for Catalogue of 


Includinir list of SW^OND-HAND GUNS and other 
articles (hat have accuntiilated. 

525 Keamv Street. 8an Frftiwlnco. Ca), 

iDivir)E]srr> istotice. 

The German Savings and Lean Society, 

626 California Street. 

For the Iialf-yfar cridin;; June 30, 1890, a dividend has 
been declared at tiie rate of live and forty-hundredths 
(6 4O-10O) per cent per annum on Term Deposits, and 
four and one-half (4i) per cent per annum ou Ordinary 
Deposits. Payable on and after Tuesday, July 1, lii90. 

GEO. TOUKNY, Secretary. 



[Jdlt 19, 1890 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recentlj' obtained throiigli 
Dewey <fe Co.'s Scientific Press U. S. and 
Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of special mention : 

Friiit-Gradeb.— Geo. \V. Thissell, Pleasant 
Valley, Solano county. No. 4.31,176. Dated 
July 1, 1890. This grader has grading-bars, 
whfch may be adjusted laterally. Bars or 
levers are also arranged so as to be turned up- 
w^ard between the inclined bars, and lift and 
move the fruit and prevent its sticking in the 
spaces between the grading-bars. 

Can-Printt-ni; DEvicE. -Chas. R. Hay. S. F. 
Assignor of one-half to R. H. Marchant. No. 
431,16.'). Date<l July 1, 1«90. This is a novel 
device for priming upon the exterior surface of 
cans, and it is especially applicable to take the 
place of labels upon cans containing fruit, fish, 
or other substances, which are usually packed 
in herinetically sealed cans and afterward 
labeled by pasting paper labels upon them. 
By means of this device the inventor is enabled 
to print in colors upon cans with great rapid- 
ity, and the expense and time for putting on 
paper labels is avoided. 

Vehici.e-A.xi.e.— Jacob G. Kenyon, Port Ken- 
yon, Humboldt county, Cal. No. 430,317. 
Date4 June 17, 1800. This is an improve- 
ment in that class of vehicles to which a 
patent has already been granted to the same in- 
ventor, and in winch each wheel is provided 
with its own separate or independent axle, to 
which it is made fast so that wheel and axle 
rotate together, said axles passing one above 
the other and journaled in separate boxes on 
each side ' f the vehicle frame. The object of 
this invention is to avoid the necessity of mak- 
ing the wheel on one side of greater diameter 
than the wheel on the other side, to enable its 
axle or spindle to pass above the axle or spindle 
of the smaller wheel, and also to provide bear- 
ings for said axle or spindle of a simple and 
durable character. 

Treai) kor Wheels.— Thos. Williamson, Col- 
legeville, San Joaijuin county. No. 430,309. 
Dated June 17. 1890. This is a device which 
tne inventor calls a " tread for wheels." It is 
especially intended to give a broad support for 
wheels on soft ground, said support being made 
flexible and yielding, so that the sections of it 
will take successively the position of a hori- 
zontal or flat platform beneath the convex 
portion of the wheel and the surface of the 
ground, as the successive portions of the wheel- 
rim are brought to that point. It consists of a 
series of short platforms hinged to the wheel- 
rim bavini; the adjacent ends beveled so that 
they will lit together when brought into bear- 
ing position and having the rear ends curved 
upwardly to prevent digging into the earth 
when the wheel is moved backwardly. 

Gate.— John Mason, Petaluma. No. 430,605. 
Dated June 17, 1890. This invention relates to 
that class of gates which are adapted to be 
opened and closed by means of To\tes and cords 
extending along the roadway, thereby avoiding 
the ne('essity of the traveler alighting from his 
conveyance. The object of the invention is to 
provide a simple and effective gate of this "self- 
operating " class. 

Har.ness. — Joseph C. Simpson, S. F. No. 
430,303. Dated June 17, 1890. This is an im- 
provement in light harness such as is specially 
adapted for road-driving or for use on trotting- 
tracks. The object is to do away with the traces 
and breeching ordinarily used upon harness, 
and substitute therefor a harness that will per- 
mit free use of the shoulders and (juarters. and 
thus increase the speed. It consists of a pe- 
culiarly constructed saddle, with two independ- 
ent girths, either with or without the other 
parts of the harness, elastic connections for the 
girths, means for securing the shafts, and cer- 
tain other peculiarities of construction. 

Complimentary SamplM. 

Persona reoelring this paper marked are re- 
qnested to examine its contents, termt of aab- 
■oription, and give It their own patronkge, and 
aa f«r m pnctioable aid in circulating the 

i'oumkl, and making ita value more widely 
:nown to others, and extending its influence in 
the cause it faithfully aervea. Snbacriptlon, 
paid in advance, 5 mop, $1; 10 moa., ^2; 15 
moa., $3. Extra copies mailed for 10 oenta, 
if ordered aoon enough. If already a inb- 
aoriber, please ihnw the paper to nthera. 

Don't fail to Write. 

Should this paper be received by any subscriber who 
doee not want ft, or beymid the time he intends to pay 
for it, let him cot tall to write us direct to stop It. A 
postal card (costing one cent only) wUl sufBce. We will 
not knowingly aencl tiie paper to any one who does not 
wish It, but U It is continued, through th« failure of the 
snbeorllwr to notify us to dlacontlnue It, or some Irre- 
aponalble party reqaeated to atoo It, we shall poalUvely 
demand payment for the time It is sent. Look carrfully 


OcEA.N Si'EED. — An ocean ateamer has been 
projuoted which. It ia claimed, wi'i cross the 
Atlantic between (,| leenstown and S ndy Hook 
in about three days and 13 hoars, averaging a 
speed of 21 to 24 knots an honr. 

Consampticn Surely Cored. 
To the Editor:- 

Please ioform yoar readers that I have a po^itiT« 
remedy fur Ihw oIwtb nnmed disease. Hy itstimely 
OHe tnotisantls of hopele^ii cases have been peruian- 
ently'cured. 1 Hhnli t)e glad to Bend two bottles ot 
my reuiudjr fkf:k to any of yoar reader.-* wiio biive 
coQsumption if they will send me thair Jilxpress aud 
t>. O. address. Ue>puLtfully, 

I. A. SU>UUM. M. a, 181 Pearl St.. Mew York. 

Road Carts in great variety, also our $35 Phaeton Body 
Cart. Write for Circulars, Frank Brothers, San Francisco. 













and Cotton 




SXJr'r»3LiI E3S. 





Affords the cheapest and most convenient power for Ranch. 
Vineyard or Dairy purposes, as well aa (or running dynamos 
for electrio lights, pumpe and ever)- otlier variety ot machinery. 

It possesses In the same degree the wonderful ener^ ana 
power that has made the Petton Wheel (amotis in all parts ot 
the world. 

These motors are made ot varying sizes, with capacities 
ranging from the fraction of one up to 15 and 20 H. P., enclosed 
in iron cases, all ready for p\pe connections, and are warranted 
to develop a given amount of power with one-half the water 
required by any other wheel. 

The cost, considering capacity and efficiency, U fully 60 per 
cent less. 

Circular, giving full Information, sent on appHoatlon. 

Parties writing for information should give full particulars 
as to power wanted, source of water, supply, with bead or 
pressure. Address 


121 Main Street, San FranciBco, Cal, 





Machinery of all Kinds. 



Patent Water Tube Steam Boilers. 

Kstlmates Famished on Application. 

'Send for Catalogues. 




Lap- Welded Wrought-Iron Water Pipe, 

Coupled witii r:itent lead-lined Coui'Iiiig8. Dipped ready for layinj,'. Circulars and prices furnishtd upon 





We now cITer our Enfi e Stock of 

Carriages, Buggies, Phaetons, 4 Spring Wagons, Carts, Harness 
and Lap Robes. 

BRIQGS CARRIAGE CO., 220 & 222 Mission St., 


Established 18S6, 

Largest and Oldest Piano Hoose West of tlie Bocbis. 





Sold on easy ingtallmente when deeireJ. Write (or 
Illustrated Catalogue. 

Warerooms. 20 O'FarreU St.. near Market. S. F. 



Patented April 3. I^m;. and April 17, l^s;i. 



For Railroad Work, Irrigation Ditches, 
Levee Building. Leveling Land, 
Road Making. 

This implement will t>kc uo and carry Its load to 'any 
desired distance, carrying !.'> to 20 cubic feet, accordiog 
to dirt. It will distribute the dirt evenly, or deposit its 
load Id hulk as desire '. It will do the work of Scraper, 
Grader and Carrier. Can be used with two or (our horses, 
althouifh best results obtained with (our borHes. ONE 
HAN ONLY required tu handle this Scraper. Address 


Agrlcaltnral Works,